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Full text of "Soil survey: Washington County, Maryland"

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1 



aryland 

99 



9, No. 17 



iMued October, 1962 




I L 




U 




¥ 




Y 



Washingtoii County 

Maryland 




OUR SOIL * OUR STRENOTH 



NOTE TO THE REAPER 

The paper in this volume is brittle or the 
inner margins are extremely narrow. 

We have bound or rebound the volume 
utilizing the best means possible. 

PLEASE HANDLE WITH CARE 




General Bookbinding Co.. Chesterland, Ohio 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Soil Conservation Service 
In cooperation with 
MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT 



THIS SOIL SURVEY of Washington 
County will help farmers in planning 
the kind of managenient that will protect 
their soils and provide good yields; it 
will assist engineers in selecting sites for 
roads, buildings, ponds, drainage and 
irrigation installations, and other struc- 
tures; it will assist those interested in 
establishing or improving woodland; and 
it will add to our fund of knowledge about 
soils. 

In making this survey, soil scientists 
examined the soils and noted features that 
would affect the suitability of the soils 
for farming, woodland management, en- 
gineering, residential developments, and 
other uses. The scientists plotted the 
boimdaries of the different soils on aerial 
photographs. Then cartographers pre- 
pared from the photographs the detailed 
soil maps that are at the back of this re- 

f)ort. Fields, woods, roads, and other 
andmarks can be seen on the maps. 

Locating the soils 

On the soil map, the boundaries of each 
soil are outlined and each kind of soil is 
identified by a symbol. Use the index to 
map sheets to find out which sheet of the 
soil map shows the area you wish to study. 
The map legend tells which soil each sym- 
bol stands for. All areas marked with the 
same symbol are the same kind of soil, 
wherever they appear on the map. Sup- 
pose, for example, an area located on the 
map has the symbol WbB2. The legend 
shows that this symbol identifies Waynes- 
boro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. This soil and all others 
mapped in the county are described in the 
section "Description of the Soils." 

Finding information 

Different parts of the report will be of 
special interest to different groups of 
readers. 

Farmers and those who work with 
farmers can get information about the 
soils from the section "Description of the 
Soils," and suggestions for agricultural 
management from the section "Capability 



Groups of Soils." From the section "Esti- 
mated Yields," they can find what yields 
can be expected from each kind of soil 
under a specified level of management. 
Those interested in woodland manage- 
ment will find suggestions in the section 
"Use of Soils for Woodland." 

Engineers can refer to the subsection 
"Engineering Uses of Soils" in which are 
summarized characteristics that affect the 
suitability of the soils for highways, 
sewage disposal systems, and other en- 
gineering purposes. 

County and community planners will 
find this report helpful in selecting sites 
for industrial and residential develop- 
ments and sites to be reserved for public 
recreation. So far as practical, areas not 
well suited to agriculture should be select- 
ed for these purposes. Information in the 
following subsections will be useful: 
"Capabihty Groups of Soils"; "Use of 
Soils for Woodland" ; "Engineering Uses 
of Soils"; and "Use of the Soil Survey 
in Community Planning." 

Persons interested in science will find 
in the section "Formation and Classifica- 
tion of Soils" information about the par- 
ent material of the soils and the processes 
that transformed them into soils. They 
will also find a discussion of the classifica- 
tion of the soils of the county into great 
soil groups. 

Terms that are likely to be unfamiliar 
to some readers are defined in the Glos- 
sary. The "Guide to Mapping Units," 
which is at the end of the report with 
the soil maps, shows the reader where in 
the report to find information about each 
particular soil. 

★ ★ ★ ★ 

This soil survey was made as a part of 
the technical assistance furnished by the 
Soil Conservation Service to^ the Wash- 
ington County Soil Conservation District. 
The soils in the county were mapped 
during the period 1940 to 1959, and field- 
work for the survey was reviewed and 
revised in 1959. Unless otherwise indicat- 
ed, all statements in the report refer to 
conditions at the time fieldwork was in 
progress. 



U.S. 60VERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1962 



For ssAa by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Qovemment Printing OflSce Washington 25, D.C. 



m Nc 



Contents 



PaKc 



General naluro of (he area I 

Local ion anil extent 1 

I'liysioKrnpliN' and relief 1 

Drainage 2 

Settlement and population 2 

Transportation and markets 2 

Agriculture . 2 

Crops 2 

Pastures 2 

Livestock and poultry '-i 

Types and sizes of farms '-i 

Farm tenure 3 

Farm power and mechanical equipment 3 

How the soil survey was made 3 

Soils and their relation to topography 5 

General soil areas 5 

Well-drained, stony and very stony soils 5 

1. Dekalb-Lcetonia-Edgemont-Laidig association-. 5 

2. Dekalb- Hightield association 5 

3. Hiifhfield- Fauquier association 5 

Well to excessively drained, shallow, medium-textured 

soils 5 

4. Berks- Monte vallo association 7 

5. Hazel-Chandler association 7 

6. Talladega association 7 

7. Litz-Teas association 7 

8. Calvin-Berks-Litz-Montevallo association 7 

Moderately well to well drained, deep, medium-textured 

soils 7 

9. Holston-Monongahela-Huntington-Lindside asso- 

ciation 7 

Well-drained, deep, medium-textured soils 8 

10. Braddock-Thurmont-Edgemont-Laidig associa- 

tion 8 

11. Waynesboro association 8 

12. Fauquier-Myersville-Highfield association 8 

13. Murrill association 8 

14. Hagerstown-Duffield-Frankstown association 8 

Description of the soils 9 

Ashton series 13 

Atkins series 14 

Benevola series 14 

Berks series 15 

Braddock series 16 

Brinkerton series 17 

Buchanan series 17 

Calvin series 18 

Chandler series 20 

Chewacla series 20 

Congaree series 21 

Cory don series 21 

Dekalb series 22 

Duffield series 23 

Dunniore series 24 

Dunning series 24 

Edgemont series 25 

Elliber series 26 

Eroded land 26 

Etowah series 27 

Fauqiuer series 28 

Frankstown series 29 

Frankstown and Duffield soils 29 

Frederick series 30 

Hagerstown series 31 

Hazel series 33 

Highfield series 34 

Holston series 34 



De.'cription of the soils — Continued 

Hunt inuton series 35 

Laidig series 30 

Landisburg .series 37 

LargcMit series 38 

Leadval(! .series 38 

Leetonia series 3S 

Lehew series 39 

Lindside series 39 

Litz series . 10 

Melvin series II 

Monongahela series 41 

Montevallo series _ 42 

Murrill series 43 

Myersville series 44 

Philo series 45 

Poi)e series 46 

Rocky eroded land 46 

Rohrersville series 46 

Stony land 47 

Talladega series T 47 

Teas series . 48 

Terrace escarpments 48 

Thurmont series 48 

Trego series >- 49 

Tyler series 49 

Warners series 50 

Waynesboro series 50 

Wehadkee series 51 

Westmoreland series 52 

Estimated yields 52 

Use and management of soils 62 

Capability groups of soils 62 

Management by capability units 64 

Use of soils for woodland 81 

Relationships of soils and forests 82 

Reforestation 82 

Soil groups for forestry 82 

Engineering uses of soils 84 

Engineering descriptions and physical properties 84 

Soil interpretations for engineering 84 

Soil groups for irrigation 85 

Soil groups for sewage disposal 113 

Use of the soil survey in community planning 121 

Formation and classification of soils 122 

Factors of soil formation 122 

Parent material 122 

Climate 122 

Living organisms 123 

Topography 123 

Time 1 124 

Mor])hology of soils 124 

Classification of soils by great soil groups 125 

Sols Bruns Acides 125 

Podzols 125 

(iray-Brown Podzolic soils 125 

Red- Yellow Podzolic soils 126 

Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils 126 

Planosols 126 

Humic Gley soils 126 

Low-IIumic Gley soils 126 

Lithosols 127 

Alluvial soils 127 

Literature cited 127 

Glossary 127 

Guide to mapping units 130 



Series 1959, No. 17 



Issued October 1962 



SOIL SURVEY OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



SURVEY BY BOYD D. (JILBEKT, MEIIL F. HERSHBE11(;ER, R. S. LONG. EARLE D. MATTHEWS, RALPH E. RUBLE, AND 

GLENN V. WILSON, SOU. SCIENTISTS, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 

REPORT BY EARLE D. MATTHEWS 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH MARYLAND AGRK ULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 



General Nature of the Area 

AA'asliiiiotoii leads the (■ounties of JNIarvlaiid in fruit 
l)i'<)(luction. Jt ranks fifth in the kState in dairviu<; and 
sixth in livestock other than dairyina'. In 1954, Wasli- 
inoton Comity ranked fourth in the State in value oF all 
farm products sold (6')/ It has a well-balanced and 
prosperous agricultural economy. There may he many 
reasons for this, but one of the most important is the 
large proportion of highly pi'odnctive and well-managed 
soils. 

The county is well suited to intensive agriculture. More 
than 6() [)ercent of the acreage — about 178,0()() acres — is 
suitable for regular cultivation. About 15 percent — i5,- 
000 acres — is more limited but is suitable for some cul- 
tivation. About 12 percent — 35,000 acres — is not well 
suited to crops but is good for pasture. The remaining 
13 percent of the county is mostly rough, very rocky or 
stony, and in some places severely eroded. Much of it is 
mountainous and is suitable for no more intensive use 
than forestry. About 1 percent of the county is so steep 
and stony that even forest management would be uneco- 
nomical and impractical. 

Washington County is in the west-central part of 
Maryland. Its climate is favorable for general farming, 
li^'estock and dairy farming, and fruit production. Its 
broad limestone valley is one of the best agricultural 
areas in the East. However, there has been some trend 
toward suburban development, particularly around Ha- 
gerstown, the county seat and lai'gest city, where con- 
siderable industrialization has occurred. 

Location and Extent 

Washington County (fig. 1) is in the narrowest part 
of the western arm of the State, where it is only a very 
few miles across Maryland from Pennsylvania "to West 
Virginia. The county is narrow in the middle, somewhat 
enlarged to the west, and greatly enlarged to the east. 
It is bounded on the west by Allegany County, on the 
east by Frederick County, on the north by Pennsylvania 
along the Mason-Dixon line, and on the south by the 
Potomac River. To the south, across the Potomac. Wash- 
ington County faces parts of both Virginia and West 



^Numbers in italics in pareiitlieses refer to Literature Cited, 
page 127. 




Figure 1. — Location of Washington County in Maryland. 



Virginia. The land area is about -IGi square miles, or 
295,680 acres. This is the eighth lai'gest county in the 
State, and it also ranks eighth in the proportion of land 
occupied by farms (0). 

Physiography and Relief 

Washington County includes part of the western slope 
of the Blue Ridge; the broad Hagerstown Valley, which 
is part of the Great Limestone Valley system of the 
Eastern States; and a part of the Appalachian ^lountain 
system. The Hagerstown Valley forms the eastern and 
central parts of the county, between the Blue Ridge and 
the Appalachian ridges and valleys. The highest point 
in the county is the crest of Quirauk Mountain of the 
Blue Ridge, which has an elevation of 2,1-15 feet. The 
Blue Ridge is steep. The Appalachian part of the coun- 
ty is a series of narrow ridges, which extend in a gen- 
eral northeast -southwest direction and are separated by 
narrow valleys. In the Appalachian area there are three 
outstanding ridges: Bear Pond Mountain at 2,000 feet, 
Fairview Mountain at 1,700 feet, and Sideling Hill at 
1,600 feet. 

The Hagerstown Valley occupies more than half of the 
county. It ranges in elevation from about 300 feet near 
the Potomac River to about (iOO feet at the Pennsylvania 
line. The valley tloor is nearly level to rolling, with some 
local hills and ridges. 



1 



2 



SOIL SUIUKY SKKIKS 1959. NO. 17 



Along the streams :uul rivers of the county, there are 
large areas of alluvial terraces and flood plains. The 
flood plains are nearly level and lie just above the normal 
stages of the streams. The terraces are older flood plains, 
now considerably above the streams and rivers. 

Drainage 

Washington County is entirely within the drainage sys- 
tem of the l^otoniac Kiver and is traversed by a number 
of streams that flow generally southward. The most im- 
l)ortant of these are Israel Creek, Antietam Creek, Little 
Antietam Creek, JMarsh Run, Downey Branch, Lanes 
Run, Conococheague Creek and its tributaries. Licking 
C^reek, Tonoloway Creek, and Little Tonoloway Creek. 
Another important stream is Sideling Hill Creek, which 
forms the boundary with Allegany ("ounty. 

From the standpoint of both soils and land conditions, 
Washington County is genei-ally well drained. Some 
poorly drained and very ])0()rly drained areas exist, but 
they are small and generally unim])ortant. There are no 
true swamps or marshes in the county. 

Settlement and Population 



Agriculture 



The original settlers of Washington County came 
mostly from other parts of the colonies and were of 
English, Scotch, and Swiss descent. There were also 
some settlers from Alsace and other jiarts of northern 
France. Later immigrants included pei'sons of (lerman, 
Dutch, and Scotch-Irish nationality. Some farms were 
established in the county by 1735. 

The county, which at first included all of western 
jNIaryland, was created in 1776. By 1800, the county was 
comi)arati vely well settled, with connnercial centers at 
Hagerstown and Williamsport. Early industry included 
many mills along Conococheague Creek and Antietam 
Creek. 

In 1790, the population of Washington (^ountv was 
15,822. By 1820, it was 23,720. In 1910. the total popvda- 
tion of the county was 49,(517 of which two-thirds was 
rural. The population of the county in 1950 was 78,880. 
The estimated population of the county in 1955 was 
84,181. The official census of 1900 should" show an addi- 
tional increase. The population of Hagerstown in 1950 
was 36,260. 

Transportation and Markets 

Washington County has excellent transportation facili- 
ties. Federal and interstate highways serve nearly all 
parts of the county and connect the county with other 
important areas. There is a good network of paved 
county and State roads and other all-weather roads. Rail- 
roads serving the county are the Baltimore and Ohio, 
the Western Maryland, the Norfolk and Western, and 
the Pennsylvania. Hagerstown has air-transportation 
facilities. 

Many agricultural products are marketed within the 
county. Other markets of importance are Baltimore: 
Washington, D.C. ; and Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Har- 
risburg, and Lancaster in Pennsylvania. 



Large areas of fertile and responsive soils and a tem- 
perate climate with faii'ly well distributed i-aiiifall and 
a fairly long growing season are fa\()ral)le to agriculture 
in Washington County. Most of the soils ai-e well suited 
to general farming and to livestock production, and some 
soils are especially well suited to fruit farming. Agricul- 
ture is dixei-sified, aud the economic level of agi-icultui'e is 
high. 

In the following jjages, facts about crops grown in 
the county, pastures, livestock and poultry, types and 
sizes of fai-uis, farm tenure, aiul farm power and me- 
chanical e(|uipment are discussed. The statistics used are 
from reports puhlislied by the I '.S. Bureau of the Census. 

Crops 

Data from the census of 1954 on acreages of the most 
important held crops, numbers of fruit trees, and num- 
bers of berry farms are given in table 1. In 1954, the most 
extensiv^e field crop in the county was corn for grain. 
Other crops are wheat for grain; clover, timothy, and 
mixed hay; and alfalfa. Outstanding in the county are 
the orchard crops; Washington County leads the State 
in production of apples, peaches, plums, and cherries. 
( I rapes, strawl)erries, and miscellaneous berries are also 
important crops. The total croi)land harvested in 1954 
was 104,009 acres, or 35 percent of the county area. 
Washington ('ounty was third in the State in total crop- 
land harvested. 

Table 1. — Acreage of principal crops and numbers of fruit 
trees, (jrapevines, and herry farms in 1954 



Crop 




C!orn for grain 

Corn for silage 

Wlieat harvested 

Oats harvested 

Barley harvested 

Alfalfa hay 

Clover, timothy, and mixed hay 
\'egetab!es for sale 

Apple trees of all ages 

Peach trees of all ages 

Prune and plum trees of all ages 

Cherry trees of all ages 

Pear trees of all ages 

Grapevines of all ages 

Farms producing strawberries 

Farms producing other berries „. 

Strawberries harvested 



Pastures 

A total of 00,204 acres was grazed in 1954. Of this 
total, 21,096 acres was cropland used temporarily for 
pasture, and 8,004 acres was grazed w'oodlands. This 



Rank in 
State 



Acres 




23, 912 


9 


6, 269 


3 


1 7, .592 


3 


.5, 812 


4 


8, 980 


2 


12, 422 


2 


14, 900 


7 


979 


16 


Number 




267, 213 


1 


156, 676 


1 


9, 738 


1 


8, 624 


1 


1, 990 


2 


868 


7 


52 


7 


126 


3 


Qiinrts 




27. 000 


5 



WASHINGTON COUNTY. MARYLAND 



'4 



leaves 30,564 aiTos, prosuiiiiibly in pci-iiKmcnl pasi iires, 
most of which are iinpi-ovod. 

Livestock and Poultry 

The <>oner:il nature and the (li\ersilicatiou of a<i;i'icul- 
ture in A\'asIiinot()n County are enipliasized by the data 
on livestock and j)ouhry in tal)le 2. Livestock and poul- 
try are highly inii)ortant parts of (lie a<i;ricult ure. Not 
shown in the table is the fact that most kinds of livestock 
increased in number and in value between 1949 and 
1954. Exceptions were horses, mules, swine, and sheep. 



Tahle 2. — Number and mine of livestock and poultry and 
their products in WSJ). 







Rank 


Value 


Hank 


Livestock and livestock products 


Xiniiber 


in 


in 


in 




State 


dollars 


State 


Cattle and calves on farms 


40, 489 


5 


0) 


(') 


. Milk cows 


18, 267 


3 


(') 


(') 


Heifers and heifer calves 


12, 318 


5 


(') 


(') 


Cattle and calves sold alive 


19, 140 


5 


0) 


(') 

3 


Whole milk sold 


(') 


(') 


4,2.53,510 


Cream sold 


(') 


(') 


33, 383 


4 


Horses and tnules on farms 


1, 245 


6 


(') 


(') 


Hogs aiifl |)ii!;s on farnis_ 


17, 149 


3 


(') 


(') 


Hogs and pi^s sold alive 


17, 581 


3 


577, 857 


5 


Sheep and lambs on farms. . 


4, 267 


3 


(') 


(■) 


Sheep and lambs sold alive . 


2, 889 


3 


44, 579 


3 


Chickens (over 4 months) on 






hand-_ . _ . 


157, 832 


3 


(') 




Broilers sold 


478, 378 


7 


363, 904 


7 


Other chickens sold. . 


87, 911 


3 


92, 225 


1 


Chicken eggs sold — dozens 


989, 443 


3 


391, 475 


3 


Turkeys raised 


18, 675 


9 


(') 


(') 


Ducks raised 


2, 977 


6 


(') 


(') 


Value of poultry and products 








sold . _ _ . 


(') 


(') 


949, 578 


6 



' Not reported. 



Types and Sizes of Farms 

In 1954, 213,104 acres, or about 72 percent of the 
county, was in farms. There were 1,934 farms having 
an average size of about 110 acres. Of the land in farms, 
133,849 acres was classed as cropland. Nearly 83 percent 
of this cropland was used for corn, small grains, hay 
crops, or pasture, leaving only about 17 percent for all 
other crops. 

As to types of farms, dairy farms were tlie most 
common, 35 percent being so classified. A total of 10 per- 
cent was listed as other livestock farms, 6 percent as 
cash-grain farms, about 5 percent as poultry farms, and 
3 percent as fruit farms. The remaining farms were 
listed as miscellaneous or unclassified. 

In 1954, there were 287 farms of less than 10 acres 
each. Then there were 474 farms of 10 to 49 acres, 321 
farms of 50 to 99 acres, 824 farms of 100 to 499 acres, 
and only 28 farms of 500 or more acres. There were 
1,?,25 commercial farms, 215 part-time farms, and 490 
residential farms. The rest were unclassified as to status. 



Farm Tenure 

Full owners operaltul 72 percent of the farms in 1954. 
In addition, 9 percent weie operated by part owners, 
about 18 percent by tenants, and less than 1 percent by 
managers. Most tenancy was by shares, but somewhat 
more than 30 percent was on a cash basis. 

Farm Power and Mechanical Equipment 

In 1!)54, 1,245 horses and mules were on 59S fai'ms. 
Although these animals are used mainly for workstock, 
mechaiiized eqiupment is more important than horses and 
nudes on the average farm. 

There was a total of 2,257 tractors reported on 1,360 
farms. Mostly of the wlunded variety, these were used 
for nearly all farm operations. Included were 352 garden 
tractors and 42 tractors of ci-awler type. Also reported 
on farms in 1954 were 1,201 trucks, 2,199 automobiles, 
324 pickup hay balers, 302 cornpickers, and 126 foriige 
harvesters. In addition, milking machines were reported 
on 578 farms and i)ower feed grinders on 534 farms. 



How the Soil Survey Was Made 

Soil scientists examined soils in every field and parcel 
of land in the county. To examine the subsoil and cleeper 
layers, they bored holes with an auger or dug with a 
spade. They also studied soils in banks, roadcuts, and in 
pits and other excavations. 

Each boring or hole reveals a soil profile. Each profile 
consists of one or more distinct layers, called horizons, 
over a substratum of hard or soft rock, gravel, river 
sediments, or some other material. Soil scientists desig- 
nate different kinds of horizons by capital letters. The 
A horizon is the upper layer just beneath the leaf litter 
or the vegetation. It consists of the surface soil and, in 
some places, a subsurface soil. The B horizon is a subsoil 
that has developed as a result of the processes of soil 
formation. The C horizon is the parent material from 
which the soil has been formed. The D horizon is a 
substratum beneath the C horizon, or beneath the A or 
the B horizon if some of the other layers are missing. 
It may not be the same kind of material as that from 
which the soil itself has been formed. 

Each major horizon. A, B, C, or D, may consist of 
one to many minor horizons or subhorizons, each dif- 
ferent from the other. Thus, one soil may have Aj, Ao, 
B21, B22, and C horizons; another soil may have A,, BC, 
and D,. horizons; and yet another, Ai, Bj, B2, C, and D 
horizons. The properties and thicknesses of the various 
horizons and their arrangement help to characterize and 
classify the soil. 

Properties, such as texture and color, generally vary 
in the different horizons of soil. In Washington County 
the surface layer in most soils is darker in color than the 
lower layers; the subsoil layers are brighter and more 
intensely colored; and, in the lower horizons, mottled 
colors may be present. The characteristics described in 
the following paragraphs ai-e among the more important 
ones considered by soil scientists. Soils are described 
according to the "Soil Stirvey Manual" (9). 



4 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 10 5 9, NO. 17 



Texture refers lo (lie coiiIchI hI' clay, silt, and saml. 
Texture is judged l)y the feel and, lo some extent, l)y the 
appearanc^e of tlie soil, and also can be checked by me- 
chanical analysis in the laboratory. The finest pai'ticles 
are clay. Individual clay particles are so fine that they 
can scarcely be seen throuji'li a microscope. Soils that, 
consist pi-incipally of clay are typically plastic and sticky 
when wet and lalhci- iiard wlien dry. A\'aler moves 
slowly thi-()U!ih clay soils. These soils retain moisture 
and plant mil rients well. 

Medium-sized particles, lar<>-e enouo-fi to be seen with 
a microscope, are called silt. Hilty soils are smooth and 
velvety, and some are silky to the touch. They are usually 
not so hard when dry, wov so sticky and plastic when 
wet, as clay soils. 

The lai'<>'er particles, smaller than <2;ravel, are called 
sand. lndi\idual saiul particles can be seen with the 
naked eye. AVatei' moves ra])idly lhi-ou<ih sandy soils, 
but such soils i-etain relatively little watei- for plants. 
]\lany soils of Washin<^ton County also contain <i-ravel, 
and some contain stones. Some ai'eas ha\e many out- 
croppinii's of rock. altlH)Ui:h these do not directly aft'ect 
the soil texture. 

MOvSt soils contain variable amounts of clay, silt, and 
sand. Few soils anywliei-e are pui'e silt or ])nre sand, and 
none ai-c known that are pniv clay. Within any one 
soil, the dill'erent horizons may have dill'ei'cnl pi'opoi'- 
tions of clay, silt, ami sand. 

Stnrcfiire is the arraniivment of individual soil i)arti- 
cles into clumps or a<i<iivgates. Some soils are loose and 
crumbly; others can be broken down into small block- 
like clods; and still others may have small, flattened, 
platelike a<><>re<i"ates. The structuic of a soil helps deter- 
mine whether ail', watei-, and plant roots can ])enetrate 
it easily or with dilHcidty. Structure varies between soils, 
and sometimes it is (piite dilbu-ent in the vai-ious horizons 
of the same soil. 

(hilar indicates other soil properties. The darker col- 
ored soils ai'e <>enerally hi<>-her in or<>-anic matter than 
the liiihter colored soils. Other thina-s l)ein<i- ecjual. they 
are more productive and moi'e easily tilled than the 
lighter colored soils. Color also indicates the decree of 
natural draina<ie in a soil. In AA'ashin<rton County well- 
drained soils ai-e normally ivddish bi'ovvii, yellowish 
brown, brownish yellow, reddish yellow, yellowish red, 
or red. Poorly drained soils have subsoils that are gray 
and generally are mottled with brown, yellow, or red. 
Intermediate classes of natural drainage are defined ac- 
cording to the amount and location of mottling. 

Wetness of an area and the color of the soil and its 
position in the landscape are factors that indicate degree 
of drainage. In Washington County there is a wide 
variation in drainage, and this variation is a major cause 
of ditl'erences in crop suitability and otlier properties. 
The terms used to denote the successive grades or degrees 
of soil drainage are exeesni vely draiyiefl, someivhat ex- 
cess'iveh/ drained, irell drained, moderately well d/rained. 
someudiat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very 
poorly drained. 

Acidity and other chemical properties indicate the 
ways in which the soils were formed and how productive 
the soils may be. 



Dilb'icnt combinations of these soil characteristics are 
the bases for sepai'ating one soil from another. In de- 
termining the kinds of soil mapped in the county, com- 
binations of soil propei'ties are em])hasize(l that are im- 
portant in agriculture and in other soil uses aiul numage- 
ment. The kinds of soil aic then grouped into soil 
series, types, and phases. 

A Hoil series is a group of soils that, except for the 
texture of the surface layer, have the same profile charac- 
teristics and the same genei-al range in color, structure, 
consistence, and secjuence of horizons. All soils of the 
same sei-ies have developed from the same kind of parent 
nialei-ial. \'ariations in slope or in other features are 
pei'milted so long as such variations do not all'ect the 
piofile characteristics. Each soil series is given a name 
that is generally taken from the locality where the series 
was first recognized and described. Thus, Hagerstown 
soils make up a A-ery impoi-(ant series that was first de- 
scribed and recognized in Washington (bounty many 
years ago. 

A soil type is a subdivision of a soil series. The tex- 
ture of the surface soil determines the type within a 
series. A series may consist of only one or of many types. 
Thus, I*o])e fine sandy loam and Pope silt loam are soil 
types within the Pope series. 

^"ariations within a soil type — chiefly in such external 
characteristics as surface slojje, stoniness, or accelerated 
erosion — are designated as xoil pliases. Waynesboro 
gravelly loam, S to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 
and A^'aynesl)oro gra\elly loam, 15 to 25 ])ercent slopes, 
severely eroded, ai'e (wo of the phases named according 
to slope and degree of erosion within the soil type, 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, in Washington County. If 
erosion has been negligible or slight, it is not mentioned 
in the soil phase name, but if it has been nmderate, severe, 
or very severe, the soils are so named. When this i-eport 
mentions this oi- that "soil" it i-efei-s to the soil phase, 
vv liich is the mapping unit used in Washington County. 

The teims gravelly, channery, shaly, stony, or rocky 
also are used to describe phases of soil types. For 
example, one of the soils shown on the map is Hazel 
channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Some of the soil mapi)ing units contain more than one 
kind of soil. Inclusions of less than 15 percent of dif- 
ferent, or even of conti-asting soils, are not indicated in 
the soil name. Significant inclusions are mentioned in 
"Description of the Soils." 

A few mapi)ing units consist of two or more kinds 
of soil so intricately mixed that the separate bodies of 4 
them cannot be shown at the scale of map])ing. Such 
mixed areas are called soil complexes. An example is 
the mapping unit called Calvin-Berks channery loams, 
to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Another kind of mapping miit contains two or more 
soils that are similar and that were not mai)ped sepa- 
rately. An example is the mapping unit, P^dgemont and 
Laidig very stony loams, to 5 percent slopes. 

Some of the mapping units are not true soils but can 
be called land types. Examples are Rocky eroded land, 
Stony steep land, and Terrace escarpments. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



Soils and Their Relation to Topography 

The soils of \\';ishin<;l()n ("oimly I'aii he coiisidori'd in 
four hi-oad i^roups iU'coiHliii^' lo their position on (he 
landscape. Tlu'V are soils of tlie uplands, soils oF old 
colluvial deposits, soils of the old stream terraces, and 
soils of the Hood plains, ^^'ithin these broad (opo<irapliic 
•groups, the soils vary accordin*^- to the ])aren( niatei'ials 
from which they developed and according to their drain- 
age. Table 3 shows these relationships among the soil 
series in the county. 

aSV^/Av of Ihc II />/ini(/s.- About 71 i)ercent of the laiul 
area ol" tlie county consists ol' uplands. The soils there 
de\eloped in place fi'om materials weathered from the 
underlying rock. 

iSoi/<s of old coll u rial deposits. — About Ki i)ercent of 
the county area consists of soils that developed on ma- 
terials transported by gravity. These materials have 
moved down the sides of slopes, Hlling many depressions 
and drainageways, and spreading fanlike over valley 
floors. In places they cover areas that extend ontward 
for a considerable distance from the area where they origi- 
nated. Thus, the soils in those places were not developed 
from materials weathered from the miderlying rocks. 

Soils of old stream terraces. — These soils are mostly 
on old high terraces along the Potomac River, althongh 
some are on terraces of some of the larger creeks. The 
terraces were once flood ])lains, bnt they are well above 
the present stream channels, and some are at a considei'a- 
ble distance from the i)resent streams. Alluvium was 
deposited on these flood plains when the streambeds were 
at a higher level than at pi'esent. The soils on these 
old terraces make up about 5 percent of the comity. 

Soils of the. food plain-s. — The alluvial deposits on 
flood plains are fairly recent. jNlost of these areas are 
still flooded at times. In many places the soils do not 
contain developed horizons, but in some places a weak V> 
horizcm has developed. The kind of soil depends chiefly 
on the kinds of rocks and soils from which the material 
was washed, and on the drainage. These soils of the flood 
plains m.ake up the remaining 8 percent of the county. 

General Soil Areas 

In a county or other large area, it is fairly easy to 
see differences in the landscape ivom place to place. Some 
of the more obvious difl'erences are in the shape, steep- 
ness, and length of slopes; in the width, volume, and 
speed of streams and the size and shape of their valleys; 
and in the kind and vigor of wild vegetation and of the 
ci-ops and pastures. Less obvious difl'erences are in the 
kinds of soils that have developed and the patterns in 
which they occur in the landscape. 

By drawing lines around the difterent patterns of 
soils on a small map, we get a general map of the soils. 
Such a map is useful to those who want a general idea 
of the soils, who want to compare different parts of the 
county, or who want to locate large areas suitable for 
some particular kind of farming or other general use. 
It does not show accurately the kinds of soils on a single 
farm or small tract. 

In "Washington County there are 14 general soil pat- 
terns, called soil associations. These are shown on the 



colored general soil map at the back of this rejjorl. Each 
association is named for the dominant soil .series. Tlie 14 
associations tuv grouped into I divisions, according to 
di'ainage and de|)lli of I he soils. 

Well-Drained, Stony and Very Stony Soils 

This division occupies about 10 pei-cenl of the county. 
It contains tlwee soil associations, which are on high 
ridges and low mountains, from South Mountain in the 
east to Sideling Hill in the west. 

/. Dekalh-Leelonia-Edgemont-Laidifj uHsocUdion 
(Very stoni/, mountainous .soils) 

This soil association consists of motlerately coarse tex- 
tured to medium textured, very stony soils developed 
from sandstones and quartzites. Most of the soils are 
fairly shallow to bedrock. The dominant soils ai-e those 
of the Dekalb, Leetonia, Edgemont, and T>aidig series, 
but small areas of other soils are included. liesides being 
shallow and stony, these soils are mostly on sleep, moun- 
tainous terrain, are sti'ongly to very strongly acid, and 
are rather low in fertility and productivity. 

These soils are probably more suitable for forestry and 
wildlife than for more intensive agricultural uses, but 
this does not mean that they are good forest soils. In 
fact, forest operations may not be economically feasible 
on some of the rougher and stonier areas. This asso- 
ciation occupies about 8.6 percent of the county. 

2. Dekalb-High field association 
(Very steep, stony soils) 

This soil association consists of very stony soils of the 
Dekalb and Highfield series, developed on sandstone and 
greenstone ( nietabasalt) , respectively. "Where the High- 
field soils dominate, these stony soils are somewhat deejjer 
and more productive than those of the Dekalb-Ix'etonia- 
Edgemont-Laidig association. 

Except in the vei-y steepest mountainous parts, this 
Dekalb-IIighfleld association should be of economic use 
for forests or timber products. It is too stony for cul- 
tivation or for any but very limited grazing. This asso- 
ciation makes up al)out (>.(> percent of the comity. 

3. Highfield-Fauquier association 
(Deep, stony soils) 

This association is of deep, stony soils developed al- 
most entirely from greenstone or nietabasalt. Although 
these soils are too stony for crops or for very intensi^'e 
grazing, they have considerable depth, comparatively 
low acidity, ami fair fertility and productivity. Thus, 
they probably make up the hest group of soils limited 
in use mainly to forestry, and timber production on them 
should be economically feasible. This association makes 
up about 1.1 percent of the county. 

Well to Excessively Drained, 
Shallow, Medium-Textured Soils 

This second major division of soil associations makes 
up about one-fourth of the entire county. This division 
is not confined to mountainous areas, but it is fairly well 
distributed in various parts of the county. Where the 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Tahle 3. — Relationships of the soi/ series according to topographic position, parent material, find drainage 



Position and parent material 



Uplands: 

Metainori)hic rocks: 

Motabasalt (greenstone) . 



.Micaceous schists and pii yllites_ . 

(Juartzite or (|nartzitic sandstone 
Consolidated sedimentary rocks: 
Neai'ly pure, massive limestone_ 
Mmestone and shale 



Chert \- limestone _ 



Very cliert y limestone 

Sandy or arenaceous limestone 
Iligh-calcium ;ir<iillaceous lime- 
stone. 

Interbedded limestone, sand- 
stone, and shale. 
Slifihtiy calcareous, gray shales 
Slightly calcareous, red shales 

and sandstones. 
Acid, gray to yellow, hard shales 
Acid, yellow to brown, soft shales 
Acid, red shales and sandstones. 

Avid, red sandstones 

(Jray to yellow, coarse-grained, 
acid sandstones. 
Old collu\ ial deposits: 

Crvstalline rock materials 



Sandstone materials 

Sandstone and shale over lime- 
stone materials. 

Clierty limestone materials 

Acid shale mateiials 

Old stream terraces: 

Limeston(> materials 



Acid sandstone and shale ma- 
terials. 

Bottom lands and Hood plain.s: 

Crystalline rock materials 

Gray, yellow, and brown sand- 
stone and shale materials. 
Red sandstone and shale ma- 
terials. 

Limestone materials 

]\Iarl deposits 



I )rainage class 



Excessively 
drained 



Hazel. 



Litz, 
Teas. 



Montevallo. 



Lohow 

Dekalb, 
Leetonia. 



Somewhat 
excessively 
drained 



Chandler 



Corydon . 



Litz- 
Teas. 



Berks.. 
Calvin. 
Lehew . 



l''au((uier, 
llighfield, 
M vcrsville. 

Chandler, 
Talladega. 

Edgemont 



Ifagerstowii . . 
Duffield, 

Frankstown 
i )unmore, 

I'^rederick. 

Elliber 

Benevola 

Corvdon 



West moreland 



Berks. 
Calvin . 



Braddock, 
Tluirmont. 

I.aidig 

Murrili 



Ashton, 
Etowah. 

Ilolston, 
Waynes- 
boro. 

Congaree. . 
Pope 



Huntington.. . 



Moderately 
well drained 



Somewhat 
Ijoorly 
drained 



Trego 

Buchanan. 



Landisburg. 
Lead vale. .. 



Mononga- 
hela. 



Chewacla. 



Largent. 



Lindside.. 
Warners.. 



I'oorly 
drained 



Philo. 



Warners. . 



Rohrers- 
ville. 2 



Brinkerton. 



Tyler. 



Wehadkee. 
Atkins 



Atkins. 



Melvin.. 
Warners. 



V ery 
poorly 
drained 



Dunning 



' The Edgeniont series includes some soils developed jxirtly on The surface layer of the Rohrersville soils is more or less strongly 

colluvial materials, and may be difficult to distinguish from soils influenced by recent, fine-grained local alluvium, 
of the Laidig series. 



W ASI lINC l COUNTY, MAHVLAXI) 



7 



soils art' iiol loo scNcrcly eroded, they arc suilahlc i'oi' 
(•idti\iUod crops. Some of the soils aiv productive, espe- 
cially for special crops, such as peaches or apples. For 
iieneral crops, ho\ve\er, productivity is rather low because 
ilie soils are shallow and some of them are drou<?hty. 

4. Berks-Monti'vallo association 
(Soils on shale) 

Two series, the Berks and the ]\roiite\allo, domi- 
nate this association. Theiv are a few included minor- 
soils, such as those of the Hi-inkedon series. The Berks- 
]\fontevall() association occu[)ies a belt that extends in 
a north-and-south direction across the county. It is cen- 
tered on Conocochea^ue ('reek, with smaller areas on 
the Potomac west of Downsville. 

This association consists mainly of soils on sliale. The 
soils are acid, shallow, and somewhat drouf^hty, but they 
can l)e fairly easily managed, can be i)lowed deeply into 
the shale, if necessary, and are fairly productive under 
the best management. The Berks-IVIontevallo associa- 
tion makes up about 5.1 pei'cent of the county. 

5. Hazel-Chandler association 
(Shallow soils on schist) 

The Ilazel-Chandler association consists chiefly of shal- 
low and very shallow, very acid soils developed from 
mica schist and phyllites. The largest area extends north- 
ward from the Potoinac Kiver, across from Harpers 
Ferry, ^Y. Va., almost to McClellans Lookout ; a smaller 
area is on both sides of U.S. Highway No. 40, just west 
of the Frederick County Line. 

In general, these soils are so shallow and of such lim- 
ited productivity that they are little used, although there 
are occasional (■i'o])ped areas, pastures, and orchard plots. 
The Hazel-Chandler association occupies about 1.7 per- 
cent of the county. 

6. Talladega association 
(Moderately deep soils on schist) 

On the western slope of South Mountain, from a point 
just below Zittlestown to one just east of Kohrersville, 
is an area occupied mostly by soils of the Talladega 
series. This area is known as the Talladega association. 
The soils are similar to those of the Hazel-Chandler asso- 
ciation, but they are somewhat deeper and thus have 
better moisture relationships. There is usually consider- 
able quartzite gravel on and in the upper part of the 
soil. 

Because of its position, much of this soil association 
is used for fruit crops, especially berries, to take advan- 
tage of the good air drainage on the mountain slopes. 
Otherwise, general farming is the pattern, but there are 
many steep or eroded areas that are strongly limited 
in their usefulness for agriculture. The Talladega asso- 
ciation makes up about 1 percent of the county. 

7. Litz-Teas association 

( Shallow, steep soils on shale ) 

This area on the general soil map is the Litz-Teas asso- 
ciation. It consists of one long, narrow ridge, extending 
southward from the Pennsylvania line through Ringgold 
to a point about 2 miles northwest of Smithsburg. The 



soils of the I>ilz 'leas {issociation are shallow, mostly 
fairly steep, and uiidiM lain by noiiacid, i-eddish and gray 
shales. 

Although feitility is not especially low, the soils arc 
droughty atul thus are not very productive. Most of 
them are in cultivation. There ai-e a number of orchards 
on soils of this association. The associatif)n makes up 
only iibout 0.2 percent of the entii-e county. 

8. Calvin-Iierks-Litz-Monlerallo association 
(Shallow soils on shale, limestone, or sandstone) 

This is the most extensive soil association in th(! divi- 
sion of shallow soils. It makes up more than 16 percent 
of the county and extends, with some interruptions, from 
the Allegany County line in the west to Fairview Moun- 
tain. This is also the most complex of the soil associa- 
tions in the county. There are smaller areas of many 
soil series included besides those given in the associ;ition 
name. Some of the soils developed from acid or nonacid 
shale, and others, from limestone of various degrees of 
purity, from sandstone, or from mixtures of any of these. 

Most soils within this area are shallow to bedrock, 
but there are spots of deeper Frederick, Dunmore, and 
Westmoreland soils. Most of the soils are of medium tex- 
ture, but some are moderately coarse textured. Because 
this association lies within the Appalachian Valley and 
Ridge province, the areas are mostly on fairly sharp 
ridges that are separated by rather deep, small streams 
that flow into the Potomac River. 

Agriculture on the Calvin-Berks-Litz-Montevallo asso- 
ciation is mostly of a general nature, with the greatest 
emphasis, perhaps, on fruit growing. Peach and apple 
orchards occupy many areas, particularly areas underlain 
by limestones and nonacid shales. However, the greater 
part of the association is in forest. The forests are pri- 
marily of hardwood trees, dominantly oaks. 

Moderately Well to Well Drained, 
Deep, Medium-Textured Soils 

This major division of the soils of "Washington County 
includes most of the recent and older alluvial soils of 
the flood plains and terraces. The soils are mostly me- 
dium textured and deep, but there are variations in 
drainage. Most of the soils are at least moderately well 
drained. This division makes up about 2 percent of the 
county. 

9. Holston-Monongahela-Huntington- 
Lindside association ( Soils on broad 
flood plains and terraces) 

This is the only soil association of this major division. 
It consists of soils of the flood plains and of large parts 
of the terraces of the Potomac River. The Holston soils 
are well drained and the Monongahela soils are moder- 
ately well drained soils of the terraces. The}- developed 
from very old, acid sediments. The Monongahela soils 
have a strongly developed silt pan or fragipan horizon 
in their subsoil, and this restricts drainage. 

The Huntington and Lindside soils are on recent flood 
plains that consist of sediments influenced by limestone. 
The Huntington soils are well drained, but the Lindside 



5005.33—62 Z 



8 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1 950, NO. 17 



soils have a seasonally lii<>li wafei' table and are only 
moderately well drained. There aiv smaller areas of 
other soils, such as the Tylei- and ^Vayneshol■o soils on 
the terraces and the Atkins. IMiilo, and Pope soils on the 
flood plains. 

Aoricidture is fairly well dexelopt'd on the soils of 
the I lolston-AIononoahela-lIunt in<:ton-Lindside associa- 
tion. Most of it is o-eneral fai'inin^-. The Holston and 
Monono-ahela soils are above nonnal Hood staijes of the 
Potomac, but both are subject to erosion. The Mononga- 
hela soils are considered cold because of the impeded 
drainage. The lluntin<iton and I^indside soils may be 
flooded by the Potomac at hi<ih-\vater stafjes, and the 
Lindside soils also are somewhat wet and cold. This as- 
sociation makes up about ])ercent of tlie county. 

Well-Drained, Deep, Medium-Textured Soils 

This is by far the most extensive and important major 
division of the soil associations in Wash i not on County. 
The soils vary in many characteristics, but they are all 
deep, well drained, and of medium te.xture. These soils 
are hiohly suitable for agriculture wherever they are not 
too strono-ly limited by steep s1oi)es or by ag-ffravated 
erosion. They are also suitalde foi- most nonagricultural 
))urposes. Tliere are 5 distinct soil associations in this 
division. Together they make up neai'ly ().') ])ei'ccnt of 
the entire county. 

10. Braddock-Thurmont-Edgemont-Laidig 
association (Gravelly soils) 

'I'he soils of this association are in foot-sloj)e positions 
below mountains or ridges. They have been formed in 
colluvial, acid rock delu-is and ai-e mostly rather gravelly. 
The gravel sometimes hinders cuhi\ ati<)n oi- creates other 
management problems, but it in lu) way atlects the suit- 
abiliry or tlie capability of the soils. 

Because of their position in relation to ridges, these 
soils have good air drainage. Therefore, they are used 
rather extensively for orchards and berry crops, par- 
ticularly in the northeastern part of the county between 
the Pennsylvania State line and Cavetown. They are 
also used for general crops and pastures, and some rather 
large areas are still in forests. About 4.2 percent of the 
county is occupied by the soils of this association. 

//. Waynesboro association ( Soils on high 
terraces along the Potomac River) 

This association consists almost entirely of the soils of 
one series, the Waynesboro, with only small areas of othel- 
soils. The Wayne-sboro soils consist of very old, acid 
alluvium, mostly gravelly, which has been deposited in 
rather thick 1)eds above the Potomac Iviver. These mate- 
rials are so thick that any underlying stratum, whether 
it be older alluvium, limestone, or other material, has 
had no evident effect on the soil. 

These soils are used for all the crops conunon to the 
county, except orchards. They generally lack the air 
drainage that is needed for fruit crops. The soils of the 
Waynesboro association are probably somewhat less pro- 
ductive than the soils of the other associations in this 
division. The association occu2:)ies about 2.4 percent of 
the county. It occupies rather small areas at A'arious 



points on the high terraces of the Potomac Kiver, from 
the vicinity of Four Locks downstream to a j)oiiit just 
southwest of Sharpsburg. 

12. Fauquier-Myersville-High field 
association ( Soils on greenstone) 

This association is made up almost entiiely of deep, 
well-drained, medium-textured soils (hat developed in tlie 
weathered residue of greenstone rocks. Because these 
I'ocks are rich in basic minerals, the soils developed from 
them are less acid and contain more plant luitrients than 
iiiniiy of the soils of the county. The most iin[)oi'tant 
area of the Fau(|uier-Myersville-I lighlield association is 
in Pleasant \'alley, which is drained by Israel Creek, it 
is in the extreme southeastern part of the county. Smaller 
areas are at higher ele\ations in the extreme northeastei'ii 
part of the county, in the general area between Ilai'man 
(Jap and llighlield. 

The soils of (his association are used for all the crops 
of (he area, including orchards and pastures. The asso- 
ciation occupies about ■).7 i)ei-cent of the county. 

13. Murrill association (Well-drained soils 
on colluvial deposits that contain lime) 

A\'here\er high ridges of acid rocks are next (o (he 
great limestone valley of '\^'ashington County, colluvial 
uia(ei-ial has moved downslope and out over the fringes 
of (he valley. The forces (hat have caused this movement 
ai-e mosdy gravity, assisted l)y the flow of nmoif wa(ers 
over veiT long ])ei iods of time. "Wherever the undei-lying 
liiiu'stoiie ma(erials ai'e close enough (o the surface of the 
land (o atrec( soil development, one series of soils, the Mur- 
rill, is extensive. There Ave have the Murrill association, 
made uj) almost entirely of soils of the one series. 

The soils of (his association occur on the lowest west- 
ei-n slopes of Soutli INIountain, from the Pennsylvania 
line southward almost to Rohrersville. They are also 
on the lowest western slopes of Elk Ridge from near 
Porterstown southward to the Potomac River; in a small 
isolated area just north of Antietam; and in a large area 
on the lowest eastern slopes of Fairview Mountain, from 
the Pennsylvania line southward beyond Clear S])ring 
and southeastward to the Potomac in the vicinity of Two 
Locks. The Murrill association makes up altogether 
about 6.5 percent of the county. 

The Murrill association is important in the agiicul- 
ture of the county. Because the soils are undei-lain by 
limestone and are influenced by limestone materials, they 
are more productive than most of the soils on other 
materials. General farming is the common pattern, with 
emphasis on dairying and other livestock enterprises. 
There are some orchards, but they are not so common 
as on the somewhat higher intermediate slopes where 
air drainage is usuallj' somewhat better. Only small and 
unimportant areas within the ^Murrill association remain 
in forests. 

IJ. Hagerstown-Duffield-Frankstown association 
(Soils of limestone valleys) 

This soil association occupies most of the main basin 
of the great limestone valley that crosses the county 
between South Mountain and Fairview Mountain. At 
least 90 percent of the association is occupied by soils 



\VASIlI\(i'r()N COUNTY, MARYLAND 



ol' iIh' 1 1 iiiicrsi ow II, Diillicld, aiHl l*'i;iiikslo\vii sci ii'S. 
Oilier locally iiuportanl series williiii the same area are 
(he Heiievola, ( 'oi'ydoii, I'ilowali, 1 1 mil iiiirt on, Liii<lsi(le, 
INIelviii, I )uiiiiiii<i-, and AVai-ners, l)u( IIumi- lolal area is 
insi<;iiilieant in (comparison to the soils of (he three domi- 
nant sei'ies. Alto^-e,t her the IIa<>;ersto\vn-I)nllield-Kraiiks^ 
town association accounts for more (lian 4(1 i)ei'cent of 
Washiiii^ton County, (lius domina(in<j (he a<j:ricult ure, 
not only of (he valley l)n( also of (he en(ire ('oun(y. 

The I Ia<iers(()\vn soils are ivd and iiave been developed 
from more or less ])ure, massive linies(one in (he valley. 
Tiie DuUield and Franks(()\vn soils are more yellowish. 
The Diiflield soils have been (Ievel<)])ed fi'om iiderbedded 
liines(ones and s()f( shales, sonie(inies known as shabby 
limestones, and the F'rankstown soils, from impure lime- 
s(oiies con(ainin<i;' some shale and clierty gravel and (liin 
beds of sandstone. The Dullield soils are somewhat 
deeper (lian (he Franks(own. The soils of these thi*ee 
series are fer(ile and are ])rodiic(ive under good man- 
ageiiieid. 

There is a major \aria(ion widiin (he Hagers(own- 
DufKeld-Frankstown association that is not shown on the 
general soil map. Eock outcrops are fairly connnon in 
all of these soils. In large parts of the valley, ou( crop- 
ping ledges of limestone are so numerous that they are 
shown on the larger de(ailed soil ma]) as \ery rocky or 
ex(reinely rocky phases of (he soils. In such A ery rocky 
or ex(reniely I'ocky areas, the soils are deep between the 
outcrops, except where some of the ledges lie from a 
few inches to a foot or more below the surface. This 
rockiness, of course, limits the usefulness of the soils. 
These limitations are discussed more fully in the section 
"Use and Management of Soils." 

Because they are l)o(]i productive and extensive, the 
soils of the Hagerstown-Duflield-Frankstown association 



are the most im))orlaiit ones in I he agricii ll ii i a I economy 
of 1 h(i county. These s(jils are used for all crops, with 
great emphasis on corn, small gi'ains, hay crops, and 
pastures. Because of this |)atieiii, pins ndatixe nearness 
to (he gi'eat eastern markets, daiiying is the most im- 
poi-(ant (ype of eiderprise; nex( in ini]>or(ance are (he 
other livestock operadons. Under good management, 
yields of all crops are high. Tiie chief deterrent (o even 
grea(er pro(luc(ion, as already in(lica(ed, is (he presence 
of large areas of ou(cropping r!mes(one rocks. Even 
these areas, where cul(i\ation is hindered or in some 
places ))reven(ed, aiv useful foi- pasdiivs and for some 
hay crops. 

All of (he soils of (he couidy, wliedier or not they have 
been named in this discussion of the general areas, are 
described in detail in (he next sec(i()ii of (his i-epoi'(. 

Description of the Soils 

In (his section (he soils and land (ypes in AVashing(on 
County are described in de(ail. For each series of soils, 
one typical profile is descrii)ed. Differences among soils 
in the same series are no(ed in (he descrip(ions of (he 
mapping units. Most commonly, (he differences are in 
slope and in the degree of erosion oi- in the tex(ui-e of 
(he surface layer. 

The location and distribu(ion of the individual soils 
are shown on the soil map in the back of this report. 
The approximate acreage and proportionate extent of 
each soil are shown in table 4. Many terms used in de- 
scribing the soils are defined in the Glossary. A more 
detailed account of the origin of tlie soils is in tlie section 
"Formation and Classification of Soils." 



Table 4. — Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soi'/s 




Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes_ 

Atkins silt loam 

Benevola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 per- 
cent slopes, moderately enjded 

Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 i)("rceiit slopes--. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Berks shaly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 



Acres 



Percent 



78 
1, 164 
159 


0) 

0. 4 
. 1 


412 


. 1 


176 


. 1 


65 


(') 


815 


. 3 


879 


. 3 


194 


. 1 


632 
1, 002 


. 2 
. 3 


2, 606 


. 9 


2, 381 


. 8 


352 


. 1 


695 


. 2 


391 


. 1 



Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Berks soils, ridges, 30 to 60 percent slopes 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 3 

to 8 percent slopes, moficratelv eroded 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 

to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 

to 25 percent slopes 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes.-. 
Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent 

slopes 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 



Acres 



304 


0. 1 


273 


. 1 


823 


. 3 


3, 987 


1. 3 


575 


. 2 


567 


. 2 


74 


(') 


236 


. 1 


77 


(■) 


866 


. 3 


562 


. 2 


86 


(') 


276 


. 1 


890 


. 3 


1, 978 


. 7 



10 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 4. — Approximate acreage and proportionate extent oj soils — Continued 



Soil 



loam, 20 



to 30 percent 
to 30 percent 
to 45 percent 
percent 



to 20 
to 30' 



Calvin channcry 
slopes 

Calvin channcry loam, 20 
,sloi)os, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery loam, 30 

slopes 

Calvin channery loam, 45 to 60 

slopes 

Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely ertjded 

Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes.. 

Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. . 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, to 10 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 3 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded 

Calvin- Berks channery loams, 20 to 30 per- 
cent slo|>es, moderately enxknl 

Calvin- Berks cliannery loams, 30 to 60 per- 
cent slo])es, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Moiitevallo shaly loams, to 10 
percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 10 
jjercent slopes, moderately eroded _ 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly k)ams, 20 

])ercent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 45 
jjercent slopes, severely eroded 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 30 to 60 
percent slopes 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 
to 10 percent slopes 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 
to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 
10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 
20 to 30 percent slopes 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam 

Chewacla silt loam 

Chewacla stony silt loam 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam 

Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Corydon extremely rocky clay loam, to 15 
percent slopes 

Corydon very rocky clay^ loam, 3 to 45 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy 
loams, to 25 percent slopes 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy 
loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes 

Dekalb and Leetonia ver\^ stony sandy 
loams, 45 to 60 percent slopes 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, to 
25 percent slopes 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 to 
45 percent slopes 

DufReld extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 
percent slopes 

Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

DufReld silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 



Area 



Acrts 



Extent 



Percent 



651 


0. 2 


224 


. 1 


859 


. 3 


156 


. 1 


189 


. 1 


126 


(') 


118 
112 

204 


(') 
(') 

. 1 


1 , 565 


. 5 


2, 798 


. 9 


320 


. 1 


1, 289 


. 4 


1, 315 


. 4 


103 


(') 


178 


. 1 


163 


. 1 


134 


(■) 


255 


. 1 


143 


(■) 


360 


. 1 


342 


. 1 


97 
206 
311 
157 

86 
309 


(') 

. 1 
. 1 
. 1 

0) 

. 1 


1, 006 


. 3 


200 


1 


405 


. 1 


857 


. 3 


1, 762 


. 6 


1, 056 


. 4 


201 


. 1 


281 


. 1 


493 


. 2 


1, 279 
3, 352 


. 4 
1. 1 


16, 338 


5. 5 


4, 739 


1. 6 



Soil 



Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Duffield silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 

slopes 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately erodcfl 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Dunning and Melvin silty clay loams 

Edgeniont and I^aidig channery loams, to 

12 f)ercent slopes 

Edgemont and Ijaidig channery loams, 5 to 

20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 

35 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 35 to 

60 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 

to 5 i)ercent sloi)es 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 5 

to 35 percent slopes 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 35 

to 60 percent slopes 

Elliber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 

Ellil)er cherty loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Elliber cherty loam, 45 to 55 percent slopes- 
Eroded land, greenstone materials 

Eroded land, limestone materials 

Eroded land, sandstone and ciuartzite 

materials 

Eroded land, shale and schist materials 

Etowah gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes, 
Etowah gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Etowah gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Etowah silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Etowah silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent 

slopes 

Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauquier channery loam, 20 to 35 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauquier silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Fauquier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Fauquier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauquier very stony loam, 5 to 35 percent 

slopes 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 

25 percent slopes 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, 25 to 

45 percent slopes 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 



Area 
Acret 

99 

669 

1, 895 

178 

44 

50 
1, 896 

1, 493 
4, 613 

2, 870 
291 
127 

12, 524 

771 

520 

719 

629 
81 
101 
617 

221 

3, 890 

97 

363 

182 

40 
154 

339 

188 

244 

1, 735 

1, 144 

271 
41 

289 

93 

42 

435 

983 

140 

2, 413 



Sfe footnote at ond of tal)U'. 



WASIIIXCTON COUNTY, MAItVKAM) 

(ic/'((i;ii (iinl /nojKirtioiKitr. cftcnt, oj .soils ( "otil iinicd 



Soil 



Fraiikstowii wry rocky silt loam, 8 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, severely (M'odetl 

Friiiikstowii \ery rooky silt loam, 15 to 45 

perc'i'iit slopes, nioderatcly eroded 

Fraiikstowii and Diiflield chaiinery silt 

loams, to '.^ percent slojx's 

Fraiikstowii and Duffield chaniiery silt 

loams, ',\ to 8 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded . 

Fraiikstowii and Duffield chaiinery silt 

loams, to 8 percent slopes, severely 

erodi'd , 

Fraiikstowii and Duffield clmnnery silt 

loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield chaiinery silt 

loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield chaiinery silt 

loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded , 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt 

loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt 

loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt 

loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 3 percent slopes... 
Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded - 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 

25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam, 

to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 

percent slopes 

Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes.. 
Hagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderat(>ly eroded 

Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 

Hagerstown silt\' day loam, to 3 percent 

slopes , 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Sec footnote at end of table. 



Area 

.If ret 

580 
519 
244 

C, 909 

60 

3, 1 1 1 
1 , 3()6 

542 
864 
162 

89 
711 
672 

63 
517 

57 

465 
117 

775 

52 

144 

153 

123 

190 

0, 696 

4, 156 

111 

1, 146 

22, 661 

3, 690 
252 
437 

4, 038 
1. 458 



Extent 

Percent 

0. 2 
. 2 
. 1 



(') 



0) 

(') 

(') 
(') 

(') 
(') 

(') 



2. 3 

I 

1. 1 
. 5 
. 2 
. 3 
. 1 

. 2 

. 2 



(') 



. 1 
2. 3 
1. 4 

. 4 
7. 7 
1. 2 

. 1 

. 1 
1. 4 

. 5 



Soil Area 



Hagerstown silty clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 153 

Hagi^rstown \cry rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 per 

cent slojies, moderately eroded 10,613 

Hagerstown V(;ry rocky sill loam, 15 1o 45 

percent slopes, moderately eroded I, (J87 

Hagerstown very rocky silty cliiy loam, 3 to j 

15 jiercent slojK's, moderately eroded 8, :')7I 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 

15 jierceiit slopes, seventy eroded 2, 836 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 

45 perc(>nt slopes, moderately eroded 621 

Hagerstown very rocky soils, 45 to 55 per- 
cent slopes...! 1 107 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and Duffield very 

rocky silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 424 

Hagerstown and Duffield silt loams, 25 to 45 

percent slojies, moderatel.\- eroded 149 

Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent 

sloi)es, moderately eroded 1, 438 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 1, 856 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 202 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 1, 095 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 124 

Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent 

slopes 210 

Highfield gravelly loam, to 5 percent 

slopes 67 

Highfield gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 315 

Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 212 

Highfield gravelly loam, 20 to 35 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 78 

Highfield very stony loam, to 5 percent 

slopes 44 

Highfield very stonv loam, 5 to 30 percent 

slopes 1 2,123 

Highfield very stony loam, 30 to 45 percent 

slopes 470 

Holstoii gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 439 
Holstuii [;ra\elly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

iiioderatel.\' eroded 1, 395 

Holstoii gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 588 

Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 49 

Holston gravell.v loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 118 

Holston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 70 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes 115 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 153 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 50 

Holston silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 224 

Holston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 666 

Holston silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 208 

Huntington fine sandy loam 1, 507 

Huntington gravelly loam 671 

Huntington silt loam 1, 439 

Huntington silt loam, local alluvium 4, 811 

Laidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 110 

Laidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderatelv eroded | 1,278 



(■) 



. 4 



12 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 4. — Approximate acreage and pniportionate extent of soils — Continued 



Soil 




Laidig grjivclly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Luidifi gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Laidig very sstony loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes. 

Laidig very stony loam, 15 to 45 percent 
slojH's, moderately eroded 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderate!}' eroded 

Largent silt loam 

Leadvale gravellj' silt loam, to 3 percent 
slopes 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Lindside silt loam 

Lindside silt loam, local alluvium 

Jiitz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded . 

Lltz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely t-roded 

Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes 

Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded _. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, 
severely eroded 

Ijitz shaly loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent 
slopes 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 8 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 25 to 45 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded 

Melvin silt loam , 

Monongahela gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Monongahela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent 
slopes, severely eroded 

Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded 

See footnote at end of table. 



Acres 



Extent 



Percent 



1, 574 


0. 5 


479 

722 




. 2 
. 2 


1 I A 

I 10 


(') 




00 


(') 




143 
15/ 


(') 


. 1 


49 


(') 




4/0 
2, 435 
488 




. 2 
. 8 
. 2 


232 




. 1 


Ck'7 

97 


(') 




1 uy 

366 


(') 


. 1 


•} o 




. 2 


1, 4y,i 




. 5 


oU4 




. 2 






. 3 


5 / y 




. 2 


6 1 y 




. 1 


136 


(') 
(') 




I9o 




. 1 


625 




. 2 


126 


(') 




164 




. 1 


167 




. 1 


56 
146 


(') 
(') 




301 




. 1 


110 
443 


(') 


. 1 


861 




. 3 


223 




. 1 


57 


(') 




1, 857 




. 6 


2, 972 


1. 


1, 628 




. 6 


1, 812 




. 6 



Soil 




Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely erodecl 

Murrill gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes.. 
Murrill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. „ 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded . 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 

severely eroded 

Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Murrill gra\('lly loam, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded . 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent 

slopes 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 

sloi)es, severely eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slo])es, severely eroded 

Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded 

Myersville channery loam, to 3 percent 

slopes 

Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville chainiery loam, 30 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded 

Myersville channery silt loam, 10 to 30 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded 

Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville very stony loam, 30 to 55 percent 

slopes, eroded 

Philo gravelly sandy loam 

Philo silt loam 

Pope fine sandy loam 

Pope gravelly loam 

Pope gravelly sandy loam 

Pope silt loam 

Pope stony gravelly loam 

Rocky eroded land 

Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Stony rolling land 

Stony steep land . 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum 

variant, to 20 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum 

variant, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 

eroded 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum 

variant, 20 to 30 percent slopes 



lOxtent 



Percent 



623 
1, 479 


0. 2 
. 5 


9, 485 


3. 2 


4, 122 


1. 4 


84 


(') 


596 


. 2 


51 




368 


. 1 


678 


. 2 


84 


(') 


88 


0) 


46 
269 


(') 

. 1 


872 


. 3 


214 


. 1 


47 


(') 


1, 331 


. 5 


1, 676 


. 6 


418 


. 1 


175 


. 1 


52 


(') 


57 
131 


(') 
(') 


532 


. 2 






1, 428 


. 5 


147 
430 

1, 254 
1, 793 

4oO 

446 
442 
87 
823 


(') 

. 1 

. 4 

. 6 

. 2 
. 1 

(') 

. 3 


216 
4, 643 
2, 857 


. 1 
1. 6 
1. 


794 


. 3 


53 


(') 


160 


. 1 



\vasiiin(;t()n r'ouNT'i', maio'land 



Soil 



Table 4. — Approximate acreage aw! /ini/m/iKindii (.rh ni of soils — Coiiiinm rl 

Soil 



Talladega Ki'aNi'llx' sill Idaiii, thick sdlmii 

N'ariant, 20 lo 15 piTcciil slopes, iiiodcr- 

iitcly crodi'd 

Terrace cscarpincnts 

Thurnioiil fiiaxcily loam, '.\ to <S pcreent 

slo])('s, modc'ialclv rrudi'd 
Thuniiont f;ra\clly loam, S to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent 

slopes - , 

Trego gravelly silt loam, \^ to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Tyler silt loam, to ,S peri'eiit slopes 

Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes 

\\'aynesboro gravelly loam, to percent 

slopes . 

Waynesboro gra\'elly loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gra\clly loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, mofieialely eroded 

Waynesboro fira\cll\ loam, 3 to 15 percent 

slopes, se\-erely eroded 

Wayn<'slioro !^ra\-ell\- loam, 15 to 25 percent 

sloi)es, modei-ati'ly eroded 



Area 



Acres 

ill 
341 

t()() 

245 

89 

252 
127 

1, 646 

166 

2, 387 
1, 400 

475 
236 



Extent 



Percent 



(') 



(') 



2 
1 

. 1 
. 6 
. 1 
. 8 
. 5 
. 2 
. 1 



Waynesboro gra\elly loam, 15 to 25 i)r'rcenl 
slopes, severely erodeil 

Waynest)oro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes, mo(lerat(4y eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, tf) 8 jjer- 
cent slopes 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 

percent slopes, severely eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Wehadkee silt loam 

Westmoreland chaimery silt loam, 3 to 10 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Westmoreland channery silt loatn, 10 lo 20 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 

p(>rcent slopes, severely eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 

percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 

percent slopes, severely eroded 

Total ^ . . . 



A reji 


Extent 




Pererril 


322 


0, 1 


98 


(') 


1 j:. 




628 


. 2 


103 


(') 


137 


(') 


183 


. 1 


31 1 


. 1 


2ti3 


. 1 


278 


. 1 


82 


(') 


100 




295, 680 


98. 8 



' Less than 0.1 percent. 

Ashton Series 

The Ashtoii series consists of deep, well-drained, 
weakly developed soils on low terraces or second bottoms 
along the Potomac River. These soils developed in old 
alluvium that washed from soils underlain by limestone 
or from materials strongly influenced by limestone. The 
higher terraces in the same general areas are occupied 
by soils de\eloped in more acid materials, such as the 
soils of the Ilolston, IMonongahela, and Waynesljoro 
series. 

The Ashton soils are very productive tuider good 
management. They are limited in extent and occupy less 
than 100 acres. 

Profile of Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 percent 
slopes, in a temporarily idle area where Orchard Road 
reaches the Potomac River, in the Cohill community : 

.A„ to 9 inches: dark-brown (lOYR 3/3) fine sandy loam; 

weak, fine, crumb structure; slightly hard when dry, 
very friable when moist, and nonplastic and non- 
sticky when wet; roots abundant; neutral; clear, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 12 inches thick. 

Bi 9 to It) inclies: dark-brown (lOYR 4/3), heavy fine sandy 
loam; weak, fine to medium, crumb to weak, very fine, 
subangular l)locky structure; slightly hard when dry, 
very friable when moist, and slightly plastic but non- 
sticky when wet; roots plentiful: many fine and 
medium pores; slightly acid to neutial; gradual, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. 

B2 16 to 45 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), heavy loam 
to light silt loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky 
structure; moderately hard when dry, friable when 
moist, and plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
fairly plentiful in upper portion to ]iractically none in 
lower portion: many fine and medium pores and a few 
worm channels: slightly acid to neutral; clear, wavy 
to irregular boundary: horizon is 18 to 40 inches thick. 

C 45 to 80 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) fine sandy 
loam to silt loam; about 20 percent fine, distinct 



mottles of very dark grayish brown (lOYR 3/2); very 
weak, very coarse, subangular blocky structure be- 
coming somewhat coarse, platy in places: moderately 
hard when dry, firm when moist, and slightly plastic 
but nonsticky when wet; no roots; moderately per- 
meable: contains 10 to 15 percent fine and very fine 
gravel; moderately alkaline; clear, irregular boundary; 
horizon is 24 to 40 inches thick. 
D 80 to 108 inches + : stratified gravel, sand, silt, and clay 
loam; gravel makes up about 60 percent of the mass 
and is waterworn; fine materials are of same color as 
those in the C horizon, but with about 40 percent 
mottles; massive; hard when dry, firm to friable when 
moist, with finer materials plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; no roots; moderately rapidly permeable; 
mildly to moderately alkaline. 

All horizons are variable in thickness, particularly the 
B2 horizon of the subsoil. The variations apparently 
are correlated with the topography. The soils that have 
the thickest, most strongly developed B horizons are in 
the highest positions. In soils in the lower positions, the 
B horizon is thinner and more poorly developed, but the 
surface layer may be 2 or more feet thick. In a few 
areas there are some shale and sandstone fragments in 
the substratum, but in most places the coarse material 
is chert. 

The Ashton soils are well drained, but within the areas 
tliere may be some wet spots or shallow sinks. The sur- 
face is generally smooth, but there are a few htunmocks 
in places. The low terraces on which the Ashton soils 
are located are generally at least 20 feet higher than the 
flood plains. These soils have moderate overall perme- 
ability and mcxlerately high to high moisture-supplying 
capacity. They may be covered with water dtxring gen- 
eral floods at intervals of several years. 

Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes 
(AsB). — This soil has the profile that has been described. 



14 



SOIL 8UH\KV SERIES 19.59, NO. 17 



Jt is the only .Vsliloii soil in I lie coiinly. Since there :iie 
no great luizards, except, flooding for short periods at in- 
tervals mail}' years a])art, this soil is suitable for almost all 
the crops grown in the region with only reasonably good, 
simple management practices. Althongh the soil occurs 
at compai'at ively low elevations, it has fairly good air 
drainage because of its position above the Potomac Kiver. 
Most of the soil has been planted to orchards, but, at 
the time of this report, the orchards had not come into 
production. Time will tell whether the soil is well suited 
to orchards or not. This is one of the better soils of the 
county. Tt occupies oidy 7S acres and is in capability 
unit I-G. 

Atkins Series 

The Atkins series consists of {)()()rly drained soils in 
recently deposited allu\ iinn on the flood plains. The soils 
are generally along the smaller streams. The dejjosits are 
made up of out wash from acid shale and sandstone areas. 
On the same materials and along the same streams are 
the moderately well drained to somewhat pooi'ly drained 
Philo soils and the well drained Pope soils. 

The Atkins soils are not very e.xtensive. Because they 
are too wet for many purposes, they are not of very 
great importance in agriculture. 

Profile of Atkins silt loam, in a cutover foi-esfed area 
at a point just off McC^oys Ferry Road, one-half mile 
south of its intersection with (Jreenspring Furnace Koad: 

A, tu () inches: olivc-hiuwii (2.5Y 4/4) silt loam; moderate, 
medium, crumb structure: hard when dry, friable 
when moist, plastic and sticky when wet: roots abun- 
dant ; m(>dium to slightly acid; clear, smooth bound- 
ary; horizon is 4 tt) 8 inches thick. 

Cig (■) to U) inches: dark grayish-brown or olivc-sfray (2.5Y 
4/"2 or 5Y 4 '2) silty clay loam; about 30 ))ercent fine 
and medium, distinct mottles of dark brown (7.5YR 
4/4^; compound, weak, coarse, platy and moderate, 
medium, blocky and subangular blocky structure; 
hard to very hard when dry, rather firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; roots confined 
mostly to upper portion; slowly permeable; strongly 
acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 8 to 16 
inches thick. 

Cog H) to 36 inches -|- : olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) fine gravelly 
sandy clay loam; about 40 percent fine, medium and 
coarse, distinct mottles of dark gray, reddish brown, 
and strong brown; stratified with a \ery weak, 
coarse, platy structure; very hard when dry, firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; prac- 
tically no roots; slowly permeable; very strongly acid. 

The greatest variation in the Atkins soils of Washing- 
ton Cotnity is in thickness, or in depth to the gravelly C 
horizon. Overall permeability is slow, and, though these 
soils are very wet for long periods, they can become very 
liard and droughty dtiring extended dry weather. Their 
moisture-supplying capacity is, therefore, rather low, 
even though they may be flooded nearly every year and 
sometimes for rather long periods. Because of their ad- 
verse moisture relationships, these soils are suited to cul- 
tivated crops only with drainage and water control, and 
then are tised chiefly for corn, forage crops, or pasture. 

Atkins silt loam (At). — This soil, which has the profile 
that has been described in detail, is the only Atkins soil 
in Washington County. Because of its wetness, it is 
placed in capability iniit IIIw-l. There are l.lfi4 acres. 



Any areas damaged by fri'([uent overllows should be 
maintained in [)ermanent grass or woodland. 

Benevola Series 

The Henevola series consists of deep, \('i v well drained, 
dark-red, line-text ui'ed soils de\eloped from rather soft, 
\ery line grained, sandy limestone. The Benevola soils 
have very strong structure in the subsoil and an excep- 
tionally high degree of porosity for such hne-tex(ured 
soils. Locally, some small areas of the.se soils are mod- 
erately deep or shallow o\er ledges of the limestone, 
and there are occasional oiitcroppings of the saiuly lime- 
stone. 

The Ik'iievola soils are on nearly level or gently rolling 
valley floors. They are mostly in the area from about 
Bene\-ola northeastward nearly to Bagtown. Other soils 
on limestone are those of the Dtdfield, Frankstown, and 
Ilagerstown series. 

Although the Benevola soils are not extensive, they are 
excellent agricultural soils and have all been cleared for 
use. 

Profile of Benevola clay loam, to '\ percent slopes, 
in an old cultivated area about BO yards south of U.S. 
Highway Xo. 40, almost directly across that highway 
from the Ilagerstown drive-in theater, about halfway 
between Wagner's Crossroads and Mount Lena: 

A I, to 6 inches: dark reddish-brown (SYR 3/4) clay loam; 

strong, medium, granular to strong, very fine, 
blocky structm-e; moderately hard when dry,' friable 
when moist; roots fairly abundant; highly porous; 
contains occasional fragments of fine-grained, very 
sandy limestone; neutral in reaction; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 5 to 7 inches thick. 

B>, 6 to 13 inches: dark reddish-brown (SYR 3/4) fine clay 
loam or clay; strong, fine to medium, blocky and 
subangular blocky structure; blocks crush when 
moist to strong, fine granules; hard when dry, 
friable to sonuiwhat firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; roots plentiful; abimdant 
medium pores; slightly compacted at upper bound- 
ary (probably a plowsole) ; contains occasional 
fragments of sandy limestone; neutral; gradual, 
wavy V>oundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 

B22 13 to 35 inches: dark-red (2. SYR 3/6) clay; very strong, 
verj' fine to fine, blocky and subangular blocky 
structure; blocks crush when moist to ver}^ strong, 
very fine granules; hard when dry, firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; roots few to 
fairly plentiful in upper portion; abundant fine 
and medium pores; continuous self-colored clay 
skins on aggregates; clear to abrupt, irregular 
boundary; horizon is 18 to 30 inches or more tfiick. 

C 35 to 42 inches 4- : yellowish-brown to light-gray (lOYR 
5/4 to 5Y 6/1) gravelly very fine sand or loamy very 
fine sand; single-grain structure; soft to loose when 
dry, soft when moist, and nonplastic and nonsticky 
when wet; occasional roots; rapidly to very rapidly 
permeable; gravel consists of fragments of very 
fine grained sandy limestone in all stages of decom- 
position: mildly to moderately alkaline to calcareous. 

Some areas are included that are less intensely red 
than the profile described. The greatest variation in the 
soils, however, is in depth to bedrock. In some places 
the soil is very deep but is only a few feet away from 
an outcrop of the limestone. The stirface soil described 
probably inehides some sttbsoil that has been incorporated 
into the surface layer as the result of repeated plowing. 
In spite of their fine texture, the overall permeability 
of the Benevola soils is rapid because of the good strtic- 



\VASllIN(iTON COUNTY, MAH VI-A.\I) 



15 



hire. \\'lu'n' I lie soil is of iioi'iiiiil lliickncss over rock, 
the iiioisl lire sii|)|)lyin<i- capiicil v is xcry lii^Wi. 

Henevola clay loam, to .'5 percent slopes (BaA) — On 
this nearly lovcl or jiciitly slopiiiji" soil, tlicre has been 
liltlo, if any, erosion. This soil has (he profile descrihed. 
All of this soil is in use I'oi- (■ro{)s or pastures, except 
for occasional honiesites. Allh()u<>h it is not particularly 
subject to deterioration, this soil is dinicult to manage, 
except within a very narrow range of moisture content, 
because of its fine texture and its stickiness and plasticity. 
For this reason, this soil is in capability unit IIs-1. 
There are 15!) acres. 

Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (BaB2). — This soil is sloping and has bci'ii 
somewhat eroded. It can be used for all the crops com- 
monly grown, with proper erosion control and other 
management practices, without serious further damage. 
Howevei', it is difficult to handle. This soil is in capabil- 
ity miit IIe-19. There are 412 acres. 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (BaC2). — liecause of the hazard of erosion 
and the general dilKculty of management, this soil is 
in capability unit Ille-oO. There are 176 acres. 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (BaC3). — On this soil, erosion has been active and 
damaging. Because of the combination of fairly strong 
slopes and severe erosion, the 65 acres of this soil are in 
capability miit IVe-1. This soil can be cultivated in long 
rotations with hay or pastui'e most of the time, if other 
good management is practiced. 

Berks Series 

The Berks series consists of well-drained to somewliat 
excessively drained, rather shallow soils that developed 
primarily from acid shales. The soils occupy rolling 
valley floors and rather steep ridges. They are extensive 
in Washington County in the areas that iDorder Conoco- 
cheague Creek and in the ridge and valley section west 
of Fairview Mountain. In some places the shale under- 
lying the Berks soils is somewhat influenced by lime- 
stone. 

The Berks soils are somewhat similar to the INIonte- 
vallo soils in appearance, but the underlying shale is 
softer and more readily incorporated into the soil by 
plowing and cultivation than the shale mider the Monte- 
vallo soils, and it is more permeable to water and to 
roots. The Berks are also more productive than the shal- 
lower ISIontevallo soils. 

Profile of Berks shaly silt loam, ;> to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded, in a cidtivated area on Independence 
Koad, 11/4 miles northeast of Conococheague Bridge: 

Ap to 8 inches: dark-brown (lOYR 4/3) shaly silt loam; 

moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable when 
moist, and slii;htly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; roots al^undant ; strongly acid; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 9 inches thick. 

B2 8 to 13 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), shaly, 
heavy silt loam; weak, fine to medium, subangular 
blocky structure; friable when moist, and moder- 
ately plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
fairly common; abundant pores; thin, almost con- 
tinuous, self-colored clay skins; 30 to 40 percent 
shale; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 3 to inches thick. 



C 13 lo 24 inches: dark yellowish-brown dOYR 4/4), frji«- 
in(Mited, soft shale, strongly coaled with silt and clay; 
very few roots; rapidly permeable; fine material 
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irregular 
boundary; horizon is 8 to 24 inches thick. 

Dr 24 inches + : moderately hard, yellowisli-browii <»r 
l)rownish-y(;llow shale. 

Thei-e is considerable variation in I he amount of shale 
fragments in the pi-olile. Some undisturbed areas have 
very little shale in the surface soil. There is considerable 
shale in the surface layer of practically all plowed areas, 
however, because plowing to normal de[)lh almo.st in- 
variably incorporates some of the more shaly Bv horizon 
into the [)l()w layei'. 

In some places the subsoil has a slightly reddish cast, 
approaching reddish brown (5YK 5/4) in color. In place.s 
there are tliin seams of sandstone in the parent shale, 
particularly in the western part of the county. In sucli 
places the soil tends to be a little less silty than the soil 
described above, and may contain few to many flat frag- 
ments of sandstone. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (BcB2). — Most of this soil is on ridge- 
tops. It has a profile like the one described, but it is 
somew^hat less silty .and more sandy and contains 20 
percent or more of flat fragments of hard sandstone up 
to 6 inches in length. The soil contains considerable 
shale. The sandstone fragments may be present through- 
out the profile Init are generally more abimdant on and 
near the surface. On the gentle slopes the low moisture 
capacity, hence low production, of the soil is a more im- 
portant management problem than erosion. The 815 acres 
are in capability miit IIs-7. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (BcC2). — The slope of this soil is great 
enough to make risk of erosion the nmnber one manage- 
ment problem if good co\-er is itot maintained. The soil 
is also droughty and of rather low productivity, but it 
can be cultivated safely with careful management. This 
soil is perhaps better suited to hay crops and to sodded 
orchards than to clean-cultivated crops. The 879 acres 
are in capability unit IIIe-32. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (BcC3). — This soil has been seriously dam- 
aged b}' erosion. The original surface soil is nearly all 
gone, and there may l)e occasional shallow gullies. In 
this condition the soil is suited to only occasional cul- 
tivation of crops in long rotations with hay or pasture 
l)lants, or to sodded orchards. There are 104 acres, in 
capal)ility unit IVe-32. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (BcD2). — This soil is steeper than the 
otie just descrilted, but erosion has been less severe, 
largely because much of the soil has remained in forest. 
There is a strong hazard of erosion because of steepness, 
so this soil has also been placed in capability unit IVe-32. 
There are 632 acres in this county. 

Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes (BeB). — 
This soil has a profile like the one described for the se- 
ries, except that there has been practically no erosion. It 
has either been in woodland or has been especially well 
managed. Because erosion has not been serious, the 
shallowness of the soil and its low moisture-holding capa- 



16 



SOIL SUUXEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



citv iuv the juost important iiianaaciiitMii factors. There 
are 1,()()'2 acres of this soil, in capaMlity unit IlIs-:2. 

Berks shiily silt loam, .} to S percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (BeB2). — This soil has the prohU' that has 
been described in detaih Krosioii has been active, even 
thouoli slopes are not ver_y <>reat. Jiecause most of tliis 
soil is in cultivation, the erosion hazard is the most si<r- 
nificant manai:enienl pr()l)lem. Tlie soil also is thin and 
somewhat drouiihty. I'lie acres of this soil are in 

ca})al)ilit y unit II Is -J. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BeC2). — On this soil, erosion has been ac- 
tive, allhouiih not severe. The soil is suitable for i-e<>-u]ar 
culti\ation if careful ei'osion conliol is pi-acticed. Meas- 
ures to maintain fertility and umisture are also \ery im- 
portant. The I'.^iSl acres of this soil are in capability 
unit I\'e-.")'2. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BeD2). — There is such a ^ reat erosion haz- 
ard thai this soil nnist be very cai-efully mana<red and 
l)i-()tccH'd if it is lo be cult i\ ali'<i. \'ery lon<:- rotations 
with few clean-tilled ciops will be necessary if this 
soil is to be preserved. It occupies !552 acres and is in 
ca])ability unit Vie-;'). 

Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BkB2). — This soil has a i)roHle much like 
the one desciibed for the Berks series, excei)t that the 
surface soil contains fewer fra<iinenfs of shale. It is con- 
lined chielly to the ridi;v ai'eas in the western pai't of 
the county. This soil is in capability unit IIs-T. There 
are ()!)."> acres in the county. 

Berks silt loam, ridge.s, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BkC2). — Erosion on this soil has been 
oidy mo(U'i-ate, but there is definitely a strong" hazard 
of erosion. For tliis reason, the acres are [)laced in 
cai)al)ility unit lIIe-;>2. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (BkC3). — This soil has lost ni()>t of it> oi-io-- 
inal surface soil and in places some of tlie orioinal 
subsoil. It is less suitable for cultivation and requires 
much more carefid mana<i-ement than the similar, but 
only moderately eroded, soil. This soil occui)ies ;50-t acres 
and is in capability unit IVe-32. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BkD2). — This soil is steep, but it has been 
forested aiul erosion has not been severe. It can be 
cropped with very careful management. The 27.') acres 
are in capability unit IVe-32. 

Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (BoE3). — The soils of this unit are stee]) and are 
so severely eroded that few characteristics of the lierks 
series remain. The ori<xinal surface soil and some of the 
subsoil have been eroded away, and the remaining soil 
over the shale rock is only a thin, irregular mantle. Such 
soils are not suitable for crops, lender the best manage- 
ment, they may j)roduce some grazing, but their most 
suitable use is probably as reforested woodland. There 
are 82;^ acres, in capability unit Vlle-o. 

Berks soils, ridges, 30 to 60 percent slopes (BoF). — 
These are small, very steep areas of various Berks soils 
— either the silt loam, the channery loam, or the shaly 
silt loam. For the most i)art, they have I'emained in 



forest and have not been significantly damaged l)y ero- 
sion. The 3,987 acres are in capability unit VIIe-3. 

Braddock Series 

The Braddock series consists of deep, well-drained, red 
soils devel()[)ed in materials that weathered from A'ery 
old rockslides on the foot slopes of movuitains and on 
benchlike ai'eas on mountainsides. The Jiraddock soils 
ai-e gravelly, antl in a few places they are somewhat 
stony. The materials from which they have been devel- 
oped consist laig-ely of (|uarlzitic sandstone, but in many 
places there is some greenstone or metabasalt and some 
hard, white (|uart/,ite. In loral spots there is also some 
shale. 

The Braddock soils in A\'ashington ( ounty occur on 
and below the western slopes of I)lue IJidge and Flk 
Ividge. They are associated with, and in many ])laces 
ai'e mixed with, soils of the Thurmont series "that ai-e 
more yellow than I'ed. Because of this association and 
mixture, all of the Braddock soils of the county have 
been mapped in undi lierent iaf ed mapping units with 
Thurmont soils. 

Most areas are in forest, but some aiv cultivated. The 
soils are especially suited to orchards, but they can also 
be used for general crops and ])astures. They are faii-ly 
pi-oductive, but their content of gravel makes them some- 
what difiicull to handle. 

Profile of Bi'addock gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a forested area just east of 
Mount Lena Road, about 120 yards northeast of its in- 
ler.section with Kuble Road: 

A, to 4 inches: dark-l)rovvn (7.5YR 3/2) gravelly loam; 

moderate, fine, granular structure; slightly hard when 
dry, very friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; about 20 
percent gravel; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
iiorizon is 2 to 4 inches thick. 

A2 4 to 11 inches: dark-brown (lOYR 3/3), gravelly, heavy 
loam; moderate, fine, cruml) to graindar structure; 
moderately harcl when dry, friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
plentiful; many fine and medium and a few large 
pores; about 20 percent gravel; medium acid; clear, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. 

Bi 11 to 22 inches: strong-brown (7. SYR 5/6), gravelly, heavy 
loam; weak, medium, subangular iilocky structure; 
moderately hard to hard when dry, friable to moder- 
ately firm when moist, and moderately plastic and 
sticlcy when wet; roots plentiful in upper portion, 
fewer below; many fine and medium pores; 20 to 25 
percent gravel; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boun- 
darv; horizon is 8 to 14 inches thick. 

B2 22 to 38 inches: yellowish-red (SYR 4/8), gravelly, light 
sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure; hard to very hard when 
dry, firm when moist, plastic and sticky when wet; 
roots few; many fine and medium pores; about 20 
percent gravel; thin, continuous, self-colored clay coats 
on aggregates and in pores and root channels; very 
strongly acid; gradual, smooth to wavy boundary; 
horizon is 14 to 28 inches thick. 

B3 38 to 46 inches: yellowish-red (5Y'R 5/8), gravelly, very 
gritty sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, blocky 
structure; hard when dry, friable to firm when moist, 
plastic and sticky when wet; roots few; many fine and 
medium pores; about 20 percent gravel; thick, red 
clay skins in pores and in root channels and on some 
aggregate surfaces, with black films on other surfaces; 
extremely acid; gradual, wavy boundary; horizon is 
8 to 12 inches thick. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHYLAN'I) 



17 



C 4() to 00 inches | : yollowisli-rcd (SYR 5/f)) nmvclly 
.siiiuly clay, .soiiicwliut variof?!itc(l svitli faint rcddisii- 
ycllow spots and streaks; very weak, coarse, hlocky 
structure; hard to very luird when dry, frial)le to firm 
when moist, and plastic and moderately sticky when 
wet; a few large tree roots; many fiiu- and medium 
l)()res; ai)out 40 percent gravel; some l)lack films on 
aggregates and on gravel; extremely acid. 

The Briuldock soils vary soniewliat in conhMit of <fr!ivel 
and in color. Sonii' areas are somcwliat cohhly, particu- 
larly those alono; (lraina«ie\vays. The Hraddock soils 
may be even more red than the rei)resentalive profile 
described. More frequently the \ariation is toward the 
yellow side, where (he soil (grades to soils of the 'J'hnr- 
inont series. Tliese soils in many places have a sort of 
landslide topoiii'aphy with complex or brok'en slopes. 

Braddock and Thurmont siJivelly loams, .} to S per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (BrB2). — riiis unit in- 
cludes the Hiaddock soil that has been described in de- 
tail, alon^- with some areas of Thurmont oravelly loam 
with similar slope and erosion. It ()ccu[)ies the least 
slopino- areas; there are practically no really level areas. 
There has been some erosion on most of tlie soil, but some 
small areas are included where (here has been no erosion. 
Fairly oood crops, especially orchard crops, can be o-rown 
with reasonably ^-ood inanao'ement. Because of (he haz- 
ard of erosion, however, the 575 acres of this unit are in 
capability unit lie— f. 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (BrC2). — Because of the 
de^rree of slope, "ood manaoemen( must be practiced if 
this soil is to be cultivated safely. Xearly all crops can 
be grown if they are in suitable rotadons. The soil is 
especially sui(ed to orchards and ben-y plantings. The 
507 acres are in capability unit Ille— 1. 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 to 25 
percent slopes (BrD). — These are the steepest Braddock 
and Thui-mont soils. There has been active erosion on 
only a few acres. The rest of the acreage was in forest, 
which protecied (he soil against erosion. These areas 
could be culti\'ated wi(h very careful management. This 
soil occupies only 7-t acres. It is in capability unit IYe-3. 

Brinkerton Series 

The Brinkerion series consists of poorly drained soils 
in areas of acid shale, particularly within large areas 
of soils of the Berks and Afontevallo series. The Brinker- 
ton soils occur in tipland depressions around drainage 
heads, and along narrow foot slopes ])ordering small 
drains. They were developed in fine materials that were 
washed down from the surrounding areas of shale soils. 
The Brinkerton soils have an extremely fine textured and 
strongly mottled, bluish or greenish stibsoil, which is an 
indication of poor aeration and drainage. They occur 
only in small, sca((ered areas. 

Profile of Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
in a paslured area just o(T Walnut Point Road, about 
one-fourth mile sottth of Jones Chapel : 

Ap to 7 inches: dark-brown to olive-brown (lOYR 3/3 to 
2.5Y 4/4) silt loam: moderate, medium to coarse, 
crumb structure; hard to very hard when dry, fri- 
able when moist, and moderately plastic and moder- 
ately sticky when wet; roots plentiful; medium acid; 



(tleiir to abrupt, smooth to slightly wavy boundary; 
hori/on is 5 to 7 inches thick. 

Bju 7 to 15 inches: light oliv(?-brown f2.5Y 5/4) shaly silty 
clay loam; about 30 jjcrccnt medium, distinct mot- 
tles of liglit olive gray (5Y 0/2); strong, medium, 
blocky structure; v(;ry harfi whr^ii flry, firm to v(fry 
firm when moist, and ])lastic and sticky wlx-n wet; 
roots rather few; many fine but few larger fjoros; 
shglitly acid; gradual, wavy to irr<;gular boundary; 
horizon is to 9 inches thick. 

I^i'.'iK 15 to 31 inches: clay, evenly mottled with coarse, di.s- 
liiict sj)lotches of gray and olive brown f5Y 0/1 and 
2.5^' .5/0); very strong, coarse, blocky structure; 
v(!ry hard when dry, very firm wh(!ii moist, and very 
])lastic and very sticky when wet; a very few fine 
roots; only a f(!W very fine, visible pores; medium 
acid; abrupt, irregular boundary; horizon is 10 to 
18 inches thick. 

C,g 31 to 42 inches +: greenish-blue to robin's-egg blue 
very fine clay; about 5 percent small specks and 
narrow streaks of rusty brown; compound, weak, 
very coarse, platy and weak, medium, blocky struc- 
ture; v-ery hard when dry, very firm when moist, and 
very plastic and very sticky when wet; a few scat- 
tered, single, fine roots; very slowly permeable, with 
no visible pores except for the widely spaced fine 
root channels; blue color almost coniplet(?ly fades to 
light gray on drying; neutral. 

Most areas are more acid than the one described, wliich 
was undoubtedly limed. Bltiish or greenish colors always 
appear in the sul)stratum but may not be so s(rong as in 
the profile described, and (he subsoil may not every- 
where be so fine. Although draimige is poor and the soil 
may be wet for long periods, the moisture-supplying 
capacity of this soil is rather low. In many locations 
there is temporary flooding during ])eriods of very heavy 
or ])rolonged rains. 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes (BtB). — 
This is the otily IW-inkertoii soil mapped in the cotmty. 
This soil has (he profile tha( has been described in detail. 
Althotigli some slo[)es are as steep as 8 percent, most of 
this soil is nearly level to slightly depressed. Erosion is 
generally not a problem, but a few strongly sloping 
spots have some rills or a few^ shallow gullies. The great- 
est problem in managing this soil is that of drainage antl 
wetness. For this reason, the 236 acres of this soil are in 
capability tmit IIIw-1. 

Buchanan Series 

The Buchanan series consists of moderately well 
drained soils that have a platy fragipan in the lower 
stibsoil. These soils were de^-eloped in gravelly colluvial 
deposits on the lower slopes of low mountains. The 
parent material consists of fine-grained, acid sandstone 
and, in a few [)laces, some acid sliale. Seeps and wet- 
weather springs are fairly common. 

These soils are rather low in productivity and are little 
tised in the county except for forests. Cleared areas can 
be used for general crops, btit there are many idle areas. 
Little acreage is used for orchards or pasttires. The 
Buchanan soils are not extensive in the county, occurring 
mostly in small, widely scattered areas that amount to 
less than 1,600 acres. Of this, approximately 600 acres 
have been cleared, and the rest remains in forest. 

Profile of Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent 
slopes, in a forested area jttst east of Long Eidge Road, 
two-tenths of a nnle south of its intersection with LT.S. 



18 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Highway No. 40, on the lower western slope of Tonolo- 
way liidge : 

A, to '2 inches: black (lOYIl 2/1), highly organic gravelly 
loam; weak, fine, crumb structure; soft to very 
sHghtly hard when dry, very friable when moist, 
and very slightly plastic but nonsticky when wet; 
matted with fine roots; gravel consists chiefly of 
angular sandstone; strongly acid; clear to abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 1 to 2 inches thick. 

.•\., 2 to 7 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), gravelly, 
heavy loam; moderate, coarse, crutnb structure; 
moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, ancl 
slightly jjlastic and slightly sticky wlien wet; roots 
})lentiful; abundant fine and medium pores; very 
strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon is 
3 to 8 inches thick. 

B21 7 to 18 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 0/0), somewhat 
gravelly silty clay loam; strong, fine, subangular 
blocky structure; hard when dry, moderately firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
rather few; many fine and some medium ])ores; very 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 3 to 
12 inches thick. 

B22,n 18 to 34 inches: light yc^llowish-brown (2.5Y G/4) clay 
loam; about 40 percent medium, distinct mottles of 
r(>ddish yellow (7.5Y11 6/0); comj)ound, moderate, 
medium, platy and strong, fine, subangular blocky 
structure; very hard when dry, firm but brittle 
when moist, and jjlastic and sticky when wet; no 
visible roots; many fine but few large ])ores; very 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 12 
to 20 inches thick. 

C 34 to 00 inches -f : disintegrated sandstone and shale 
with some silt and clay of intricately mixed, dark 
yellowish-brown and black colors; very weak, coarse, 
platy structure; moderately hard when dry, firm 
when moist, and slightly plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; no roots; verv strongly acid. 

Nearly all areas of Buchanan soils are gi'avelh', but 
in places the gravel content is low. Thei"e is generally 
more gravel in the surface layer than in the subsoil. The 
map indicates some stones in places and also some small 
spots that are wetter than normal. In places the upper 
subsoil is tliin or almost lacking, and in these areas the 
mottled, platy lower subsoil is generally within about 
10 inches of the surface. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes (BuA). — 
This soil has the prolile tliat has been described, and 
includes the best areas of Buchanan soils in the county. 
Slopes are not strong and erosion is not a great hazard, 
but the soil tends to be rather wet on these more level 
areas. The 77 acres of this soil are in capability miit 
IIw-1, and most of the acreage is cidtivated. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BuB2). — On this soil, erosion lias been 
rather active. The slopes drain better than the more 
level areas, so erosion is a greater hazard than wetness. 
The 866 acres are in capability unit IIe-13. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (BuC2). — Erosion is a serious hazard on 
this soil. Crops can be grown with suitable rotations and 
careful management. There are 562 acres, in capabilitv 
unit IIIe-13. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (BuD2). — This is the steepest Buchanan 
soil. In most places the soil is still forested. In the few- 
spots that have been cleai'ed, cultivation is hazardotis un- 
less special protective measures are taken. The 86 acres 
are in capability unit IVe-9. 



Calvin Series 

The Calvin series consists of shallow to moderately 
deep, very well drained soils develoiK'd in materials that 
weathered from acid, red shale, with some inclusions 
of acid, red sandstone. The Cahiii soils are in the 
western part of the county, generally along with soils 
of the Berks, Litz, and Montevallo series. 

The Calvin soils in some places have w'ell-defined 
boundaries, but in many places they are so intricately 
mixed with soils of the Berks or Montevallo series that 
they cannot be sei)arated on the soil map. Such areas 
of mixed soils are known as soil complexes. 

Most areas of Calvin soils are still in forest, but some 
have been cleared for general crops, orchards, or pastures. 

Profile of Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded, in a forest 50 yards we.st of Rice 
Koad, about six-tenths of a mile south of the Pennsylvania 
State line : 

Ai to 1 inch: very dark brown (lOYR 2/2) channery loam; 

weak to moderate, fine, granular structure; soft when 
dry, very friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; contains 
about 15 percent flat fragments of hard sandstone and 
some shale; medium acid; abrupt, irregular boundary; 
horizon is ]2 inch to 2 inches thick. 

.^2 1 to 3 inches: reddish-brown (SYR 4/4) channery loam; 

weak, medium, granular to crumb structure; slightly 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and moderately 
plastic and moderately sticky when wet ; roots plentiful; 
about 30 percent sandstone, with some shale: strongly 
acid; gradual, irregular boundary; horizon is 2 to 4 
inches thick. 

As 3 to 9 inches: reddish-brown Cl.^Wi 5/4) very channery 
loam; moderate, fine, subangular blocky structure; 
hard wlien dry, friable to firm when moist, and moder- 
ately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots 
rather ])lentiful; contains 40 to 50 percent flat, stone 
fragments; very strongly acid; gradual to clear, ir- 
regular boundary; horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. 

B2 9 to 21 inches: red (2.5YR 5/6), channery, heavy loam or 
light silt loam; moderate, medium to coarse, blocky 
and subangular blocky structure; very hard when dry, 
firm when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; 
few roots; many fine and medium pores; some clay 
skins in pores and on aggregates; very strongly acid; 
clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

Ci 21 to 31 inches: variegated yellowish-red and reddish- 
yellow (SYR 4/6 and 0/8) channery silt loam and 
decomposed shale; inherited, coarse, laminar struc- 
ture; hard when dry, firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; practically no roots: very 
strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; 
horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

C2 31 to 42 inches +: reddish-yellow (SYR 0/6), partially 
decomposed shale with some hard sandstone; about 
10 percent fine, illuvial material; fine material sticky 
and plastic when wet; no roots; very strongly acid. 

The depth to the substratum ranges from about 12 to 
nearly 30 inches, with the average 18 to 20 inches. In some 
1)1 aces the surface layer is slightly more sandy than that in 
the profile describee!. Slopes are complex in some places, 
but they are smooth and simple in most areas. The 
Calvin soils are so well drained that they may be droughty 
in periods of limited rainfall. 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (CaB2). — This soil has a profile 
like the one described as representative of the Calvin 
series, except that the channery surface soil is fine sandy 
loam and the subsoil is somewhat more friable than 
the one described. Because of the sandiness, the soil tends 



WASmN(;TON COrNTV, MAliVLANI) 



19 



(() l)c' soiiicwlmt (li-()u<ilit y, but the lia/.ard of cr'osioii is 
])r()l)iil)Iy the most import ivnt maiiii<;iMn('nt problem. Near- 
ly all of this soil occurs in the vicinity of Exline in the 
extreme western part of the county. It is used for all 
cro])s, but appears to be especially desirable for peach 
and api)le orchards. The '27(5 acres are in capabilitv unit 
Ile-lO. 

Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (CcB2). — This soil has a prolile like the 
one described. Areas of it make up most of tlie culti- 
vated Calvin channery loams. Much of it is in forest. 
Because of actual or ]wtential erosion, this soil is in 
capability unit Ile-ld. There are 890 acres in the county. 

Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (CcC2). — A prolile of this soil is (Icscrilied 
as represent at i\e of the series. On these slopes erosion is 
a serious hazard. The 1,978 acres are in capability unit 
I He 10. 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to .30 percent slopes (CcD). — 
All but a few of the ()51 acres of this soil are still heavily 
forested; hence, there has been little, if any, erosion. 
Tiie slopes ai'e great enough, however, so that any at- 
tempted cultivation would be hazardous. For this reason, 
tliesoil is i)laced in cai)ability unit IVe-lO. 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (CcD2). — This soil is like the one just de- 
.scribed, except that there has been active erosion. It is 
still suitable for some cultivation, however, if it is care- 
fullv managed and protected. The 224 acres are in capa- 
bility unit IVe-10. 

Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes (CcE). — 
Here are 859 acres that are steep but have not been eroded. 
Most of the acreage is in forest and probably should 
remain so. If cleared, it would be suitable for carefully 
controlled grazing and perhaps for occasional hay crops. 
It is in capability nnit VIe-3. 

Calvin channery loam, 4.5 to 60 percent slopes (CcF). — 
This is the steepest Calvin channery loam; the areas 
are in forest and shoidd remain so. They are much too 
steep for safe cultivation, and growing hay or pasture 
would be hazardous and impractical. The 156 acres are 
in caiiability unit VIIe-3. 

Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (CmB2). — The profile of this Calvin soil is like the 
one described in detail, except that the coarse fragments 
ai'e almost entirely shale, and there ai"e very few, if any, 
flat pieces of hard, red sandstone in the surface layer. 
There may be some sandstone in the soil and substratum, 
however. This soil occupies only 189 acres, but the areas 
of it are important where they occur. Even on these 
fairly gentle slopes, there is some erosion hazard. The soil 
is classified in capability unit IIIs-2. 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (CmC2). — Erosion has been active on this Cal- 
vin soil. If the soil is managed carefully, some cultivated 
crops may be safely grown in fairly long rotations. This 
soil is in capability unit IVe-32. There are 126 acres in 
the county. 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (CmC3). — On this soil, erosion luxs been so seveiv 
that cultivated crops should be grown only occasionally, 
and the soil should be in sod crops, such as hay or jiasture, 
most of the time. Included with this shaly soil are some 



Id acres llial are somewhat cliaiiiiery in the surface layer. 
All of tlie MS acres of (his soil ai-e in capabilily luiit 
\'ie 3. 

Calvin shaly loam, 20 to .30 percent slopes (CmD). — 
This ste(>p soil is not ei'oded, because the areas of it have 
been well i)i-o(ecled by foi-ests. If it were cultivated, 
however, (he ei-osion luizard would be gi-ea(. The ]]2 
aci-es of this soil are in capability unit Vie-.'}. 

Calvin shaly loam, .30 to 45 percent slopes (CmE). — 
Although Iheri' has been little oi' ik) erosion on (his 
soil, cultivation should not be attempted. The soil could 
produce pasture, and grazing or hay crops could be 
attempted if managed carefully enough. There ai-e 204 
acres, in capability unit VlIe-3. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (CnB2). — This soil mapping unit and 
the next four described consist of mixtui'es of the reddish- 
brown to red Calvin chaniu'iy loam and the yelloAvish- 
brown Berks channery loam. The areas of Calvin and of 
Berks soils in these units are distinct enough, but they are 
so small and intricately mixed that separation on the map 
was impractical. The most gentle and least ei'oded slopes 
of the complex are in this soil unit, whicli lias an area of 
1,565 acres and is in capability unit IIs-7. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (CnC2). — This mixtui-e of Calvin and 
Berks soils occupies 2,798 acres and is in capability unit 
IIIe-32. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 3 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (CnC3). — In this mixture of channery 
loams, there are some small spots of shaly loams. The 
soils have been too severely eroded for cultivation, except 
in very long rotations with especially good management 
and protection. The ai-eas can be used safely for hay 
crops and pasture or for sodded orchards. The 320 acres 
in the county are in capability unit IVe-32. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (CnD2). — Most of the areas of 
this mapping unit have remained in forest, and, although 
there has been some erosion, it has not been severe. Be- 
cause of the slope, the hazard of erosion would be great 
if cultivation were attempted. Therefore, the 1,289 acres 
are in capability unit IVe-32. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 30 to 60 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (CnF2). — These very steep soils occupy 
1,315 acres. Woodland would be the safest use. The soils 
are in capability unit ^TIe-3. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (CoB2). — This unit and the 
next four described are intricate mixtures of Calvin shaly 
loam and Montevallo shaly loam. On these shaly and 
dominantly thin soils, erosion is l^s of a management 
problem than droughtiness and low fertility. The 103 
acres of this mapping unit are in capability unit IIIs-2. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 10 to 20 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (CoC2). — Slopes of these soils 
are great enough that erosion is the most significant man- 
agement problem. The soils are also thin and droughty. 
There are 178 acres in capability unit IVe-32. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (CoD2). — Because of the slope 
and the great hazard of erosion, cultivation of this 
mapping unit is hazardous. Some grazing can be done 



20 



SOIL SUHVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



if it is caivfully inaniiat'd and coiil rolled. Tlio H').') acres 
are in cajjahilil y iiiiil •">. 

Caivin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 45 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (CoE3). — Little surface soil is left 
on these stt'ej), severely eroded areas, and there are many 
^•allies. In some places almost all the soil has been iv- 
iiioved by erosion. These areas ai'e of little value in a<i-i-i- 
culture, except for reforestation. 'Die i;)4 acres aic in 
capability unit VJIe-;'). 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 30 to (iO percent 
slopes (CoF). — Tliese are steep areas that ha\e not been 
eioded. because they remained almost entirely in forest. 
They are too steep for cultivation or for practical <ri'a/>in<>- 
and should remain in forest. There are 255 acres, in 
capability unit \'Ile-;5. 

Chandler Series 

Till" Chandler series consists of moderately deep, \v(dl- 
drained to somewhat excessively drained soils that have 
a weakly de\elopt'd horizon. The (Chandler soils de- 
veloped in materials that weathered from |)hyHite, a 
fine-iii'ained, metamorphosed schist containin<:- consider- 
able mica. These soils are on fairly steep uplands and 
low mountains in the southern part of the county. They 
are mostly in the area just north of Harpers Feri-y. 

The (Miandler soils are commoidy associated with the 
Hazel soils, which are even shallower to bedi-ock. They 
occnpy less than 1,000 acres. 

A ii'ood part of the acreage has been cleared and is used 
for <ienei"al farmin<:' and foi- orchards. These soils are 
extremely subject to ei'osion and nuist be very cand'ully 
managed. 

I'rotile of Chandler chaiuiery silt loam, () to 10 percent 
slopes, in a foi'ested area two-tenths of a mile west of 
Harpers Ferry Road, about three-tenths of a mile 
south of its intersection with Tlotfnuister Koad : 

An to 1 inch: very dark grayisli-browii (lOYR 3/2) chun- 
nery silt loam; moderate, fine, cniiiib structure: soft 
when diy, very friable when moist, slightly i)lastic 
and slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; about 
10 percent phyllite fragments: neutral; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is '2 to 1 inch thick. 

A12 1 to 3 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) channery silt 
loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure: moder- 
ately hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly 
plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; 
many fine and medium pores: about 25 percent stone 
fragments: slightly acid: clear, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 

A3 3 to 9 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6), channery, 
heavy silt loam or light silty clay loam: weak, 
medium, subangular blocky structure; moderately 
hard to hard when dry, moderately firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; roots rather plenti- 
ful; many fine and some medium and larger pores; 
about 20 ])ercent stone fragments; very strongly acid; 
clear, irregular boundarv; horizon is 5 to 10 inches 
thick. 

Ci 9 to 24 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6) very chan- 
nery silt loam: inherited laminar structure; moder- 
ately hard when dry, firm when moist, and moderately 
plastic and sticky when wet; few roots; many fine 
and medium and some large pores; 60 to 70 percent 
stone fragments of all sizes, mostly well disintegrated; 
very strongly acid: gradual, irregular boundary; hori- 
zon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

C2 24 to 48 inches + : yellow (lOYR 7/6) mass of partially 
decomposed fragments of phyllite; hard when dry, 



\ cry firm and coin])acl when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and slightly sticky when W(>t ; a few large; tree 
roots; rather slowly i)erineable; about S5 to 95 ])er- 
cent stone fragments, the remainder fine materiiU 
with abundant mica flakes; extremely acid; verj' 
thick, grading with depth to hard, gray, greenish- 
gray, and yellowish-gray phyllite. 

There is considerable range in dej)th to parent material. 
In some spots the subsoil has a reddish cast but is other- 
\\ ise like that of the soil described. There are occasional 
stones, flagstones, or large slabs of phyllite on and within 
the soil. Some areas are almost free from stone fragments 
in the surface layer, thus are silt loam rather than chan- 
nei'v silt loam in texture. These areas are not shown 
separately on the soil maj), so all of the Chandler soils 
are imditferentiated nnits of Chandler silt loam and 
channery silt loam. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, to 10 
percent slopes (CrB). — This is the soil described above, 
except that in some areas there are very few, if any, ])ieces 
of phyllite in the surface layei'. This miit includes only 
gently sloj)ing soils that ha\e had little, if any, erosion, 
and they can be cidtivated safely with good management,. 
Tlic No acres are in ca])abilily unit He ill. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 10 
percent slopes, moderately eroded (CrB2). — Erosion has 
been acti\-e on the areas of this mapping unit. Better 
management and longer rotations are re(iuired for safe 
cidtivation than on the similar mieioded soil. The 360 
acres are in ca])ability tniit He-lo. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 10 to 20 
percent slopes, moderately eroded (CrC2). — These slop- 
ing soils are subject to erosion. Hotations must be long 
for safe cidtivation, with oidy infre(]uent row cro])s in 
the cropping system and with long periods of sod croj)S, 
such as hay, ])asture, or sodded orchards. The 342 acres 
of this mapping luiit aiv in ca])ability imit IVe-10. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 20 to 30 
percent slopes (CrD). — iiecause these soils have remained 
in forest cover, they have not been eroded. It would be 
best to keep them in forest, although they could be grazed 
with care after establishment of a good sod. The 07 acres 
are in capability unit VIe-3. 

Chewacla Series 

The Chewacla series consists of modertitely well drained 
soils on recent alluvial deposits along some of the smaller 
streams. The soils consist of materials that were washed 
originally from areas of soils developed from crystalline 
rocks — in Washington County mainly from soils of the 
Myersville, Fauquier, Highfield, Chandler, and Hazel 
series. 

Because the Chewacla soils consist of recently deposited 
materials, there has not been sufficient time for the de- 
A'elopment of a B horizon in tliem. They are on the same 
flood plains as the well-drained Congaree soils and the 
poorly drained Wehadkee soils. 

]Most areas of Chewacla soils are small, and many of 
them have not been cleared. When cleared, they are 
used mostly for pasture and hay crops, Init corn and other 
general crops are sometimes grown. 



WASI TON COIIXTV, MAHVLAM) 



21 



Prolilc of ( "licw ;icl;i sill loam, in a pasdircd area on 
the Mood plain of a small creek 1 mile iiorlli of Darjiaii. 
just oil' the Ilai pei-s Kerry Koad : 

A|, t(i S iiu'lu's: (lark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam; 

weak, iiiediimi, cruiiil) structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and sligiitly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots aijundani; strongly 
acid; clear, smooth boundarv; horizon is (1 to 8 inches 
thick. 

C 8 to 33 inches: light oli\-e-brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt loam; 

al)out 15 percent very small specks of gray; moderate, 
medium, crumb structure; moderately hard when dry, 
somewhat firm when moist, and moderately plastics 
and sticky when wet; roots ])lentiful in upper portion, 
fewer below; many fine and medium |)ores; very 
strongly acid; abrui)t, smooth to wavy boiuidary; 
horizon is 20 to 30 inclies thick. 

Dk 33 to 42 inches | : ])ale-olive (5Y 4) gnuclly sandy 
loam; about 30 j)ercent medium, distinct mottles of 
brown, yellow, and gray; moderate, medium, i)laty 
structure; hard when dry, moderately firm when 
moist, and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; no roots; moderately slowly permeable to slowly 
permeable; aljout 20 jjcrcent waterworn gravel; ex- 
tremely acid; grades with depth to gravelly sandy 
material. 

The text lire of the surface layer ranges from sandy loam 
to silt loam in the series, and there are gravelly and 
stony phases. Some areas are somewhat more brown 
than the profile described, especially where the soil mate- 
rials originated in areas of reddish soils, such as the 
Fauqnier. The Chewacia soils are not too poorly drained 
for many crops, but they are limited in crop production 
by the tendency to be flooded. The water table will vary, 
and in wet seasons it is likely to be near the surface for 
considei'al)le jieriods. 

Chewacia gravelly sandy loam (Cs). — This soil is like 
the one described, except that the surface layer is sandier 
and there is consideral)le waterworn gravel throughout. 
The soil is used mostly for late corn or for pasture and hay. 
It is in capability unit IIw-7, but, if very frequently 
damaged by flooding, it shoidd be managed for grazing or 
perennial sod crops. The soil occu])ies 20G acres. 

Chewacia silt loam (Ct). — This soil has the profile that 
has been described. It occupies nearly level flood plains. 
It is in capability unit IIw-7, but should be managed 
for sod crops and grazing if damaged by frequent over- 
flows. Only an examination of eacli area of these soils 
and a consideration of their known liistoi v can deteriuine 
whether or imt there is frequent overflow damage. This 
information cannot be shown on the soil maps. There 
are oil acres of this soil. 

Chewacia stony silt loam (Cu). — This soil is on nai row 
flood plains, mostly along the western slopes of South 
Mountain between Pen ^lar and Pondsville. It consists 
largely of local alluvium Avashed down from adjacent 
slopes that are generally occupied by stony Highfield or 
Fauquier soils. Stones and, in some places, boulders are 
so conunon that no attempt to farm this soil has been 
made. Included in these flood ])lains are small areas 
somewhat better drained than normal, and also some wet 
spots. The 157 acres of this soil are in capability unit Vs-2. 

Congaree Series 

The Congaree series consists of deep, well-drained soils 
on recent alluvium of the flood plains. These deposits con- 
sist of out wash from ai-eas of soils on crystalline rocks. 



I'lie (Ongaree soils are mostly in I lie soutlieni pari of 
I he coiiniy near Harpers Fei'i-y. On the same flood plains 
aic the modei'ately well drained ('liewacja soils and I lie 
pooily drained ^^'l'Iladkee soils. 

The Congaree soils are of very little e.xteiil or iiii- 
porlaiice in W'ashiiigloii Counly. .Mlliongh they are good 
soils, they occupy very small and narrow areas, and 
amount to less than 100 acres. l>otli the silt loam and the 
gravelly loam occur, but, because; of their ncit small 
extent, they are mapped togclhcr as ( 'oiigaree sill loam 
and gravell,y loam. 

Profile of Congaree sill loam, in a foresied area just off 
Shinan Koad, IVi niiles nort liw est of its >ont h intersect ion 
with Harpers Ferry Koad: 

A| to 5 inches: dark-brown (lOYIl 4/3) silt loam; weak, fine 
to medium, crumb structure; slightly to moderately 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly pla.stic 
and slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; slightly 
acid to neutral; gradual, smooth boundary; horizon 
is 4 to 7 inches thick. 

C 5 to 39 inches: dark yellowisii-i)r(jwn (lOYR 4'4) silt loam 
or heavy fine sandy loam; no apparent structure; 
slightly hard when dry, friable to very friable when 
moist, and moderately plastic but iionsticky when wet; 
roots plentiful in uj)per portion; moderately per- 
meable; contains a few mica flakes; slightly acid; 
clear to abrupt, smooth tjoundary; horizon is 30 to 
40 inches tliiek. 

D 39 to 48 inches +: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) , stratified 
sand, silt, and gravel; no structure; consistence var- 
iable; no roots; many mica flakes; strongly acid. 

Some profiles of Congaree soils are a little more reddish, 
particularly in the upper C horizon, than the one de- 
scribed. Gravel may be present throughout the profile. 
These soils are well drained and of fairly high fertility 
and moisture-supplying capacity. However, many areas 
in Washington County are so small that they have not 
been cleared for use. 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam (Cv). — The Con- 
garee soils are in capability unit I-(). These soils are 
suitable for nearly all crops. They do have a hazard of 
flooding, but are flooded very infref[uently, and corn 
and other crops can be planted after the danger of flood- 
ing has passed. There are only 86 acres of these soils 
in the county. 

Corydon Series 

Tlie Corydcm series consists of shallow soils developed 
from limestone of various degrees of i)urity in the Great 
Valley of Washington County. The Coi-ydon soils gen- 
erally are on long ridges somewhat above most of the 
valley. They are young soils, shallow to bedrock, and 
many areas are rocky to extremely rocky because of the 
many outcrops of limestone. 

Corydon soils diifer from the Hagerstown soils of the 
same valley. They are much less red than the Hagerstown 
soils, have a nutch more weakly developed profile, and 
are invariably shallow to bedrock. The Hagerstown soils 
are normally deep. 

The Corydon soils are itsed extensively for pasture. 
Where there are few or no outcrops of limestone, they 
are sometimes used for general cro})S. but they tend to 
be droughty because of their shallow depth over the rock. 



22 



SOIL SUK\'EY SERIES 19 5 9, NO. 17 



Pi'olilc ol" CorvdoH clay loniu, lo l) ptTcont sloj)es, 
in an area of cntover forest about 200 ysirds west of 
Fairview Church Koad, three-tenths of a mile south of 
the Pennsylvania State line: 

Ai to 4 inches: dark-brown (7. SYR 3/2) clay loam or heavy 
silty clay loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; 
moderately hard to hard when dry, friable to some- 
what firm when moist, and moderately plastic and 
sticky wiien wet; roots abundant; slightly acid; clear 
to abrupt, smooth to wavy boundary; horizon is 1 
to 4 incln^s thick. 

B2 4 to 13 inches: strong-brown (7. SYR 5/8) clay loam, very 
slightly variegated or variable in color; moderate, 
medium to strong, blocky structure; very hard when 
dry, firm when moist, and [)lastic and sticky when 
wet; roots rather plentiful; many fine but few large 
I)ores; slightly acid; abru()t, wavy to irregular bound- 
ary; horizon is 2 to 12 inches thick. 
•C 13 to 14 inches: variegated reddish and yellowish to lUmost 
white, structureless gritty clay; very hard when dry, 
firm when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; 
mildly alkaline; abrupt, irregular to l)roken boundary; 
horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 

Dr 14 inches +: hard, dark-gray limestone containing many 
fine ([uartz im])urities. 

Tliere is rather great variability in the (yorydon soils. 
Colors ranoe from yellowish throuah hi'owii to almost 
red, and depth ranges from practically none to as muc-h 
as 20 inches or more. Either the A, H, or C horizon may 
be absent in places, especially the C horizon, where the 
subsoil rests abruptly on bedrock. The limestone bedrock 
may be fairly pure or may contain consideral)le chert or, 
in places, shale. 

The Corydon soils are well drained, and the very 
shallow areas are excessively drained. They tend to be 
droughty, and have a low or very low moisture-suppl3'ing 
capacity. Tliey are fertile enough and would be i)roductive 
if moisture deficiences could be corrected. 

Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes (CwA). — 
This is the best soil of the Corydon series in the county. 
It has the prolile described. There are few outcrops of 
limestone. Tlie clay loam surface soil tends to be rather 
hard and intractible when only sliglitly too dry, and sticky 
and plastic and tends to form clods if it is i)lowed 
when slightly too wet. Even at optimum moisture content, 
the soil is difficult to plow and cultivate. The 309 acres 
of this soil are classified in capability unit IIIs-2. 

Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (CwB2). — The slope of this clayey soil is great 
enough that runoff is fairly rapid. The resuUing erosion 
hazard is probably of more significance than the difficulty 
of handling, although that problem is also an important 
one. The 1,000 acres of this soil are in capability unit 
IIIe-30. 

Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (CwC2). — This soil tends to be shallower than 
the more gently slo2)ing Corydon soils. There is greater 
danger of erosion, and there may be more outcrops of 
rock. With very good management, crops can be grown, 
although most of this soil is used for pasture. The 200 
acres are in capability unit IVe-1. 

Corydon extremely rocky clay loam, to 15 percent 
slopes (CxC). — This soil has a profile like the one described 
in detail, but there are extremely numerous outcrops of 
limestone. These outcrops and extremely shallow areas 
occupy as much as 90 percent of the surface in many 
places. Tillage of any kind is out of the question, and the 



surface is too rocky for mowing, except by hand. Best 
uses of this soil would be for woodlots or for very limited 
grazing. The 405 acres are in capability unit Vlls-l. 

Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (CyE2). — This soil has a pi'olile like 
the Corydon clay loam described, but it has many outcrops 
of limestone and areas of thin soil over bedrock. It is not 
nearly so rocky, however, as (he Corydon extremely rocky 
clay loam ; in most places between 25 to 40 percent of the 
surface is affected by rock. Erosion has been active in 
many places. Tillage is not imj)ossible, but, because of the 
rocks, steep sloi)e, aiul erosion hazard, it is generally im- 
practical. The soil is best suited to pasture or woodland 
and is in capability unit VIs-1. There are 857 acres. 

Dekalb Series 

The Dekalb series consists of excessively drained, ex- 
tremely acid, shallow, stony soils on light-colored, quartz- 
it ic .sandstone in high pai'ts of the county. 

Profile of Dekalb very stony saiuly loam. to 25 per- 
cent slopes, in a forested ai'ea near the sununit of Sideling 
Hill, on Eiser Road three-tenths of a mile south of its 
intersection with U.S. Highway No. 40: 

Ai to 1/2 inch: black (lOYR 2/1) very stony sandy loam; 

weak, fine, granular structure; soft when dry, very 
friable when moist, and nonijlastic and nonsticky 
when wet; roots plentiful; very strongly acid; abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is to 1 incli thick. 

A2 1/2 to 1 inch: dark-gray (SY 4/1) very stony sandy loam; 

single-grain structure; very low density with ashy 
appearance; soft and floury when dry, loose when 
moist, and noii])lastic and nonsticky when wet; roots 
plentiful; very rapidly permeable; extremely acid; 
abrupt, wavy boundary; liorizon is to 1 inch thick. 

B 1 to 15 inches: yellow (lOYR 7/6) very stony and very 
channery sandy loam; very weak, medium crumb to 
granular structure; soft to very slightly hard when 
dry, loose to very h'iable when moist, and nonplastic 
and nonsticky when wet; a few large, woody roots; 
very rapidly permeable; 50 to 70 percent stones and 
flagstones of c(uartzitic sandstone; extremely acid; 
gradual, irregular boundarv; horizon is 10 to 20 inches 
thick. 

C 15 to 43 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6), extremely 
channery and stony loamy sand or gritty sandy loam; 
no structure; loose when dry or moist, and nonplastic 
and nonsticky when wet; a very few woody roots; 
very rapidly to extremely permeable; ranges from 
about 70 percent rock fragments in upper part to 
almost solid rock at 43 inches; extremely acid; grad- 
ual to abrupt, irregular to broken boimdarv; horizon 
is 2 to 6 feet thick. 

Dr 43 inches -|- : very hard, light-colored, quartzitic sand- 
stone. 

Either of the surface layers may be ab.sent, more often 
the Aj horizon. Both are absent in cultivated or eroded 
areas. In places there is a very thin, dark-brown, stained 
layer at the upper boundary of the B horizon. This is 
a distinct soil horizon, but, when present, it is seldom 
as nmch as one-fourth inch thick. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, to 25 
percent slopes (DeD). — This mapping unit consists of both 
Dekalb and Leetonia very stonj' sandy loams. These soils 
are not suited to crops or pasture. Most of the areas are 
in forest, and foi-estry is probably their most economic 
use. There are 1,762 acres, in capability unit VIIs-2. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 25 to 
45 percent slopes (DeE). — On these steep soils the manage- 



"WASIIIN'GTOX rorXTV. MAini.AM) 



23 



ment ol' i hhIht is diHicull. However, there is little other 
opportunity for fcoiioinic ivtiii'ii. TIumv niv KOaG acres, 
ill capahilit y unit VIIs--J. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 45 to 
60 percent slopes (DeF). — Tht'sc sti-cp slopes arc so i'ou<ili 
and inaccessible that they are almost ini))ossil)le to man- 
age as liml)erlan(l. They remain in forest, how- 
ever, for watershed protection and wildlife cover. They 
sliould he useful foi- i>ark and i-ecreational ))Ui-poses. The 
201 acres aiv in canability unit VIIs-2. 

Dekalb and Lenew very stony loams, to 25 percent 
slopes (DkD). — This unit consists cliielly of vei-y stony 
loams of tlie Dekalb and the Lelunv series. The Dekalb 
soil of tliis unit has a prolile like the one described in 
detail, except that it is somewhat finer textured throntrli- 
out. The jirofile of the Lehew soil is like the one de- 
scribed for the Lehew series. Included also are some small 
areas in wliich the stones are remnants of hard, cherty 
limestone. These soils are much too stony for cultivation, 
and a'ra/.iiia' would be ))oor. liazardous, and impractical. 
Woodhind is the most suitable and economic use. The 281 
acres aic in capability unit VlIs-2. 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes (DkE). — These are steep soils. iVlthough they are 
in capability unit VIIs-2, their steepness and roughness 
limit harvesting of the trees that will grow, so the soils 
are less useful than those that are not so steep. There 
are 493 acres, of which about 76 acres have a slope steeper 
than 45 percent, and about 11 acres contain some outcrops 
of limestone. 

Duflfield Series 

The Duffield series consists of deep, well-drained soils 
in many parts of the limestone valleys on limestone inter- 
bedded with thin seams of shale. The Duffield soils have 
a profile similar to that of the Hagerstown soils, but they 
are dominantly yellowish instead of reddish and the sub- 
soil is not quite so fine textured. The Duffield soils are 
also similar to the Frankstown soils, but they are deeper, 
on the average, and their parent material contains less 
shale and chert. 

The Duffield soils are most extensive in the central 
and eastern parts of the Great Limestone Valley. They 
are excellent agricultural soils and, next to the Hagers- 
town, they are the most extensive soils in the county. The 
Duffield soils are fertile and highly productive under good 
management. They are limited in use only by the hazard 
of erosion and, in some places, by stones or rock outcrops. 

Profile of Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes, in a 
cultivated area just south of U.S. Highway No. 40, two- 
tenths of a mile northwest of its intersection with Cool 
Hollow Road: 

Ap to 8 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) silt loam; 

nioflorato, fine, crumb structure; slightly to moder- 
alcly hard when dry, friable when moist, and moder- 
ately i)lastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots 
abundant; slightly acid to neutral; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 8 inches thick. 

Bji 8 to 14 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6), light silty 
clay loam; moderate, fine, suVjangular blocky struc- 
ture; moderately hard when dry, friable to slightly 
firm when moist, and moderately plastic and moder- 
ately sticky when wet; roots plentiful; many fine and 
medium pores; upper surface apparently a plowsole. 



being Hoiiiewhat (;oini)uct((l ; incfliiim acid; gradual, 
wavv bouiidurv; horizon \h 4 to 7 inches thick. 
I I to 28 inciics: fcddisii-yellow (7. SYR <)/6j silty cluy 
loam; strong, medium, blocky and Niibangiilar blocky 
structure; iiard to v(!ry hard wIkmi dry, firm wlieii 
moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots plenti- 
ful in upper portion; al)iindant fine; and some iiie'iiuMi 
pores; patciiy, self-colrtred clay skins and some scat 
tered, black films on aggregates; slightly acid; grad- 
ual, wavy boundary; horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

B23 28 to 48 inches: variegated reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6 and 
7/8) silty clay hjani; strong, medium to coarse, blocky 
structure; very hard when dry, firm wh(!n moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; practically no roots; 
mofierately slowly permeable; stnjiig but fiiscontin- 
uous, self-colored clay skins and abundant black films 
on aggregates; neutral; gradual, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 12 to 24 inches thick. 

C 48 to 60 inches + : speckled, streaked, and variegated 
strong-brown, reddish-yellow, pale-yellow, and black 
silty clay loam containing about 50 percent partially 
decomposed hard shale; weak, coarse, irregular, 
blocky to slightly laminar structure; hard when dry, 
very firm when moist, and plastic and very sticky 
when wet; no roots; neutral. 

The thickness of the soil is variable, l)ut all Duffield soils 
are normally deep. Dei)th to the substratum ranges from 
about 3() to as much as GO inches. In places a few frag- 
ments of shale are in the profile. There may be occasional 
outcrops of shaly limestone, and some areas are very 
rocky to extremely rocky because of outcropping ledires. 
Nearly all crops are grown on the Duffield soils, including 
much hay and pasture. Only small areas are in orchard, 
however, probably because air drainage is not good enough 
in most valley positions. 

Duffield extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 percent 
slopes (DuC). — This .soil is like the silt loam described ex- 
cept that from about 40 to nearly 90 percent of the 
surface is occupied by outcrops of shaly limestone. Slopes 
are not great and erosion has not been especially active, 
but the soil is much too rocky for cultivation or for good 
pasture management. This soil will furnish some very 
limited grazing, and it makes excellent woodlots. There 
are 1.279 acres, in cai)ability unit VIIs-1. 

Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (DmA). — This 
soil has the profile that is described as representative of 
the series. It is the best Duffield soil, suited to all crops, 
highly productive, and not subject to deterioration under 
ordinary good farming practices. The 3,352 acres are 
in capability unit I-l. 

Duffield silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (DmB2). — These moderate slopes of Duffield silt 
loam have had some soil removed hy erosion, but the soil is 
still an excellent one and is highly productive under good 
management. This soil occupies 16,338 acres. It is in 
capability unit IIe-1. About 32 scattered acres have been 
sevei'ely eroded. 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (DmC2). — This soil is suited to all the crops of the 
area, but it should have longer rotations and more careful 
erosion-control measures than the similar but more gently 
sloping soil. The 4.739 acres are in capability unit IIIe-1. 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (DmD3). — On this soil, erosion has been so dam- 
ajrinfr that creat care must be used if the soil is to con- 
tinue to produce any clean-cultivated crops. Long rota- 
tions are in order, so that the soil is under sod most of 
the time. The 99 acres are in capability unit IVe-1. 



24 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 



Duffield silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (DmD2). — Tliis soil is fairly stt'cp, hut t'i'osiou 
has not been especially active. Tjont? rotations, with sod 
crops at least 4 out of 5 yeai'S, will lielp protect the soil 
against further damage. There are G69 acres, in capabil- 
ity unit lVe-1. 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, li to 15 percent slopes 
(DvC). — This soil is vei-y much like the othei's of the series 
that haA'e a similar range of slope, except that from about 
12;") to 10 percent of tlie surface is occupied by limestone 
outcrops. In some places between outcrops, the soil is 
shallow or very shallow over ledges of limestone. The 
soil is too rocky foi- regular cultivation. Tt is e.xcellent 
for permanent pasture or for woodland, l>ul. it' pastures 
are overgrazed, tlie soil will be sul)ject to some deteriora- 
tion. There are 1,<S!).5 acres, in ca])al)ility unit A^Is-1. 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (DvE2). — This soil is also \ ery locky : 
the slope of sonu> areas is steep, and ei'osion has been 
active. Tf used I'oi- well-managed improved pasture or for 
woodlaiul, rui-th(M' erosion can be pi'actically eliiuinalcd. 
The 17S acres ai'c in capahilily unit VIs-1. 

Diinmore Series 

The Dunmore series consists of w ell draiiu'd, deep soils 
with a very tine textured subsoil, on ridges of cherty liuu'- 
stone in the western part of the county. These ridges lie 
above most of the other soils of the iunnediate areas. 
Higher than the Dunmore soils, in some places on the 
same ridges, are soils of the Elliber and Frederick series. 

The Duiunore soils are not extensive, since they occu])y 
less than 100 aci-es, but they are impoi-tant where they 
occur. They are very productive under good management 
and are used for all crops. Tn the Hancock area, the Dun- 
more soils are especially well liked for orchards. 

Profile of Dunmore cherty silt loam, •') to 8 ])ercent 
slo])es, moderately eroded, in a woodland 7.") yards east of 
T^.S. Highway No. ^r22 just north of Hancock and about 
six-tenths of a mile south of the Pennsylvania State line: 

A, to t) inches: very dark Ijrown (lOYR 2 2) cherty .'iilt 
loam; strong, fine, crumb to granular structure; 
slightly to moderately hard when dry, frial)le when 
moist, and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; roots abundant; strongly acid; clear to abrupt 
boundary; horizon is 4 to 6 inches thick. 

A.. 6 to II inches: dark-brown (lOYR 4/3) cherty silt loam; 

moderate, fine, crumb to granular structure; moder- 
ately hard when dry, friable when moist, and moder- 
ately i)lastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots 
plentihil; many pores of all sizes; medium acid; 
clear, abrupt boundary; horizon is 3 to 6 inches 
thick. 

B21 11 to 21 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/6) very cherty 
silty clay loam; moderate, fine to medium, sub- 
angular ijlocky structure; moderately hard to hard 
when dry, moderately firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; roots rather few; many fine 
and medium pores; medium acid; gradual, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 8 to 18 inches thick. 

Bs.n 21 to 40 inches: strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8), cherty, heavy 
clay loam to clay; very slightly and faintly streaked 
with reddish yellow and yellowish red (7.5YR 6/8 
and SYR 5/6) ; strong, medium to coarse, blocky 
structure; hard when dry, firm when moist, and 
sticky and very plastic when wet; a very few roots; 
many fine but few large pores; thin, self-colored 
clay skins common; strongly to very strongly acid; 
gradvial, wavy boundary; horizon is 14 to 20 inches 
thick. 



Bat 40 to 54 inches -|- : coarsely vari{!gated, yellowish-red 
and yellowish-brown (5YR 5/6 and 1()YR 5/8) clay; 
comixHuifi, weak, medium, i)laty and very strong, 
tncdium, l)locky strut^ture; hard when dry, firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky wlien wet; a 
few isolatecl roots; conunon, h(>avy, red clay skins 
and a few black films on aggregates; ])ractical]y 
no chert; strongly lo very strongly acid; grades 
with depth, first to disintegrated limestone, and 
finall\' to hard, cherty limestone. 

'J'here is very little vai'iation in the Dunmore soils in 
Washington County. .Mlhougli they ai-e well enough 
di-aim^d, these soils ha\e slow ovei'all permeahilily because 
of the hiu'-textured lower subsoils. 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (DyB2). — Most of this soil is used for 
orchards. The .soil is well suited to this use and is suitable 
for all the conunon cro])S. There are 44 acres, in capa- 
bility luiit IIe-1. 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (DyC2). — This soil needs especially 
good management lo control erosion, as ruiu)tf is ra])id 
on a soil with heavy subsoil on such slopes. This soil is 
suitable for all crops. It occu[>ies 50 acres and is in capa- 
bility unit llle 1." 

Diinning^ Series 

The Dunning series consists of very poorly drained, 
dark -colored soils in recently deposited alluvial materials. 
The T)unning soils are on flood plains and are nuule up 
chiefly of materials washed from aivas of limestone and 
limestone soils. They are })resent, along with soils of 
the Huntington, Tjiiulside, Melvin, and in places the 
Warners series, on these flood plains, mostly along the 
smaller streams within the limestone valley sections of 
the cQunty. 

The Dunning soils are fairly extensi\e and are wide- 
spread in the county. They were )U)t mapped by them- 
selves in this county. They were mapped only in com- 
bination with many small areas of Melvin soils, which 
have a lighter gray surface layer and are not quite so 
poorly di'ained. The Melvin soils ai'e described elsewhere 
in their regular alpliabetical order. 

Profile of Dunning silty clay loam, in a natural meadow 
area about 75 yards west of State Koad No. ()4, two-tenths 
of a mile north of its intersection with Gardenhour Road: 

A„ to 3 inches: very dark brown (lOYR 2/2) silty clay 
loam; no apparent structure; hard to very hard 
when dry, friable when moist, plastic and sticky 
when wet; roots abundant; this horizon appar- 
ently consists of fairly recent overwash material; 
mildly alkaline; gradual, smooth boundary; hori- 
zon is 2 to 4 inches thick. 

Ai2g 3 to 6 inches: very dark grayish-brown (lOYR 3 2) 
silty clay loam; about 20 percent medium, faint 
mottles of dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) ; very weak, 
coarse, crumb structure; hard when dry, friable 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; 
roots plentiful to abundant; this horizon also is 
apparently fairly recent overwash; mildly alka- 
line; clear to abrupt, smooth boundary; horizon 
is 2 to 3 inches thick. 

Ai3gb 6 to 12 inches: dark olive-gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay loam; 

about 10 percent medium, distinct mottles of dark 
yellowish brown (lOYR 4/4); very weak, coarse, 
blocky structure; moderately hard to hard when 
dry, friable to rather firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; roots fairly plentiful; gritty, 
containing a noticeable amount of fine and medium 



WASIIINC'ION COUN'rV, MAKVLAM) 



25 



siiiul; this is ;i|)|);u'('ii( ly u iiiiich iililcr A iidri/.Dii 
tlint iiius l)c'cii buried l)y ovorwasii ; mildly alka- 
line; abru])!, smooth houndary; horizon is 4 to 8 
inciics thick. 

Ci„ 12 to IS inches: black (5Y 2/1) very fine sandy clay 
loam slightly streaked with olive (5Y 4/3); com- 
pound, weak, very coarse platy and weak, nu>diuni 
to coarse, blocky structure; nio<lerat(>ly hard to 
hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky and 
very plastic when wet; few roots; abundant very 
fine pores; neutral; gradual, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 5 to <S inches thick. 
18 to 32 inches: very dark gray (5Y 3/1), very dense 
fine sandy day with a slight bhiish cast; moder- 
ate, medium, platy and moderate, fine, blocky 
structure; hard when dry, firm and brittle when 
moist, and sticky and very plastic when wet; a 
\-ery few roots in upper i)ortion; slowly permeable^; 
mildl\- alkaline; abrupt, smooth boundary; hori- 
zon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

Dg 32 to 42 inches +: very dark gray (5Y 3/1) fine grav- 
elly coarse sandy k>am to loamy coarse sand; no 
structure; slightly to moderately hard when dry, 
friable when moist, and nonplastic but very 
sliglitly sticky when wet; no roots; rapidly per- 
meable; this is a water-bearing stratum of low 
density, with distinct flowage when saturated; 
mildly alkaline. 

Tlie overwash layers are not present everywhere, and 
in some places they are tliicker than those described. 
The subsoil in some places is lighter grixy and the mottling 
is more prominent than in the typical profile. The surface 
layer may l)e darker with a liioher content of oro;anic 
matter. The Dimnino: soils lia\ e a hi<rh water table and 
very slow runolf. They are practically level in most places. 

Dunning and Melvin silty clay ioams (Dz). — Because 
they are poorly drained to very pooi'ly drained, o-enerally 
difficult to drain artificially, and subject to frequent floocl- 
ino-, these soils are placed in capability unit VIw-1. ]\Ian- 
agement for pasture appears to be the most feasible use. 
There are 1,896 acres. In some places the surface is more 
nearly silt loam than silty clay loam, but this makes 
no difference in use and management. This mapping unit 
is about GO percent Dunning silty clay loam, and al)Out 
40 percent ^felvin silty clay loam. Tn some places the two 
soils merge into each other gradually. 

Edgemont Series 

The Edgemont series consists of deep, well-drained, acid 
soils that de\eloped in place in the weathered residue 
from hard quart zitic sandstone. The Edgemont soils 
occur on resistant valley ridges and on the lower slopes 
and spurs of mountains. In Washington County they are 
mostly on the lower slopes and spurs of South Mountain 
and Elk Ridge and close to the Potomac River in the 
area just north of Harpers Ferry, but some areas are 
in the western joart of the county. 

Although the Edgemont soils are not highly productive, 
they are suited to most crops grown in the county. They 
are particularly well liked for orchards and berry crops 
because they generally have good air drainage. 

Profile of Edgemont channery loam, to 12 percent 
slopes, in a forested area just off Shinan Road, 2 miles 
northwest of its intersection with Harpers Ferry Road, 
just south of Dargan: 

Ai to 4 inches: very dark gray (lOYR 3/1) channery loam; 

moderate, very fine, granular structure; soft when 
dry, very friable when moist, and nonplastic and nou- 



sticky when wet; roots abundant; Hli^htly aci<i; al)- 
rupt, wjivy boundary; horizon Ih 2 to 5 iiidiCK thick. 

A2 4 to 12 inciies: liglit yellowish-brown (l()YR<)/4) channery 
loam; moderate to strong, fine, crumb structure; 
slightly hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
sticky and slightly plastic when wet; roots ()lentiful ; 
some fin(! and medium and many largf; pores and root 
channels; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is () to 8 inches thick. 

B-ji 12 to 22 inch(?s: brownish-yellow HOYIl fi/fi), channery, 
gritty, heavy loam; moderate, medium, blocky anrl 
subangular blocky structure; moderately hard to 
hard when dry, moderatel\ firm when moist, and 
moderately plastic- and moderately sticky wh(fn wet; 
roots few; some fine and abundant meflium pfjres; 
strongly acid; grarlual, wavy boundary; horizon is 8 
to 12 inches thick. 

B22 22 to 35 inches: yellow (lOYR 7/8), channery, gritty, 
heavy loam or light sandy clay loam; iiKKierate to 
strong, medium, blocky aiifl subangular blocky struc- 
ture; hard when dry, firm when moist, and plastic and 
moderately sticky when wet; very few roots; many 
fine and medium jiores, contains a few mica flakes; 
strongly acid; gradual to clear, wavy boundary; h(jri- 
zon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

B3,,, 35 to 41 inches: mottled or variegated yellow, brownish- 
yellow, and yellowish-red, channery and gritty silt 
loam to light silty clay loam; weak to moderate, me- 
dium, platy structure; hard when dry, firm and brit- 
tle when moist, jjlastic and sticky when wet; no visi- 
ble roots; pores very fine, mostly filled with clay; 
)jrowni.sh-\ ellow, silty coatings on major aggregated 
surfaces; this is a thin, rather weakly developed silt- 
pan or fragipan that is not always present in the pro- 
file; considerable very fine ciuartzite gravel; strongly 
acid; gradual, wavv boundarv; horizon is to 8 inches 
thick. 

C 41 to 50 inches: variegated red, yellow, and brownish- 
yellow, \'ery gritty and channery sandy clay; massive; 
hard when dry, firm when moist; no roots; strongly 
acid; clear to abrupt, irregular boundarv; horizon is 
10 to 22 inches thick. 

Dr 50 inches + : hard, flaggy to slabby, ciuartzitic sandstone. 

There is considerable variation in the content of flags, 
stones, and fuie gravel. The depth through the subsoil 
ranges from about 24 inches to 40 or more. The silty 
fragipan may not be present everywhere, and, when it 
is present, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish it from 
the parent material of the upper substratum. 

In Washington County the Edgemont soils were not 
map])ed l)y tlieiiiselves. They were mapped in undif- 
ferentiated units with some of the soils of the Laidig 
sei'ies. The soils of these two series are so similar, so 
closely associated, and in some places so mixed that they 
were mapped together. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, to 12 per- 
cent slopes (EdC). — This ma[)[)ing unit is made up of 
Edgemont channery loam, along Avith areas of Laidig 
channery loam that have the same range of slope. These 
soils are suitable for cultivated crops, but the}^ are not 
highly productive for general crops, and they ai'e subject 
to erosion. There are l,40o acres in the county, in capa- 
bility unit He— 4. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (EdD2). — Erosion has been 
active on these soils. The soils may be cultivated with 
care, hut high yields shoidd not be expected, except per- 
haps from orchard and berry crops. There are many 
small areas, most of them marked on the soil maps, where 
erosion has been more severe. These spots should receive 
special treatment to prevent further soil loss or damage. 



26 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1950, NO. 17 



TluM'o are 4,()13 acros of tliese soils in the county, in cai)a- 
bility unit Illo^. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 35 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (EdE2). — On these hilly 
soils there is a strong hazard of erosion. For this reason, 
the 2,ST0 acres are placed in capability unit IVe-!! There 
are many more severely eroded, small areas on which no 
cultivation should be attem])ted, except pei-haps for hay 
crops or sodded oi'cluirds. These severely eroded spots are 
shown on the soil map. 

Edi>emont and Laidi«>' channery loams, 35 to 60 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (EdF2). — These soils are 
sleep, but, if kept in good sod, they could be safely 
grazed on a limited or occasional basis. Otherwise, they 
should be kept in forest oi- ])lanted to forest. There are 
aci'es, in ("qjability miit ^Te-L!. 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, to 5 per- 
cent slopes (EgA). — The soils of this unit are eithei' Kdge- 
mont or Laidig soils, but on the average about 40 to 50 
percent of tlie surface is occupied by stones and occasional 
boulders and rock outcrops. Some of these areas may be 
mowed, but general cultivation is impractical. If they 
remain in forest or are used for pasture, these soils are 
not subject to deterioration. The 127 acres are in capa- 
bility unit Vs-2. 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 5 to 35 per- 
cent slopes (EgD). — These soils have enough slo])e that 
they will erode under use as pasture if they are not well 
managed. Stoniness is the most limiting factor. The 
soils are suitable for controlled grazing or for woodland. 
Timbering should be botli practical and economical. There 
are r2,.")24 acres of tliese soils in tlie county, in capability 
unit VIs-2. 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 35 to 60 
percent slopes (EgF). — These soils are so stony and steep 
that they aie of little agricultural importance, except 
for their natural timber. Timber operations will be dif- 
ficult, and forest management, especially restocking arti- 
licially, nuiv not be pi'acfical. There are 771 acres, in capa- 
bility" unit 'VIIs-2. 

Elliber Series 

The Elliber series consists of deep, Avell-drained soils 
on sharp ridges of very impure, cherty limestone in the 
Appalachian ridge and valley section of the western part 
of the county. In many places the Elliber soils are near 
areas of the Frederick and the Dunmore soils. They are 
less red than the Frederick soils and do not have a heavy 
subsoil like that of the Dunmore soils. 

These soils are fairly extensive. Tliey are fairly fertile 
and productive, but they are not widely used for agri- 
culture because of the dominant steep slopes, They are 
po):)ular for orchards, especially in the Hancock area. 

Profile of Elliber chei'ty loam, 5 to 12 pei'cent slopes, 
moderately eroded, at a point one-fourth mile west of 
Hollow Road, seven-tenths of a mile south of the Pennsyl- 
vania State line : 

Ai to 2 inches: black (lOYR 2/1) cherty loam; weak, fine, 
granular structure; soft when dry, very friable when 
moist, and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when 
wet; roots abundant; slightly acid; clear, wavy bound- 
ar}'; horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 



Aj 2 to 8 inches: dark-brown (lOYR 4/3), gritty, cherty loam; 

weak, medium, granular structure; slightly hard when 
dry, very friable when moist, and sliglitly plastic and 
sliglitly sticky when wet; roots plentiful to abundant; 
many i)ores of all si/,(!s; medium acid; clear, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. 

B2 8 to 31 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), gritty, cherty, 
heavy loam; weak to moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure, readily crushing to single grains; 
moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
moderately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; 
roots ])lentiful; moderately rapidly i)ermeable or rap- 
idly permeable; strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irreg- 
ular boundary; horizon is 20 to 28 inches thick. 

Ha 31 to 39 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), very gritty 
and very cherty, light silt loam; very weak, medium, 
subangular blocky structure; moderately hard when 
dry, friable when moist, slightly plastic and slightly 
sticky when wet; roots fairly mimerous; mcjderately 
rapidly permeable or rapidly permeable; strongly acitl; 
abru[)t, irregular l)ounrlarv ; horizon is 8 to 15 inclies 
thick. 

Dr 39 inches +: ledges of liard, cherty limestone. 

In many places there is a thin C horizon or layer of 
soft, decomposed rock just above the hai'd bedrock. There 
is considerable variation in the amount of chert in the 
soil, and in some places there are outcrops or boulders 
of hard, cherty limestone. In some places the subsoil is 
a little redder than that in the profile described, par- 
ticularly in areas close to soils of the Frederick series. 
Locally, drainage may be somewhat excessive, particularly 
in six)ts where the content of chert is high. Deep-rooted 
sod crops, including well-sodded orchards, are especially 
suited to these soils. 

Elliber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (EhB2). — The slope of this soil is moderate, 
and there has been some active erosion. However, the 
soil is suited to general cultivation under good manage- 
ment. Tliei(> ai'e r)2n acres, in (■a])al)ility unit IIe-20. 

Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (EhD2). — The shjpe of this .soil is steep 
enough that intensive protection must be })i'ovided if cul- 
tivated crops ai'e grown. The soil is widely used for 
orchards. Tlie 71!) acres ai-e in capability unit IIIe-2f). 

Elliber cherty loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (EhE2). — On these steej) slopes there has 
been some erosion. Clean cultivation should be avoided 
wherever possible, but the soil is well suited to orchards 
and sod crops. There ai-e 629 acres, in capability imit 
VIe-1. 

Elliber cherty loam, 45 to 55 percent slopes (EhF). — 
This is the .steepest Elliber soil. Practically all of 
the areas are in forest and should remain so. There are 81 
acres, including 15 acres that have a somewhat redder 
subsoil than normal. This soil could be used for limited 
grazing, or for forestry, but cultivation would be im- 
practical. It is in capability unit VIIe-1. 

Eroded Land 

There are many areas in all parts of Washington County 
that have been severely eroded until they no longer are 
true soils, but rather remnants of soil materials. Although 
in most places the original soil series can be estimated 
from what remains, a more uniform and satisfactory 
classification of such land can be made by simply naming 
the kind of soil material involved. 



WASIIIN'OTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



27 



111 \\'asliiii<il<)ii ("oiiiily ihcsc scnoivlv eroded soils can 
1)0. divided into foui- <ii-()Ui)s aceordin*;- to parent material : 
(Jreenstone materials, limestone materials, sandstone and 
quart zite materials, and shale and schist materials. No 
])rolile descriptions are f^iven, because in most places there 
are no complete soil proliles remainiiifj;. 

Eroded land, «?reenst(>ne materials (Em). — This se- 
verely eroded soil occupies scattered areas, mostly in 
rieasant Valley. Adjacent soils are <^enerally of the 
P^iucpiier and Myersville series. The remaining? material 
consists mostly of soft, decomposed <>;i'eenstone or meta- 
basalt, with many fra<;ments of harder rock. In some 
])laces there is a little soil left between gullies, but the 
f^uUies are either very close, or very deep, or both. In 
other places sheet erosion has removed all of the true soil, 
leavin*; only rou<:h and ixullied parent material or, in 
places, bedrock. Slopes ranj^e I'rom about 10 to 45 percent. 

Such areas are not suitable for crops, and, as a rule, 
are not suited even to grazing. Vegetation can be re- 
established, however, if care and effort are used to do 
so. Although these areas are of little value in themselves, 
they should have treatment to prevent their enlargement. 
They are always hazards to other land, because runoff 
from them will cause erosion damage to spread. If re- 
vegetated, they will not only be less of a threat to agri- 
cultural land, but they can be of some value as wildlife 
protection areas or as woodlots. There are 101 acres of 
this kind of eroded land in the county, in capability 
unit VIIe-2. 

Eroded land, limestone materials (En). — This land 
consists of severely eroded areas of what were once soils 
of the DufReld, Frankstown, Frederick, Hagerstown, and 
]\Iurrill series. Rocky areas are not included. Because 
these materials were derived from or underlain by lime- 
stone, they are potentially somewhat more fertile and 
useful than many of the severely eroded, nonlimestone 
areas. Because of this, they are placed in capability unit 
VIIe-1. There are 617 acres in the county. 

Eroded land, sandstone and quartzite materials 
(Er). — These are scattered remnants of what were once soils 
of the Dekalb, Edgemont, Holston, Monongahela, and 
Waynesboro series. The areas have been very severely 
eroded and are strongly or very strongly acid. Reestab- 
lishing some kind of protective vegetation is likely to be 
more difficult than on areas of greenstone or limestone 
materials. The 221 acres are in capal)ility unit VIIe-2. 

Eroded land, shale and schist materials (Es). — This 
land consists of areas that were the shallow and somewhat 
droughty Buchanan, Berks, Calvin, Hazel, Litz, Chandler, 
Talladega, Teas, or Montevallo soils. It has been very 
severely eroded, and, with only tlie underlying shaly or 
channery parent material, or in places bare bedrock re- 
maining, revegetation may be slow and difficult. It will 
be worthwhile if some protection of adjacent lands is 
accomplished. There are 3,890 acres of this land in the 
county, in capability unit VIIe-3. 

Etowah Series 

The Etowah series consists of deep, well-drained, red 
soils on old stream terraces. The materials from which 
these soils have been developed are very old deposits of 
alluvium that originally washed from areas of soils on 



liiiiesloiie. The I'Jowiili s<»ils are in I lie ^aiiic localities 
as the Hagerstown, Duflield, and Frankstown soils of the 
valley uplands and the Huntington, Lindside, and other 
soils of the flood plains or bottom lands. 

The Etowah soils strongly resemble tli(! Waynesboro 
soils, but the Waynesboro soils have developed in sand- 
stone and shale materials on the terraces instead of in 
limestone materials. The Etowah soils, as a rule, are 
only slightly acid, but the Waynesboro soils are very 
strongly acid. 

The Etowah soils are fertile and productive and are 
mostly in crops or pastures. Only a few small areas 
remain in woodland. 

Profile of Etowah gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes, 
at a point in a cultivated area 30 yards south of State 
Road No. ()0, about six-tenths of a mile west of State 
Road No. 62, on a terrace of Antietam Creek just west 
of Leitersburg: 

Ap to 9 inches: yello\vish-l)r(jwii (lOYR .5/4), gravelly, heavy 
loam; moderate, fine, crumb structure; moderately 
liard when dry, friable when moist, slightly plastic and 
slightly sticiiy when wet; roots abundant; about 1.5 
percent waterworn chert gravel; medium acid; abrupt, 
smooth boundary; horizon is 7 to 10 inches thick. 

Bi 9 to 16 inches;" reddish-yellow (7. SYR 6/6), gravelly, 
slightly gritty, heavy silt loam; moderate to strong, 
fine, subangular blocky structure; hard when dry, 
moderately firm when moist, and {)lastic and sticky 
when wet; roots fairly j)lentiful; many fine and 
medium pores; about 20 percent waterworn chert 
gravel; slightly acid; gradual to clear, smooth bound- 
arv; horizon is 4 to 9 inches thick. 

B., 16 to 33 inches: yellowish-red (SYR S/6 to 5/8), gravelly, 
slightly gritty silty clay loam; strong, medium, blocky 
structure; very hard when dry, firm when moist, and 
plastic and sticky when wet; a few roots in upper part; 
many fine and a few medium pores; strong, self- 
colored clay skins on aggregate surfaces and in root 
channels; about 2S percent waterw'orn chert gravel; 
neutral; abrupt, smooth boundary; horizon is 12 to 20 
inches thick. 

C 33 to 42 inches + : yellowish-red (SYR 4/6) very gravelly 
coarse sandy clay; massive; slightly to moderately 
hard when dry, friable to firm when moist, and moder- 
ately plastic and sticky when wet; no roots; moder- 
ately slowly permeable; neutral to mildly alkaline. 

The greatest variations in the Etowah soils in the county 
are in the content of gravel in the surface layer and sub- 
soil and in the depth to the highly gravell}' substratum. 
Some areas are practically free of gravel, particularly in 
the surface layer. Depth to the substratum is 24 to -10 
inches or more, but most areas are at least 36 inches deep. 
The profile in some areas is slightly less red than the 
profile described; in other areas it is more red. 

Etowah gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes (EtA). — 
There are 97 acres of this nearly level soil, all of them 
in use. Because the soil is w^ell drained, nearlj^ level, 
productive, and subject to practically no hazard, it is 
placed in capability miit I-l. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (EtB2). — This soil, which occupies 363 acres, 
is sloping and has been somewhat eroded. Because of the 
erosion hazard, the soil is placed in capability unit IIe-1. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (EtC2). — The slope of this soil is great 
enough so that it must be carefully managed and protected 
for full use. The 182 acres of this soil are in capability 
unit IIIe-1. 



28 



SOIL SURVEY SKHIES 1959, NO. 17 



Etowah gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (EtD2). — Tliis is I he stcepesl of (lie P^lowali 
soils. ThtMv are only 40 acres. In about 9 acres tlie profile 
is more silty and less g-ravelly (ban the one described. 
About (1 acres have slopes slialitly more than ^5 percent. 
All of these areas should be ke])t in sod most of the time, 
but an occasional cultivated crop in a lon<>' I'otation may 
be ])V()(bic('(l. Tills soil is in ca|)abilily unit IVe-1. 

Etowah silt loam, to '.i percent slopes (EwA). — This 
soil contains little <>'ravel in the surface layer, and the 
surface layer is much more silly than that of the gravelly 
loams. This is an excellent soil, suited to all crops, and 
subject to no particular hazard. Tlie 154 acres are in 
ca])ability unit I-l. 

Etowah silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (EwB2). — Tiiis soil has enouiiii slope lo be subject 
to some ei'osion. It is suitable for all crops <ii-()wn in the 
area and is j)i-oductive uiuler j^ood uianao-ement . Tliere 
are 339 acres, in cai)ability unit Ile-I. 

Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (EwC2). — The slope of this soil is jjreat enou<>-h so 
that particularly <>-ood manafrenient is required for full 
use wit]u)ut dama<;e. The 188 acres are in capability 
unit nie-1. 

Fauquier Series 

The Fauquier series consists of deej), well -drained, red 
soils that have been developed from materials weathered 
from a rock known as greenstone, or, more properly, meta- 
basalt. The Fauquier soils occur in valleys and also on 
ridges and on low mountains of the Blue Ridge. They 
are the most pi'ominent soils of the Pleasant Valley area 
between Soutli ^lountain and Elk Eidge. In the valleys 
they are closely associated with the Myersville soils, and 
on the mouiitains, with the Highfield soils. The soils of 
both the ]\[yersville and Highfield series are similar to 
the Faucjuier but are nuich less red. All of these soils 
have developed from the same parent rock. 

The Fauquier soils are both extensive and important 
in Washington County. They are fertile and productive, 
more or less easily managed, and, except for the most 
stony areas, are intensively used for general crops, hay, 
pasture, and orchards. 

Profile of Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent slopes, 
in a small wooded area three-tenths of a mile directly 
south of the public school at Rohrersville : 

Ai to 4 inches: dark reddish-brown (SYR 3/2), channery, 
heavy loam; moderate, coarse, crumb structure; mod- 
erately hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
abundant; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is 2 to 5 inches thick. 

A2 4 to 9 inches: yellowish-red (5YR 4/6), channery, heavy 
loam or light silt loam; moderate, medium, crumb 
structure; moderately hard wlien dry, friable when 
moist, and slightly plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
plentiful; abundant fine and medium pores; medium 
acid; clear to abrupt, wavy boundar\-; horizon is 3 to 
6 inches thick. 

B21 9 to 20 inches: yellowish-red (5YR 5/6), channery, heavy 
silt loam; moderate, medium, subtingular blocky 
structure; hard when dry, friable to firm when moist, 
and moderately plastic and moderately sticky when 
wet; roots fairly plentiful; many fine and medium 
pores; medium "acid; gradual, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is 8 to 15 inches thick. 



B.,2 20 to 41 inches: red (2.5YR 4/8) channery silty clay loam; 

very strong, medium, blocky and subangular" blocky 
structure; very hard when dry, firm when moist, and 
plastic and sticky when wet; very few roots; itiany fine 
but few large })ores; heavy, almost continuous, S(?lf- 
colored clay skins; strongly acid; gradual, wavy 
l)(>uiidary; horizon is 15 to 30 inches thick. 

B23 41 to 50 inches: variegated vellowish-red, rcddisli-vcllow, 
and brownish-yellow (5VR 5/8, 7.5VR (i/S, ami lOYR 
6/8) silty clay loam to silty clay; very strong, coarse, 
blocky and subangular blocky structure; luird when 
dry, firm when moist, and plastic and sticky 
when wet; practically no roots; many fine but 
few large pores; contains some stoiu! fragments, 
mostly highly decomposed; almost contimious, self- 
colored clay skins and disconl inuous, black films; 
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 
inches thick. 

Ci 50 to ()2 inches: very .slightly variegated but essentially 
yellowish-red (5YR 4/8), decomposed metabasalt 
schist; inherited laminar structure; very hard when 
dry, firm or very firm when moist, and plastic and 
sticky when wet; no roots; a few heavy, red clay flows 
and some black films; medium to strongly acid ; grad- 
ual, irregular boundary; horizcjn is 10 to 1 5 inches thick. 

C2 62 to 72 inches +: highly variegated red, reddish-brown, 
vellowish-brown, and olive-l)rown (2.5VR 4/6, 5VR 
4/4, lOYR 5/6, and 2.5Y 4/4), partly de(;omposed 
metabasalt schist ; very hard to extremely liard when 
dry, and very firm when moist or wet; medium acid. 

Tlie greatest variation in the Fauquier soils is in the 
amoimt and size of rock fragments. The silt loams have 
practically no fragments; tlie channery loams have many 
flat fragments as miicli as V> inches in length: and 
the very stony loams, in some places, are ledgy and boul- 
dery. A shallow ])hase of t he silt loam, less than 24 inches 
deep to the siibsti'atum, is ])resent in some places. Culti- 
vated areas have brown surface soil where there has been 
little erosion, and red surface soil where erosion has been 
severe. Some of the stony and steep soils, particularly 
in the moimtains, have somewhat less strongly developed 
horizons than those descrilied. 

Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent slopes (FaB). — 
This soil has the profile described. Althougli most areas 
have been cidtivated, there is little erosion because of the 
low risk and general good management. This fairly easily 
nuiiutged, productive soil is in capal)ility unit I— i. There 
ai'e 244 acres. 

Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (FqB2). — This is an extensive soil tliat 
covers 1,735 acres. Slopes are great enough so that there 
has been active, btit not severe, erosion in most places. The 
soil is suitable for all crops grown in the area and is in 
capability unit 1 Ie-4. 

Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FaC2). — This soil occupies 1,144 acres. 
Ik'cause of the slope, intensive good management is re- 
quired to prevent erosion. The soil is in capability unit 
Ille— t. Included, however, are 32 acres that have been 
rather severely eroded. These included areas, shown on 
the soil map, should be kept in sod or otherwise managed 
as if they were in capability tniit VIe-2. 

Fauquier channery loam. 20 to 35 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FaE2). — Here are 271 acres sufficiently 
steep so that their use for cultivated crops is strongly 
limited. Only about one cultivated crop in every 4 or 5 
years should be grown, with the surface protected by sod 
most of the time. This soil is in capability unit IVe-3. 



WASI IIM; ION COUNTY, MAHVKAXD 



29 



Fauquier silt loam, to ."5 percent slopes (FsA). This 
soil, -A sill loiuu, is like tiic soil dcscrihcd in the typical 
prolilc, o.\c('i)t that the surl'iicc layer is soiiiowliat liiii'i' 
in texture and there are few, if any, rock fraj^nients. These 
nioi-e level areas, luakinp: up 41 acres, are in (•af)al)ility 
unit I^. 

Fauquier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (FsB2). — Tliis soil is sloping- and soincwhal 
(M'odcd. It is an excellent soil, but it needs the niana<re- 
nienl of capahility unit Ile-4. Theiv are 2S1) acres in 
the county. 

Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (FsC2). — This soil is strongly sloi>in<r, and 
erosion has been active. Because of this increased hazard, 
the soil is in capability mnt IIIe-4. There are 93 acres, 
including '2 acres that have been severely eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FfC2). — This soil is like the other 
Fau(iuier silt loams, except tliat the soil mantle is inucli 
thinner, with only about 18 to 24 inches above the sub- 
stratum. Because of the shallowness of this soil, clean 
cultivation should be limited if the soil is to be kept pro- 
ductive. Hay crops, pastures, and orchards should be 
especially well suited on most areas. The 42 acres of this 
soil are in capability unit IVe-o. 

Fauquier very stony loam, 5 to 35 percent slopes 
(FrE). — This soil contains stone fragments large enough 
and numerous enough to prevent practical cultivation. It 
occurs mostly on South Mountain and Elk Kidge. That 
part in forest should probably so remain and should 
produce excellent timber. Cleared areas are suitable for 
pasture if grazing is carefully controlled. The 435 acres 
of this soil are in capal)ility unit VIs-2. 

Frankstown Series 

The Frankstown series consists of moderately deep, 
well-drained soils that have been developed in materials 
that weathered from impure limestone. The parent lime- 
stone contains nuich shale and chert and in some places 
thin seams of sandstone. The Frankstown soils are simi- 
lar to the DutHeld soils, but they are not so deep. They 
also contain many more residual fragments of chert and 
shale and in places residual fragments of limestone and 
sandstone. The Frankstown soils occupy ridgelike areas 
"within the gi'eat limestone valley in the eastern part of 
the county. 

I'ractically all areas have been cleared for agricidture, 
and no undisturbed forests remain. The Frankstown soils 
are fertile and productive, and, although they are some- 
what shallower than the Duffield and the Hagerstown 
soils of the same areas, they are still among the best 
farming soils of the county. 

Profile of P^rankstown channery silt loam, to 3 per- 
cent slo):)es, at a point in a cultivated area about 50 yards 
southwest of the intersection of U.S. Highway No. 40 
with Beaver Creek Eoad: 

Ap to 8 inches: dark grayish-brown (lOYR 4/2) channery 
silt loam; moderate, medium, crumb structure; fri- 
able when moist, sticky and slightly plastic when 
wet; roots abundant; some chert fragments and shale 
chips along with sandstone fragments; about 20 per- 
cent coarse fragments; medium acid; clear to abrupt, 
slightly wavy boundary; horizon is 6 to 8 inches 
thick. 



B21 M to IS iiii his: light ycliowish-hrown flOYR 0/4), (rhun- 
iiery, light silly clay loam; moderate to .strong, 
medium, subangular blocky structure; somewhat firm 
when moist, iilastic and sticky when wet; roots 
conunon; m.'iny fine ;in(l medium jjores; about 1.5 pr?r- 
cent stone fragments, with souh' shale and ch(!rt; 
strongly acid; gradual, wavy btjundary; horizon is 8 
to 12 inches t hick. 

Bj. 18 to 29 inches: yellowish-brown (lO'S'R 5/0) silly clay 
loam; strong, medium to coarsf!, blocky structure; 
firm when moist, plastic and sticky whf;n wet; 
roots few; idinost continuous, self-colored clay skins 
on aggregates and in pores; black films on somf; ag- 
gregates, becoming larger and more frequent with 
increasing depi h; at least 25 percent coarse fragments, 
mostly shale but with some chert; medium acid; 
clear, strongly wavy to irregular boundary; horizon 
is 10 to 15 inches thick. 

C 29 to 44 inches; about 90 ])ercent greenish shale, with 
some chert fragments; infiltratefl and coatefi with 
brown aiui yellowish-brown (7.5^ I{ 5/4 anrl 1()\'K 
5/4) silt or clay; scjiih' shale surfaces strongly etched 
by roots; nu-dium acid; gradual, irregular boundary; 
horizon is 12 to 24 or more inches t hick. 

Dr 44 inches -|- : hard, cherty and shaly limestone. 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 per- 
cent slopes (FuD). — Tliis soil is so extremely rocky that, 
even though it has not been significantly eroded and 
slopes are not very gi'eat, it can ser\e no more tiseful 
purpose than very limited grazing. Fi-om about 40 to 
nearly 90 percent of the surface is occupied Ijy ledges 
and massive outcrops. The most suitable use probably is 
for woodland. There are 9(S3 acres, in capabilitv unit 
VlIs-1. 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, 25 to 45 per- 
cent slopes (FuE). — The slopes of this soil are too great 
and there are too many rocks for crops or pasture. The 
soil can best be used for woodland. The 140 acres are 
in capability unit VIIs-1. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (FvC2). — This soil is neither 
steep nor severely eroded, but there are enough outcrops 
of limestone to make cultivation impractical. Up to 
about 40 percent of the surface is occtipied by rock 
ledges. Hay might be grown in some places, but a more 
practical use would be for i)ermanent pasture. There are 
2,413 acres, in capal)ility unit VIs-1. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (FvC3). — This soil has been so 
severely eroded that no hay crops should be attempted 
and grazing will have to be strictly limited. The 586 
acres of this soil should be reforested. Thev are in capa- 
bility unit VIIs-1. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (FvE2). — On this very rocky 
soil, erosion has not been severe bitt slopes are too great 
for any attempt at cultivation. Permanent pasture would 
be the most intensive suitable use for this soil. There 
are 519 acres, in capability unit VIs-1. 

Frankstown and Duffield Soils 

Except for the extremely rocky and very rocky soils, 
the Frankstown soils do not occur in areas large enough 
to be mapped separately from some of the soils of the 
Duffield series. In each of the following mapping units, 
most of the acreage is occupied by a phase of Franks- 
town channery silt loam. There are many places, how- 



30 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



ever, wliere (he soil is inuch deei)er or (bicker than is 
normal for Franks(o\vn soils. Tliese (lee])er areas are 
better classified as Dullield channery silt loam. Tluis, at 
any ])la('e williin one of (he followin*; map])in<^ uni(s, (he 
soil may be eidier Frankstown or Diillield. Similar phases 
of (he soils of bo(h series have (he same capability clas- 
siHcaiion and o(her soil <j;roupin<>s and similar inter- 
pretations. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 3 
percent slopes (FwA). — The Duflield soil in this mapi)ing 
unit con(ains more coarse rock fraj^ments than the Duf- 
field soils that are not mixed with Frankstown soils. 
These nearly level soils are not subject to any particular 
hazard if they are cultivated and well mana<;ed. They 
are in capability unit 11. Tliei e are 244 acres. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 8 
percent slopes, moderately eroded (FwB2). — This is an 
extensive ma[)|)in<i- unit (hat occupies (),!)09 aci-es. The 
soils can be re<rularly cultivated if they are manaf^ed 
accordin<r to (he re(|uiremen(s of capability uni( ITe-1. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 8 
percent slopes, severely eroded (FwB3). — These severely 
eroded soils can be cropped safely if jriven the very care- 
ful manairement of capability unit llle-30, in spite of 
the dama<i^e by erosion that has already occurred. There 
are 60 acres. 

Frank.stown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 
15 percent slopes, moderately eroded (FwC2). — Slopes of 
these soils are j^reat enough so (lia( ])ar(icularly good 
management is required (o prevent further erosion. The 
soils occupy -5.111 acres and ai'e in ca])ability unit IIIe-1. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 
15 percent slopes, severely eroded (FwC3). — Erosion has 
been severe on tliese soils. There is enough soil remain- 
ing to support hay or pasture, however, with perhaps an 
occasional cultivated ci-op if the best protective measures 
are followed. The 1,36G acres are in capabilirv miit 
IVe-1. 

Frankstow n and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 
25 percent slopes, moderately eroded (FwD2). — Although 
erosion has not been severe on these soils, slopes are so 
great that cultivation should be attempted only in very 
long rotations. The soils should be protected by a cover 
of sod most of the time. Hay can be grown safely, and 
this is an excellent soil for permanent pasture. There are 
542 acres, in capal)ility imit IVe-1. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 
25 percent slopes, severely eroded (FwD3). — Erosion has 
been severe enough on these slopes so that further cultiva- 
tion is too hazardous to be attempted. A more practical 
and safer use would be for pasture. The 864 acres are 
in capal)ility unit VIe-1. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 to 
45 percent slopes, moderately eroded (FwE2). — Erosion 
has not been severe on these soils, but the slope is too steep 
for safe cultivation. They will make good pasture, how- 
ever, with the management of capability unit YIe-1. 
There are 162 acres. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 to 
45 percent slopes, severely eroded (FwE3). — Tliese steep, 
severely eroded soils are unsuitable for cultivation, and 
most areas are unsuitable even for grazing. A much 



better use is for woodland. The 89 acres are in capability 
unit VIIe-1. 

Frederick Series 

The Frederick series consists of deep, well-drained, 
red soils on ridges of impure, cherty limestone. The 
Frederick soils are redder than the Duffield and the 
Frankstown soils, and redder and finer textured than 
the Elliber soils. Their subsoil is not so fine textured 
as that of the Duiunore and llagei-stown soils. 

The Frederick soils occur in Washing(on County only 
on ridges within the ridge and valley section to the 
west of P^xirview Mountain. They are fairly extensive. 
Where cleared, they ai'e used for general crops, pasture, 
.and orchards, but a considerable ])ropoi-tion is still in 
forest because of the rugged topography. 

Profile of Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a forested area 50 yards 
soudi of U.S. Highway 40, eight-tenths of a mile east of 
the intersection with Indian Springs Koad : 

A, to 2 inches: black (iOYR 2/1) cherty silt loam; weak, 

medium, crumi) structure; soft when dry, very friable 
when moist, and slightly i)lastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; roots matted; about 20 percent angular 
chert gravel; slightly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 2 to 4 inches thick. 
.\2 2 to 7 inches: dark-gray (lOYR 4/1), cherty, light silt 
loam; weak, fine, crumb structure; slightly hard when 
dry, friable when moist, and slightly sticky and 
slightly i)lastic when wet; roots abundant; nuiny fine 
and medium pores and some large pores; about 25 
percent chert gravel; medium acid; clear to abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 3 to 7 inches thick. 

B, 7 to 12 inches: reddish-yellow (7.5YR 7/8), cherty, heavy 

silt loam; weak to moderate, fine, subangular blocky 
structure; moderately hard when dry, friable to 
slightly firm when moist, and moderately plastic and 
moderately sticky when wet; roots plentiful; many 
fi,ne and medium pores; about 15 percent chert gravel; 
strongly acid: gradual, wavy boundary; horizon is 4 
to 8 inches tliick. 

Bji 12 to 25 inches: reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8), cherty, light 
silty clay loam; moderate, medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky .structure; hard when dry, rather firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
fairly thick; continuous, self-colored clay skins; about 
15 percent chert gravel; very strongly acid; gradual, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 10 to 17 inches thick. 

B22 25 to 41 inches: yellowish-red {5YR 5/8) silty clay loam; 

very strong, fine to medium, blocky structure; hard 
or very hard when dry, firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; a few large, woody roots; 
strong, almost continuous, self-colored clay skins and 
many black films; many fine and medium pores; 
almost free of gravel; very strongly to extremely 
acid; gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; horizon 
is 12 to 25 inches thick. 

C 41 to 48 inches + : variegated red and vellowish-red 
(2.5YR 4/8 and 5YR 5/8) cherty clay loam to light 
clay; very weak, medium to coarse, blocky structure; 
hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky and very 
plastic when wet; a very few woody roots; moderate- 
ly slowly permeable; a "few thin, red clay flows and 
some black films; neutral. 

In some places the profile is more cherty and less deep 
than the profile described. In cultivated areas the surface 
soil is less gray and more brownish or reddish than that 
in the profile described. The Frederick soils are nat- 
urally somewhat less productive than the Duffield, Dun- 



WASl lINC rON' COUNTV, MAI(VI- \M) 



31 



iiioro, and Frankslown soils. In Washiniilon Counly llicy 
arc loss used for ajiricnlt nrc. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FyB2). — This soil has the prolilc (k>- 
scrilx'd and I he mildest slopes of any soil (d" tiie Fi-ed- 
erick sei'ies in lln' county. Ki'osion has been fairly active 
in many places, I)ut it has not been .severe. This soil is 
suited to all crops, but, because of the hazard of erosion, it 
is in capability unit IIe-t2(l. There are 711 acivs. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FyC2). — Erosion has not been severe 
on this soil, but, because of tlie dan<>-er of ei'osion on the 
slopes, the soil is in capability luut lIIc-26. There arc 
672 acres. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (FyC3). — This soil lias been so sovei'ely 
eroded that it is suitable for only an occasional clean- 
tilled crop. The surface must be protected, as by sod, 
most of the time. Pasture, hay crops, and sodded orchard 
are suitable uses. There are 63 acres, in capability unit 
IVe-26. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FyD2). — This soil has been oidy mod- 
erately eroded, and it is in capability unit IVe-26. 
There are 517 acres. The soil is excellent for orcliards. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (FyD3). — Erosion has taken so much of 
this soil that cultivation is no longer safe. The soil 
would be a good one for pennanent pasture, liowever, or 
perhaps for sodded and carefully managed orchards. 
This soil occupies 57 acres and is in capabilitv unit 
VIe-1. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (FyE2). — Erosion has not been very 
active on tliis soil, mostly because many of the areas are 
still in forest. Any cultivation would be very hazardous, 
and permanent pasture would be a more practical and 
safer use. There are 465 acres, in capability unit VIe-1. 

Hagerstown Series 

The Hagerstown series consists of deep, well-drained, 
reddish soils that have been developed in materials 
weathered from hard, fairly pure limestone. The Hagers- 
town soils in some places contain scattered to very numer- 
ous outcropping ledges of limestone. Tliese soils are 
used for all crops, but, where there is much surface rock, 
cultivation is hindered and the usefulness of the soils 
may be somewhat to very strongly limited. 

Soils of the Hagerstown series are the most extensive 
and important in the county. They are important in the 
highly developed agriculture of the limestone areas. The 
Hagerstown soils are associated with many other soils, 
but most notably with those of the Benevola, Corydon, 
Duffield, and Frankstown series. 

Profile of Hagerstown silt loam in a forested area 1 
mile north of Keedysville on State Road No. 34: 

Ai to 3 inches: dark-brown (7. SYR 3/2) silt loam; moderate, 
fine to medium, granular structure; very friable when 
moist, moderately plastic and moderately sticky 
when wet; roots abundant; neutral; clear to abrupt 
boundary. 

599553—62 3 



3 to 8 iiiclics: l)ro\vn (7.!i\']i 4/4) silt loarn; tnodorat<?, fine 
to mcdiutii, suljuiinnlar blocky strncliirc?; blockH crush 
wiu'ii moist to moderate, fine granules; friable when 
moist, moderately [jlastic and m(>d<;rately sticky 
when wet; rool s abMiidant ; strongly acid; clear to 
al)i U[)l, smool li lo slinlilly wavy boundary. 

1{, 8 to 17 inches: yellowish-red diWl 4H>), heavy silt loam 
or light silty clay loam; mod(!ra((!, medium, sub- 
imgular blocky structure; friable or firm when moist, 
I)lastic and sticky when W(!t; roots plentiful; medium 
acid; clear, smooth boundary. 

B,, 17 to 29 inches: reddish-brown (2.5YR 4/4) silty clay 
loam; strong, medium to coarse, subangular blocky 
structure; very hard when dry, firm when moist, arifi 
I)lastic and sticky when wet; roots rather plentiful; 
common, faint, reddish-brown clay skins and common 
black films on aggregates; medium acid; gradual, 
smooth to wavy boundary. 

B22 29 to 39 inches: red (2. SYR 4/()) silty clay; strong, medium 
to coarse, blocky structurt;; very hard when dry, firm 
when moist, plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
rather few; faint to distinct, almost continuous, red 
clay skins and conunon black films on aggregates; 
contains some fragments of weathered limestone; me- 
dium to slightly acid; gradual to diffuse, irregular 
boundarv. 

B3 39 to 49 inches: yellowish-red (SYR 4/6) silty clay loam 
or light silty clay; moderate to strong, fine to coarse, 
blocky and subangular blocky structure; very hard 
when dry, firm when moist, and plastic and sticky 
when wet; very few roots; distinct to prominent clay 
skins and common black films on aggregates; contains 
some fragments of weat hered limestone; medium acid; 
gradual to diffuse, irregular boundary. 

C 49 to 74 inches +: yellowish-red (SYR 4/8) silty clay 
loam; very weak, medium, blocky and subangular 
blocky structure; hard when dry, firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; f(!W to common 
small, black films, but no visible clay skins; medium 
acid. 

In rocky areas the depth of the soil may range from 
very shallow to very deep. The uneroded soil in wood- 
land is almost everywhere a silt loam at the surface, but 
areas that are, or have been, cultivated may have a surface 
soil of silty clay loam or clay loam. In large, freshly 
cultivated or plowed fields, the eroded areas stand out 
because of the redder color of the surface that is exposed 
by turning up some subsoil. 

Some very rocky and extremely rocky areas appear 
to be much like tlte Corydon very rocky clay loams and 
the Corydon extremely rocky clay loams, but the soil 
between the rock outcrops is redder and much deeper, 
on the average, than that in soils of the Corydon series. 
Where there is much impurity in the parent rock, the 
Hagerstown soils grade toward the Duffield or Franks- 
town soils in characteristics. 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 3 percent slopes (h^aA). — 
This soil has a profile liive the one described, except that 
the surface layer is clay loam instead of silt loam. The 
clay loam texttire is probably a result of past erosion. 
If so, however, tlie previotts erosion cycle has been stabi- 
lized, and a fairly thick stirface soil has developed that 
shows little evidence of recent erosion. 

This nearly level Hagerstown clay loam is suited to 
any crop of the region and is rather easily protected 
from erosion. It is somewhat difficult to cultivate and 
manage because of the fine-textured surface laj'er, which 
is more plastic and more sticky than that of the soil de- 
scribed as representative of the series. The 117 acres of 
this soil are, therefore, in capability unit IIs-1. 



32 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1 959, NO. 17 



Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HaB2). — Tliis sl()])in<»: soil shows some evi- 
dence of erosion. Becanse of the risk of furllier erosion 
phis the difficulty of in:ui!i<iiii<i- a line-textured soil, tlie 
775 acres are in capability unit He- it). 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (HaB3). — Tlie (gentle sloi)es of this Hafrerstown clay 
loam have been so severely eroded that further cultiva- 
tion is hazardous, except under very careful management, 
and management is difficult. There are 52 acres, in capa- 
bility unit IITe 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HaC2). — This Hagerstown soil has slopes 
great enough so tliat culti\ ation is hazardous uidess care- 
ful management is practiced, as suggested for cai)ability 
unit IIIe-80. There are 144 acres. 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (HaC3). — This slojMug, severely eroded 
Ilagei'stown clay loam can be farmed in very long rota- 
tions if the cover is sod much of the lime. There are 15.3 
acres in capability unit lVe-1. 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HaD2). — Tlie slojje makes this soil some- 
what limited in usefulness. Tlie 128 acres are in capa- 
bility unit IVe-1. 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (HaD3). — This strongly sloping, severely 
eroded soil is not suitable for cultivation. The 190 acres 
are more useful as permanent pasture. The soil is in 
capability unit VIe-1. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (HbD2). — Tlie protiie of 
this soil is like that of the silt loam described as repre- 
sentative of the .series, except that it is extremely rocky; 
from al)out 40 to nearly !)0 percent of the surface of the 
soil is occupied by limest(me outcrops. Altliougli this is 
a good soil, the rocks prevent or severely obstruct almost 
any kind of management, except possibly the treatment 
of very small areas by hand. Although real pasture im- 
provement is almost impossible, this soil can be used for 
some limited grazing; probably a better use is for -wood- 
lots. There are fi,696 acres in capability unit VIIs-1. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam, to 25 
percent slopes, moderately eroded (HcD2). — This soil is 
like the one described in the preceding paragraph, ex- 
cept that the surface layer is finer in texture. It can 
be used and managed in the same way. The 4,15fi acres 
are in capaliility unit VITs-1. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes (HdE). — These soils are steep and extremely rocky. 
They are not suitable for crops or for improved pasture, 
but they would make excellent woodlots or furnish some 
very limited grazing. There are 111 acres, in capability' 
unit VIIs-1. 

Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (HeA). — 
This soil has the protiie that is described in detail as 
representative of the Hagerstown series. It is nearly 
level and has been aflected only slightly or not at all 
by erosion. The lack of erosion is either because the 
soil remained in woodland cover or because, more com- 
monly, it was very well managed in farming. There is 
no better soil in the county for most purposes. It can 
be cultivated safely with ordinary, good farming meth- 



ods, is highly productive uiidei- good management, and 
is suited to all the crops of the icgion. The 1,146 acres 
of this excellent soil ai-e in cai)ability unit I-l. 

Hagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HeB2). — This is the most extensive soil in 
Wasliington County and one of the better ones. Because 
it has been long in use, erosion has become active but not 
dangerously severe. Altliougli this soil can be used for all 
the common crops, it should be cultivated only with the 
good management that is necessary to prevent further 
damage by erosion. This soil occupies 22,()()1 aci-es and is 
in capal)ility unit IIe-1. 

Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HeC2). — This sloping soil needs careful 
management, wnth long rotations that include hay or 
pasture, to prevent damaging erosion. The 3,090 acres 
are in capability unit IIIe-1. 

Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HeD2). — The slope of this soil is too steep 
for regular cult i\at i(jn. The soil should be kept under 
sod most of the time. It is excellent for hay and pasture. 
The 2.")2 aci'es are in capability unit IVe-1. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 
(HfA). — This soil is similar to Hagerstown silt loam, to 
3 percent slopes, except that the surface soil contains 
less silt and more clay, making it heavier and somewhat 
more difficult to manage. It is well suited to all the 
crops grown locally and can be cultivated with little 
danger of damage. The 437 acres are in capability 
unit I-l. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HfB2). — Because of slope and the risk 
of further erosion, this soil must be managed with some 
care. It should be used and treated as discussed under 
capability unit IIe-1. There are 4,038 acres of this ex- 
cellent soil in the county. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HfC2). — On this sloping soil very 
careful management is necessary for cultivated crops if 
soil damage is to be avoided. This is an excellent soil, 
however, and it is highly productive under good man- 
agement. There are 1,458 acres, in capability unit IIIe-1. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HfD2). — The slopes of this soil are 
critical, and cultivated crops should be limited to 1 year 
in 4 or 5, with a sod crop on the land most of the time. 
The 153 acres are in capability unit IVe-1. 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (HgC2). — This soil has a pro- 
file much like the one described as representative of the 
series. As much as about 40 percent of the surface layer 
consists of outcropping ledges and reefs of hard lime- 
stone. Although this soil has fewer outcrops than the 
Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, there are too 
many outcrops for any regular cultivation. Because of 
the slope, there is a definite erosion hazard. For that 
reason, grazing, the most intensive suitable use, must be 
limited and carefully managed. The rockiness is the 
chief limitation, and so the 10,613 acres of this soil are 
in capability unit VIs-1. 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (HgE2). — Because erosion has 
done little damage, this steep soil is suitable for pasture 



WASIIINC'ION COUXTV, MAHVLAND 



if it is ("ii-criilly iii,iiKi<:t'(l iiiid <ir;izi ii;;- is liinilcd. 'I'lui 
1,»)S7 acres arc in caijahilily iinil \'Is 1. 

Haserstown very i<Kky silty clay loam, to 15 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (HhC2).- This cxlciisix c 
ami I'.xccllt'iit soil makes vciy <j:()<)(l iH'rmaiuMil ))as(ui'(>, 
al(li()ii<rli it is loo rocUy for normal cultivation. Tlici'e 
are S,;{71 acros, in (•a|)al)ility unit \'ls 1. 

Haserstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded (HhC3). — Krosiou lias 1)ihmi 
so active on (his very roci'Cy soil tliat its iisorulness, even 
t'oi' ])astuie, has hir<iely been destroyed. The soil can fur- 
nish some \ery limited oraziuii-, hut its best use would be 
for woodland. Thei-e aiv acres, in capabililN' unit 

VI Is 1. 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 45 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded (HhE2). — The slopes of 
this very rocky soil are too <rreat for any more intensive 
use than pasture. (lood (jrazin*); can be maintained with 
pro})er management. Tlie ()21 acres are in capabilitv unit 
VIs-1. 

Hagerstown very rocky soils, 45 to 55 percent slopes 

(HkF). — Tliese are tlie steepest very rocky soils of the 
Ha«ierst()wn series. There has been little, if any, erosion 
because most areas have remained in woodland with 
little or no disturbance. This group of soils should re- 
main in forest. There are 107 acres, in capability unit 
VIIs-1. 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and Duffield very rocky silt 
loams, to 3 percent slopes (HIA). — This mappina' unit 
consists of very rocky soils of the three series named, 
wherever they occur in nearly level positions. Rockiness 
prevents cultivation, but it also may help check erosion, 
and none of these areas have been appreciably eroded. 
These are excellent soils for pasture or woodland, and, 
wherever they are kept in permanent vegetation, they 
slioidd not deteriorate in any way. There are 42-1 acres, 
in capability unit Vs-1. 

Hagerstown and Duffield silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (HmE2). — This map])ing unit 
contains silt loams of both the Hagerstown and Dufheld 
series. The soils are so steep that they sliould not be 
cultivated. There are 149 acres in capal)ility unit VIe-1. 

Hazel Series 

The Tlazel series consists of very shallow, skeletal soils 
on hard, slaty or phyllitic quartzite. The soils occur only 
on excessively drained, rolling to steep uplands, mostly 
in the area west of Elk Ridge and just north of Harpers 
Ferry. They are associated with soils of the Chandler 
series, but tliey are nnich shallower than those soils and 
have only very sliglit horizonation that is the result of 
soil-forming ])rocesses. 

Thougli the Hazel soils are thin and dnmghtj', some 
of the more nearly le\ el areas can be used for crops. There 
is little farming, however, on these soils. The steeper 
areas are mostly in forest. 

Profile of Hazel cliaimery silt loam, to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a forested area just west 
of Harpers Ferry Road, 1 mile south of its intersection 
with Hoffmaster Road : 

Ai to 1 inch: black (lOYR 2/1) chaiinery silt loam ; moderate, 
medium, crumb structure; soft to very slightly hard 



when dry, very friable when inoiwl, and slightly sticky 
and sligiilly i)lastic when wet; roots abundant; 10 to 
'M) i)crcenl slaty fragments of i)liyllit(;; Klixhtly acid; 
clear to abruj)!, wavy boinidary; \\(}r'm>i\ is Ji inch to 
\'i inches thick 

(', I to 7 inches: brownish-yellow ( l()\ R 0/0), very channcry, 
lisht silt loam; weak to nioderat(!, fiiU!, siiban^ular 
blocky structure; slinht ly hard when flry, very friable 
when moist, slinlitly plastic and moderately sticky 
when wet ; roots fairly plentiful; 40 to 50 percent phyl- 
litc franmeiits; this layer is only ])artially develoi)ed 
toward a true H horizon; slightly acid; gradual, irr<'g- 
ular boundary; horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick. 

C, 7 to 24 inches: light yellowish-brown (10Y1{ 0/4) mass of 
j)artially decomposed to hard j)hyllit(! fragments; in- 
herited laminar structure; slightly liarfi wht-n dry, 
friable to firm when moist, with hue material moder- 
ately j)lastic and moderately sticky when wet; a few 
woody roots; 80 to 90 percent stone fragments, and 
10 to 20 percent fine material; strongly acid; abrupt, 
irregular to broken boundary; horizon is 10 to 20 
inches thick. 

Dr 24 inches -f : hard, gray, greenish-gray, and yellowish- 
gray phyllite. 

There may be fine mica particles tliroughout the ])ro- 
file. In some places there is a very thin layer, resembling 
a true subsoil, between the Ai and Ci horizons. There are 
occasional stones, boulders, and outcropping ledges of 
phyllite. In numy places the soil blends with the some- 
what deeper tind better developed soils of the Chandler 
series. 

Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HnB2). — This soil has (he ])rofi]e described. 
It includes the better areas of Hazel channery silt loam. 
Slope is gentle and erosion has been moderate, but, be- 
cause of its droughty nature, the soil is severely limited 
in use. Some crops may be grown or pastures developed, 
but they will be affected by drought iji dry weather. The 
1,438 acres are in capability unit IIIs-2. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HnC2). — This soil is steep enough so 
that the hazard of erosion is of more significance than the 
droughtiness. Erosion has not yet been severe, because 
most of the areas remain in forest. If cleared, the soil 
cotdd be cultivated safely only with great care, in A"ery 
long rotations with sod crops. There are 1,856 acres, in 
capability miit IVe-32. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (HnC3l. — This soil is so thin and erosion 
has l)een so severe that continued cropping Avould be 
hazardous. 4'he soil miglit be suitable for orchards if 
well managed and protected, particularly if water for 
irrigation were available. Otherwise, it is best suited to 
forests or to limited grazing. The 202 acres are in capa- 
l)ility unit VIe-3. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HnD2). — Slope and shallowness 
strongly limit the usefulness of this soil. The soil might 
be used for very limited grazing, or possibly for well- 
sodded and well-managed orchards; otherwise, it should 
renuiin in forests. It occupies 1,095 acres and is in capa- 
bility unit Vle-:^. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 
severely eroded lHnD3). — There are 124 acres of this soil. 
The areas are so steep and so severely eroded that they 
should not be used for crops or for grazing, but for 



34 



SOIL SUR^"EY SERIES 195!), NO. 17 



woodland and wildlife. The soil is in capahilitv nnit 
Vire-3. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes 

(HnE). — The sh)pes of this lliin, ch'ouf^hty soil ai-e so <i-reat 
that neither cnltivation nor pasture shouhl be attempted. 
The soil is almost entirely in woodland and should re- 
main so. There are 210 acres, in capability unit VIle-3. 

Highfield Series 

The Ilighfield series consists of deep, well-drained soils 
that were developed from the same materials as soils of 
the Fauquier and the Myersville series. These materials 
are the weathered products of metabasalt, a rock locally 
known as greenstone. The Highfield soils occur on moun- 
tains and on high intermountain or valley slopes. They 
are yellowish brown to brown and differ from the Myers- 
ville soils of the valleys in being much less well devel- 
oped and somewhat weaker in color. They are not so red 
as the Fauquier soils. 

Most areas of the Highfield soils are stony and are 
cliiefly in forest. Nonstony areas can be used for crops 
because they are closely associated with more stony soils; 
however, many of these areas are still in forest. The High- 
Held soils are fairly extensive, chiefly on South Mountain 
and Elk Ridge. 

Profile of Highfield very stony loam, to 5 percent 
slopes, in a forested area 100 yards off Ritchie Road, 
miles southwest of Fort Ritchie : 

Ai to 3 inches: very dark gray (lOYR 3/1), very stony, 
heavy loam; moderate, fine, crumb structure: soft when 
dry, loose or very friable wh(>n moist, slightly plastic 
and very slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
strongly acid; aljrupt, wavy bovuidary; horizon is 1 
to 3 inches thick. 

A2 3 to 8 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), very stony, 
heavy loam; weak, coarse, granular structure; slightly 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and moderately 
plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; 
many pores, mostly fine and medium; contains some 
fragments and small chips of metabasalt or greenstone; 
strongly acid; clear to abrupt, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 4 to 7 inches thick. 

Bi 8 to 20 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4), very 
stony silt loam; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocivy structure; slightly hard when dry, friable when 
moist, and moderately plastic and moderately sticky 
when wet; many woody but few fibrous roots; many 
fine and medium pores: some greenstone fragments; 
strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; 
horizon is 10 to 17 inches thick. 

B2 20 to 36 inches: .strong-brown (7.5Y'R 5/6), very stony, 
light silty clay loam; moderate to .strong, medium, 
subangular blocky structure; moderately hard when 
dry, somew-hat firm when moist, and plastic and 
moderately sticky when wet; very few roots; some 
medium and many fine pores; discontinuous, self- 
colored clay skins; some greenstone fragments; very 
strongly acid; gradual, irregular boundary; horizon 
is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

C 36 to 52 inches: yellowish-brown (lOY'R 5/8) very stony 
loam; inherited weak, coarse, laminar structure; hard 
when dry, moderately firm when moist, and mod- 
erately plastic and slightly sticky when wet; no visible 
roots; 60 to 80 percent partially decomposed to hard 
fragments and stones; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular 
to broken boundary; horizon is 10 to 30 inches thick. 

Dr 52 inches+ ; bedrock of massive to platy metabasalt with 
many white quartzite impurities. 

In some places the upper subsoil is more brown (less 
yellow) than that described in the typical profile. Most 



areas are very stony, and outcrops and ledges are fairly 
common. Because of the dominant stoniness, the ])rofile 
of tliis .soil may be eitlier .shallower or deeper than tlie 
j)r()lile described. 

Highfield gravelly loam, to 5 percent slopes (HoB).— 
This soil has a profile like the one described, except that 
there are only occasional stones on or in the soil. In 
places there are small fragments of greenstone and many 
angular fragments of white quartzite gravel that was an 
imi)urity in the parent rock. This .soil makes u]) the 
more useful areas of the Highfield series. Because of 
gentle slope and freedom from ei'osion, the soil is in 
ca))abilily unit J— 1. There are (w acres. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HoB2). — There has been active erosion on 
most areas of this sloping soil but serious damage in 
only a few places. There are 315 acres, in capability unit 
lie— 4; the more severely eroded areas should be treated 
like the soils in capability unit llIe-4. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HoC2). — Although erosion has not been 
severe on this soil, the slopes are sucli that the hazard 
of erosion is great. The soil is in capability unit IlIe-4. 
There are 212 acres. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 20 to 35 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HoE2). — This soil is so strongly sloping 
that cidtivation must be limited to oidy occasional tilled 
crops, sod crops such as hay, or sodded orchards. The 
78 acres are in capability unit lVe-3. 

Highfield very stony loam, to 5 percent slopes 
(HpB). — This soil has the profile described as representa- 
tive of the series. It is so stony that cultivation should 
not be attempted. The soil makes excellent pastureland, 
however, and woodland management should be econo- 
mically feasible and not especially difficidt. There are 44 
acres. The soil is in capability unit Vs-2. 

Highfield very stony loam, 5 to 30 percent slopes 
(HpD). — This soil is strongly sloping, but it is suitable for 
pasture if the grazing is limited and well managed. Tim- 
ber operations will be more difficult but should be eco- 
nomically feasible. There are 2,123 acres. The soil is in 
capability unit VIs-2. 

Highfield very stony loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes 
(HpE). — This soil is so stony and steep that it should be 
kept in forest. Timber operations will be difficult, but 
woodland is the best use. The soil is in capability unit 
VIIs-2. It occupies 470 acres. 

Holston Series 

The Holston series consists of deep, well-drained, acid, 
brown soils on very old river terraces. The materials in 
which the Holston soils have been developed are old al- 
luvial deposits, which were brought by streams from 
areas of acid sandstone and shale. The Holston soils 
are on terraces of the Potomac River, mostly between 
Four Locks and Millstone. They are on the same terraces 
as the red, well drained "Waynesboro soils, and also the 
brown, moderately well drained Monongahela soils, which 
contain a siltpan. 

The Holston soils are fairly extensive. Some areas are 
still in forest, but most areas have been cleared and 
are used for general crops or pasture. 



vvAsm.\(;i()\' corxiv, aiauvland 



35 



Pi-()liU> of IIolsloii sill loam, <o l) pcrconl slopes, in 
a I'oiTslod area jusl oil' (Jarrison Hollow Koad, about 
cililil -tendis of a mile south of its iiilorsoct ion with State 
Koad No. ;")(): 

A, to 2 inches: very ilurk Kniyish-hrowii (lOYR 3/2), Unlit 
silt loam; inodcralc, fine, criiml) st nift tire ; soft to 
.siinlitly hard when dry, very friable when moist, and 
slightly |)lastic but nonsticiiy wlien wet; roots al)un- 
(lant; strongly acid; abru])t, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 

A2 2 to 9 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4) silt loam; 

moderate, fine, crumb structure; slightly to moder- 
ately hard when dry, friable when moist, and slight 1\' 
plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; 
many fine and medium and some large pores; very 
strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon is 4 
to 8 inches thick. 

Bi 9 to 15 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYIl 5/6) fine gravelly 
silt loam; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure; 
moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
moderately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; 
roots rather few; many fine and medium pores; 
strongly acid; dit^Fu.se boundary; horizon is 4 to 7 
inches thick. 

B21 15 to 24 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6), gravelly, 
heavy silt loam; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure; moderately hard when dry, friable 
to moderately firm when moist, and moderately 
plastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots few; 
many fine and common medium pores; strongly acid; 
diffuse boundarv; horizon is 8 to 12 inches tliick. 

B22 24 to 37 inches: brownish-yellow (lOYR 6/6), gravelly, 
silty clay loam; strong, medium, blocky and sul)- 
angular blocky structure; hard wlien dry, firm when 
moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; very few 
roots; nearly continuous, self-colored clay skins on 
aggregates and in pores; very strongly acid; clear, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. 

C 37 to 42 inches + : variegated yellowish-brown and yellow 
(lOYR 5/6 and 7/6), very gravelly, light sandy clay 
loam; weakly stratified; hard when dry, firm when 
moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; a very 
few roots in upper portion; a very few brownish-yellow 
(lOYR 6/6) clay flows; extremely acid. 

In some places the surface layer and subsoil are 
gravelly; the substratum is gravelly everywhere. The 
siu-face layer may be sandy loam, loam, or silt loam. In 
some places the lower subsoil, just above the substratiun, 
may be slightly mottled and weakly platy in structtire. 

Holston gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes (HrA). — 
This soil has a profile like the one described, except that 
the surface layer is less silty and much more gravelly. 
This is a good soil, suitable for nearly all crops, and not 
subject to any particular hazard. Tlie 439 acres are in 
capability unit I— t. 

Holston gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HrB2). — This soil occupies 1,395 acres. In 
some areas the surface layer is gravelly silt loam. Because 
of the risk of erosion, the soil is in capability unit Ile-i. 

Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HrC2).— There are 588 acres of this slop- 
ing, modei-ately eroded soil. Tlie soil can be cultivated 
safely with tlie good management practices applicable to 
its capability unit IIIe-4. 

Holston gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HrD2). — Tliis soil includes small ai-eas of 
silt loam and of gravelly sandy loam, too small to be 
mapped as different soils. Cultivation must be strongly 
limited and the soil A-ery carefully managed. The 118 
acres of this soil are in capability unit IVe-3. 



Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, .se- 
verely eroded (HrD3). Tlicse areas, makiiig 19 ai-res, 
are too scNcrcly ciodcd for further <ult i vat ion. After 
establishing sod, however, they will pi-odue(> good p(!r- 
manent pasture or an occasional hay i rop. I'lic soil is 
in capability unit Vie -2. 

Holston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (HrE2). — There are 70 acics of this .soil, 
which is too steep to be cultivated safely. The soil can 
be used foi' grazing, for occasional hay crops, or for 
woodland. It is in capability unit Vre-2. 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, .3 to 8 percent slopes 
(HsB). — The prolile of this .soil differs somewhat fi-om the 
one that was described as representative of the series. 
The surface layer is sandy loam, and the soil contains a 
fairly large amount of waterworn gravel. The sand and 
gravel make the soil somewhat di'oughfy :ind, hence, low 
in ]>roductivity. The 115 acres of this soil are in capa- 
bility unit lIs--2. 

Holston gravelly .sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (HsC2). — On these slopes control of 
erosion is a more important management problem than 
sandiness of the soil. This soil occupies 153 acres. It 
is in capability unit IIIe-5. 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (HsC3). — This soil has been so severely 
eroded that its use for crops is strongly limited. Very 
careful conservation measures are required for safe cul- 
tivation. The soil occupies 50 acres. It is in capability 
unit lVe-5. 

Holston silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (HtA). — The 
proHle of this soil is the one described in detail for the 
Holston series. It is a very good soil, subject to very 
little hazard of any kind if well managed. The 224 acres 
are in capability unit I— f. 

Holston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (HtB2). — The slope of this soil and the erosion that 
has occurred make simple conservation measures neces- 
sary for continited cultivation. This soil occupies 666 
acres. It is in capability unit lie -4. 

Holston silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (HtC2). — These 208 acres on strong slopes must be 
carefully managed for safe use and production. The soil 
is in capability luiit Ille— 4. 

Huntington Series 

The Huntington series consists of deep, well-drained 
soils on flood plains along rivers and streams. The soils 
are composed of fine materials washed originally from 
areas in which tlie soils were derived from or strongly 
influenced by limestone. Except for some modification 
of the surface layer by organic matter, these soils show 
practically no development of horizons; hence, the}^ have 
a uniform or a stratified profile and no B horizon. The 
Huntington soils are associated on the flood plains chiefly 
with the moderately well drained Lindside soils and the 
poorly drained and very poorly drained Melvin and 
Dunning soils. 

The Huntington soils are excellent for most kinds of 
farming. Although they originated by overflow and over- 
washing, they are not subject to very frequent or very 
prolonged flooding. They are used for most crops. 



36 



SOIL SUKVKY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



l*i-()Hle of a Hunt in<>(()ii silt loain in a cult i\ at('(l area on 
the Hood plain of Anticlani Creek, one-fourth mile north- 
west of Leitersl)ur<:- : 

A„ to 7 inches: diirk grayish-brown (lO'S'R 4/2) .sill loam; 

moderate, coarse, crumb structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and slifjlitly i)lastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant ; many worm 
ciiannels; neutral; clear, smooth boundary as a re- 
sult of i)lowing; horizon is 6 to 8 inches thick. 

Ci 7 to 38 inches; dark-brown (7.5YIi 4/4) silt loam; com- 
pound, very weak, medium, jjlaty and nu)derate, fine, 
granular structure; hard when dry, friable to some- 
what firm when moist, and moderately plastic and 
slightly sticky wlien wet; roots plentiful in U])])er jiart ; 
many fine and iiu'dium ])ores and sonu' worm chan- 
nels; neutral; very gradual, smooth boundary; horizon 
is 30 to 40 inches thick. 

Co 38 to 48 inches +: brown to dark-brown (7.5YII 4/2), 
slightly gritty silt loam; common, fine sjjecks of dark 
gray and strong brown; weak, coarse, platy structure; 
hard when dry, firm and somewhat brittle when moist, 
and moderately plastic and moderately sticky when 
wet; a very few roots; neutral; grades with depth to 
stratified materials that are generally gravelly or 
sandy, or bot h. 

Waterworn o;i'avel frao;inents may be ])resent in any 
})art of the [jroHle, hut in the nono'ravelly soils tliey are 
confined mostly to the lower substratum. Depth to the 
C2 liorizon varies considerably and may be several feet 
in some places. Color, es})ecially of the surface layer, 
varies somewliat ; in some places it is brown or slio-htly 
reddish I)r()wn. 

Huntington fine sandy loam (Hu). — This .soil is like 
Tluiit iniiton silt loam, except that the entire profile, and 
part ictdarly the surface layer, contains less silt and chiy 
and much more fine sand. This is an excellent soil, and 
it is suited to all the common crops. A few acres, which 
cotdd not he separated on the map, may be (X'casionally 
or frecpiently dama<:ed by floodino:. The croppinjr sy.stem 
there should be adjusted to the flood hazard. Most slopes 
ai'e less than ;? percent, but in a few places the slope is 
as o;reat as 8 percent. The 1,507 acres of this soil are in 
capability unit 1-6. 

Huntington gravelly loam (Hv). — This soil is like Hunt- 
ino-ton silt loam, except that the surface layer is less silty 
and the entire profile contains considerable waterworn 
gravel. This is an excellent soil, suitable for all of the 
common crops. If Hoodino' is a prol)lem on any area, 
the management of this land should l)e adjusted accord- 
ingly. Most iireas are nearly level, but some slopes are 
as great as 8 percent. The 071 acres of this soil are in 
capability unit 1-6. 

Huntington silt loam (Hw). — This soil has the profile 
that was described as representative of the series. It is 
an excellent soil, and normally has practically no hazard 
to limit its cultivation. It is used for all crops of the 
area, and is especially desirable for corn. A few areas, 
which could not be separated on the map, may l)e oc- 
casionally or fretjuently affected by high water. Practically 
all areas are nearly level. The 1,439 acres of this soil 
are in capability unit 1-6. 

Huntington silt loam, local alluvium (Hx). — Tliis soil 
I'esembles Huntington silt loam, except that it does not 
lie on true flood plains. It occupies slight depressions in 
areas of soils underlain by limestone, and lies also around 
drainage heads and on some foot slopes within the same 
areas. It has been formed by the deposit of fine material 



that was washed directly down from surroimding upland 
soils, and not by settlement otit of floodwaters, as with 
the Huntington soils of the flood plains. In some places 
the substratum is slightly finer in texture than the surface 
layer, showing the beginnings of i)rofile development, but 
this is exceptiontil. 

The soil is extensive and important, althotigh generally 
in small areas. There are 4,811 acres, most of which are 
nearly le\el oi- oidy very gently sloi)ing. Some slopes, 
however, are as great as 8 percent. This highly produc- 
tive soil is used for till pur])f)ses and is in capid)ilitv unit 
1-6. 

Laidig Series 

The Laidig .series consists of deep, well-drained, acid 
soils that were developed on old rockslides or other col- 
luvial deposits of .sandstone, quartzite, and (K'casionally 
some shale. The Laidig soils are characterized by a deep 
and very thick, i)laty fragipan in the lower subsoil. The 
fragipan layer, however, apparently does not restrict 
drainage of the soil. 

It has been noted under the Edgemont seiies that the 
Kdgemont and Laidig soils are in many places very closely 
as.sociated and were mapped together in undifferentiated 
units. The Laidig soils were also niap))ed by themselves. 

Tjike the Edgemont soils, the Lsiidig soils ai'e not highly 
prodtict i ve, but they are suited to most crops and are used 
for orchards ami berry crops. 

Profile of Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded, in a forest just off Woodmont Road, 
high on the slopes of Tonoloway Ridge between Wood- 
mont and Cohill: 

Aji to 1/2 inches: black (N 2/0), gravelly, light loam; weak, 
very fine, granular structure; soft when dry, loose 
or very friable when moist, and nonijlastic and non- 
sticky when wet; roots plentiful; strongly acid; clear, 
irregular boundary; horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 

A12 V/i to 3 inches: grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2), gravelly, very 
light loam; single grain; soft to very slightly 
hard when dry, very friable when moist, and 
nonplastic and nonstieky when wet; roots fairly 
plentiful; very strongly acid; clear, irregular bound- 
ary; horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 

A2 3 to 14 inches: light yellowish-browu (lOYR 0/4), grav- 
elly, very light loam or heavy sandy loam; moder- 
ate, coarse, crumb structure; slightly hard when dry, 
friable when moist, and slightly plastic and very 
slightly sticky when wet; roots rather few; very 
strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary; horizon is 
8 to 12" inches thick. 

Bi 14 to 18 inches: pale-brown (lOYR 6/3) gravelly loam; 

weak, medium, subangular blocky and weak, fine, 
granular structure; slightly hard when dry, friable 
when moist, and slightly plastic and very slightly 
sticky when wet; roots few; abundant fine and 
medium and a few large pores; this horizon has 
some of the characteristics of an old surface layer 
that has been buried and is transitional between 
the surface layer and the true subsoil; strongly acid; 
clear, irregular boundary; horizon is 3 to 5 inches 
thick. 

B2, 18 to 38 inches: reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8), heavy fine 
sandy loam containing very little silt; compound, 
very weak, medium, platy and weak, fine, irregular, 
subangular blocky structure; hard and brittle when 
dry, friable or firm and slightly brittle when moist, 
and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; a 
few roots in upper part; abundant fine pores; con- 
tains many small inclusions of the B22m material 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAIO LAM) 



37 



(icscrihed t)olow; very str()iinl>' acid; ck'ar to al)ru|)t, 
wavy to irregular houiidary; horizon is 18 to 2(1 
inclies thick. 

R,2,„ 3S to ».)() inclics I ; rod (2.5YR 4/8 or lOR 4/8), ligiil 
fine sandy chiy loam containing very little silt; 
moderately strong, coarse, ])laty stnicture, crushing 
under pressure to finer platy lenses; very compact ; 
very hard and brittle when dry, firm and brittle 
when moist, and moderately plastic and moderately 
sticlvy wlien wet; no roots; conuuon fine pores, 
mostly horizontal; this fragii)an is a very compact 
clay -sand mixture with practically no silt and a 
nolal)le absence of clay skins; upper part contains 
some inclusions of H21 horizon material; very 
strongly or extremely acid. 

Some horizons may be very thin or absent; tliis is 
particiUarly true of the B, liorizon, and, in some phices, 
of the Ai^. liorizon. The lower subsoil is in some j)laces 
less red tlian desci-ibed but is everywhere compact and 
platy. Stones and boulders are ])resent in some areas. 

Laidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes (La A). — 
This is the nearly level and least stony soil of the Laidig 
series. The profile is like the one described. Although 
this soil is gravelly, strongly acid, and not highly produc- 
tive, it can be cultivated safely with ordinary good farm- 
ing methods. The 110 acres are in capability unit 1-4. 

Laidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (LaB2). — This soil occupies l.i^Tls acres. 
About half of it has been cleared and used for general 
crops or orchards. Because of the slope, the hazard of 
erosion is a definite one. The soil is in capability unit 
Ile-t. 

Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (LaC2). — A profile of this soil was de- 
scribed as representative of the series. Because of tlie 
slope, tliere is an erosion hazard, and the 1,574 acres are 
in capability \init Ille— 4. About 46 acres have been 
severely eroded ; these areas should have special treatment 
to control erosion. 

Laidig gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (LaD2). — The hazard of erosion strongly 
limits use of this soil for cultivated crops. There are 479 
acres in capability unit IVe-8. Inchided are about 33 
acres that are severely eroded, which should be treated 
as if in capability unit Vle-i^. 

Laidig very stony loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes (LbD). — 
This soil has many stones and a few boulders on the sur- 
face and in the profile. On the average, about 50 percent 
of the surface is occupied by stones. This soil is, therefore, 
not suited to cultivation, but it can be used to some extent 
for grazing or can be left in woodland. There are 722 
acres, in capability imit YIs-2. 

Laidig very stony loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LbE2). — This soil is so steep and stony 
that grazing is not practical. Forests should be main- 
tained and cleared areas should be reforested. The soil 
occupies 110 acres and is in capability unit VIIs-2. 

Landisburg Series 

The Landisburg series consists of moderately well 
drained, gravelly soils on the foot slopes of ridges where 
there are colluvial deposits of clierty limestone material. 
The Landisburg soils have some degree of platy structure 
throughout their profile and have a fine and very dense, 
cherty subsoil. They lie below areas of better drained 



soils, chiedy of the l^llib(•|• and Frederick .sei-ies, which 
have been developed direcdy on the cluM'ty limestone. 

The Landisburg soils occur in the weslei'ii part of the 
county, mostly in tlie Elbow Kidge area. They are not 
extensive, nor are (hey highly productive. They need in- 
tensive erosion control and some artifici;il drainage for 
full use, and they are somewhat difliciill lo manage. 

Profile of Tiandisbui'g cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a forested area just west 
of Long Hollow Koad, nine-tenths of a mile south of the 
Pennsylvania State line: 

Ai to 3 inches: very dark grayish - brown (10 YR 3/2) 
cherty silt loam; compound, weak, tliin, jjlaty and 
strong, fine, crumb structure; sliglitly hard when 
dry, friable but slightly tjrittle when moist, and 
moderately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; 
roots abundant; strongly acid; clear to abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 1 to 4 inches thick. 

A2 3 to 9 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), cherty, 
light silt loam; compound, weak, thin, platy and 
moderate, fine, crumb structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable but slightly brittle when moist, 
and moderately plastic and moderately sticky when 
wet; roots plentiful; very strongly acid; clear to 
abrupt, wavy boundarv; horizon is 4 to 7 inches 
thick. 

Bi 9 to 12 inches: brownish-yellow ClOYR 6/6), cherty, 
heavy silt loam; compound, weak, medium, platy 
and moderate, fine, subangular blocky structure; 
moderately hard when dry, moderately firm and 
brittle when moist, and plastic and sticky when 
wet; roots few; very strongly acid; clear, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 3 to 5 inches thick. 

B2tm 12 to 32 inches: variegated, about 75 percent strong- 
brown (7. SYR 5/6) and 25 percent yellowish-brown 
(lOYR 5/4), cherty, heavy clay loam; com- 
pound, moderate, coarse, platy and strong, medium, 
blocky structure; compact and dense; hard when 
dry, firm and brittle when moist, and plastic and 
sticky when wet; practically no roots; very 
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 15 
to 24 inches thick. 

Cg,„ 32 to 42 inches 4- : strongly variegated yellowish-brown, 
strong-brown, and olive-gray (lOYR 5/4, 7.5YR 
5/8, and 5Y 5/2) cherty silty clay loam or clay loam; 
somewhat gritty; strong, fine to medium, platy 
structure; very hard when dry, firm and brittle 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when w^et; 
no roots; very slowly permeable; very strongly acid. 

There are common seepage spots or vpet- weather springs. 
At sucli places the fir.st three horizons ai-e darker in color 
and thinner than in the typical profile described and the 
claypan Batm horizon is closer to the surface. There are 
some small areas of cherty loam mixed with the cherty 
silt loam. In many spots the surface soil is quite gritty, 
containing some medium and coarse sand and very fine 
gravel. The Landisburg soils are rather wet and slow to 
warm in spring. The water table is normally fairly deep, 
but it comes close to the surface in wet w^eather. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LcB2). — This soil has the profile that 
is described. Because the subsoil is tight, runoff is very 
high. Although the soil is only moderately well drained, 
the control of erosion is a more significant problem than 
drainage. For this reason, the 65 acres of this soil are in 
capability unit IIe-13. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LcD2). — On this strongly sloping soil, 
the erosion hazard is great. There are 143 acres, in capa- 
bility unit IIIe-13. 



38 SOIL SURVEY SIOKIES 1959, NO. 17 



Laigent Series 

Tlie J^argeut sei'ies consists of moderately well drained 
soils on Hood plains and in depi-essions, in areas of acid, 
red shale and sandstone. The Tjargent soils are made 
up of alluvium washed mostly from soils of the Calvin 
series. Natural draiiiaae is partially retai'ded. There has 
been a very slight degree of soil profile (levelo])ment, but 
not enough to be of any particular significance. 

The Largent soils are not extensive and are used mostly 
for corn, hay, and pasture. Some areas are still in wood- 
land. 

Profile of a Largent silt loam, in a foivsted area three- 
tenths of a mile west of State Koad No. 615, and one- 
half luile south of the Pennsylvania State line: 

Ai to 12 iiiclies: dark reddish-gray (5YR 4/2), light silt 
loam containing a nuticcablc amount of very fine 
sand; very weak, fine, grainilar structure; very 
slightly hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and very slightly sticky when wet; 
roots abundant; slightly acid; gradual t(j clear, wavy 
boundarv; horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

C, 12 to 25 inches: dark reddish-gray (5YR 4/2) silt loam; 

weak, very fine, platy structure; compact; hard 
when dry, firm and somewhat brittle when moist, 
and moderately plastic and moderately sticky when 
wet; roots plentiful in ujjper portion; many fine but 
few large pores; medium acid; clear to abrupt, wavy 
boundarv; horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. 
25 to 48 inches +: reddish-brown (5YR 4/4), heavy 
fine sandy loam; about 15 i)ercent medium to 
coarse, distinct mottles of yellowish red (SYR 5/8), 
and many very small specks of indeterminate gray; 
compound, very weak, very coar.se, platy and weak, 
coarse, blocky structure; very hard when dry, 
moderately firm when moist, and nonplastic and 
nonsticky when wet; no visible roots; medium acid. 

Although the only mapping unit is named as silt loam, 
there are some small included spots of fine sandy 
loam. Depth to the mottled Csg horizon ranges from about 
14 to 28 inches. The water table is near the surface for 
fairly long periods. The soil is rather cold in spring, 
and may be fiooded for brief periods. 

Largent silt loam (Le). — This soil lias the profile that 
is described. Because of the impeded drainage, the soil 
was placed in capability unit IIw-7. A few areas may be 
frequently covered by floodwaters. Wherever this is true, 
the intensity of use will depend on the frequency and 
pattern of flooding. There are 157 acres in the county. 

Leadvale Series 

The Leadvale series consists of moderately well drained 
soils on colhn ial deposits that consist of acid shale and 
sandstone material at the base of slopes. In Washington 
County the materials have accumulated at the base of 
sorne slopes of soils of the Berks, Calvin, and Montevallo 
series. The Leadvale .soils are in widely scattered, small 
areas, all in the western part of the county. 

The Leadvale soils are suitable for most crops, but are 
wet at certain seasons and are slow to warm up in spring. 

Profile of Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a cultivated area on Long 
Hollow Road, just north of the entrance of the Tonoloway 
Rod and Gun Club: 

Ap to 7 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) gravelly silt 
loam; moderate, medium, crumb and weak to mod- 
erate, fine, subangular blocky structure; moderately 



hard when dry, friable when moist, anfl moderately 
plastic and slightly sti('ky when wet; roots abundant; 
gravel is mostly fine, consisting of lioth sandstone 
and shale; strongly acid; clear, smooth to wavy 
boundarv; horizon is (> to 8 inches thick. 

H2, 7 to 22 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), gravelly, 
light silty clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular 
blocky structure; hard when dry, friable to firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
fairly |)lentiful; many fine and some medium pores; 
gravel is coarser than in jjIow layer; very strongly 
acid; gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; horizon 
is 10 to 16 inches thick. 

B22m 22 to 'M> inches: light olive-l)rown (2.5Y 5/4) gravelly 
and cliannery silty clay hjani; about 20 percent fine, 
prominent mottles of strong t)rown (7.5YR 5/f)) ; 
compoimd, weak, medium, platy and strong, fine 
to medium, subangular blocky structure; very com- 
j)act; hard and brittle when dry, firm and brittle 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; prac- 
tically no roots; very slowly permeable; thin, grayish 
silt coatings on aggregates in upper part; this is a 
siltpan or fragii)an layer; very strongly acid; clear, 
wav\- boundary; horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

Cg 36 to 42 inches + : i)luish-gray (5Y 5/1 with a bluish cast) 
chaimery silty clay loam; about 60 i)ercent fine and 
medium, distinct mottles of olive and olive brown 
(5Y 5/4 and 2.5Y 4/4); very weak, medium, platy 
structure; hard when dry, firm and somewhat brittle 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; very 
slowly permeable; no roots; strongly or very strongly 
acid. 

In some places the soil is rather shallow, with residual 
material or bedrock within feet of the surface. In 
some places the I^'-m horizon is less compact than that 
in the profile described. These soils tend to heave in 
winter. They are of rather low fertility but are fairly 
productive of some crops imder good management. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 
(LgA). — This nearly level soil can be cultivated without 
great risk of erosion. Surface drainage is particularly 
slow, and the soil tends to be wet and cold. It is in 
capability \imt IIw-1. There are 49 acres. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LgB2). — A i)rofile of this .soil is de- 
scribed. Tlie slopes are moderate, and there has been 
some erosion. The erosion hazard is more significant 
than the somewhat impeded drainage. There are 475 
acres. The soil is in capability unit IIe-13. 

Leetonia Series 

The Leetonia series consists of excessively drained, ex- 
tremely acid, stony soils on coarse, light-colored sandstone. 
They resemble the Dekalb soils, but tliey have more prom- 
inent horizons and, generally, a thicker surface layer. In 
this county they were mapped only in undifferentiated 
units with Dekalb soils. 

Profile of Leetonia very stony sandy loam, to 25 
percent slopes, in a forested area about 200 yards south 
of the caretaker's office in the Washington Monument 
State Park, just below the siunmit of Monument Knob 
on South Mountain: 

A, to 4 inches: very dark brown to black (lOY'R 2/2 or 2 1) 
very stony sandy loam; strong, fine, crumb structure; 
soft to very slightly hard when dry, very friable when 
moist, and nonplastic but very slightly sticky when 
wet; roots plentiful; medium acid; abrupt, irregular 
boundary; horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick. 

Ao 4 to 9 inches: pale-brown (lOYR 6/3), very stony and very 
gritty coarse sandy loam to loamy coarse sand; weak, 
granular structure to single grain; slightlj' hard and 



washin(;t()N county, Maryland 



brittle when dry, friable when moist, and nonplast ic 
but very slightly sticky when wet; a few large, woody 
roots; inany inediiini and coarse pon^s; extremely 
acid; clear, irregular l)oundary; horizon is 4 to 8 
inciies thick. 

Bo 9 to 22 inches: yello\visli-l)rovvn (lOYR S/fi), very stony 
and very gritty coarse sandy loam; distinctly finer or 
heavier in texture than horizon A..; weak, medium, 
blocky structure; slightly cemented; modera1el.\' hard 
when dry, firm and l)rittie when moist, and siigldi\ 
sticky and very slightly i)iastic when wet; more fine 
roots than in horizon Aj; moderately ra])i(lly or rapidly 
I)ermeal>le; extremely acid; clear, irregular boundary; 
liorizon is 12 to 24 inches thick. 

C 22 to 42 inches + : marbknl or variegated, 80 i)ercent light 
brownish-gray {2.5Y 6/2) and 20 i)ercent reddisli- 
ycUow (7.5YR (')/()), very stony and v(^ry gritty, decom- 
posed sandstone of coarse sandy loam texture; inher- 
ited very weak, slightly i)laty structure; hard when 
dry, firm and brittl(> wIhmi moist, slightly sticky and 
very slightly plastic when wet; a very few roots; 
extremely acid. 

There is coiis'uUM'ahle variation in the lliiekness of the 
two upper hoi'izons; in some phices tliey are extremely 
thin. The Bo horizon in some phxces is loose, not so strong- 
ly cemented, and not so strongly colored as the one 
described. 

Lehew Series 

The I-,elie\v series consists of excessively drained, 
sliallow, stony soils on red to dark-red, acid sandstone. 
They resemble the Dekalb soils, except in color, but 
they have a redder profile, particularly in the lower 
subsoil and in the substratum. The Leliew soils also liave 
somewhat more proininent liorizons than the Dekalb soils. 

Lehew soils were not mapped alone in this county, but 
are in undifferentiated mapping units with Dekalb soils. 

Profile of Leliew very stony loam, to 25 percent 
slopes, in a forested area just north of U.S. Highway 
No. 40, about '200 yards east of the highway crest over 
Fairview jMountain: 

A) to 3 inches: very dark grayish-brown (lOYR 3/2) very 

stony loam; weak, medium, crumb structure; soft to 
slightly hard when dry, very friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
rather ai^undant; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. 
Ao 3 to 5 inches: brown (lOYR 5/3) very stony loam; weak, 
medium, crumb structure; slightly hard when dry, 
very friable when moist, slightly plastic and slightly 
sticky when wet; roots rather plentiful; many pores 
of all sizes; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy bound- 
ary; horizon is 2 to 4 inches thick. 

B] 5 to 11 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4) to dark- 

brown (7. SYR 4/4) very stony loam; weak, fine to 
medium, subangular blocky structure; slightly hard 
when dry, friable when moist, slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots few; many fine and 
medium pores; very strongly acid; gradual, irregular 
lioundarv; horizon is 5 to 10 inches thick. 

Bs 11 to 20 inches: reddish-brown (2.5Y'R 5/4 with a slight 
purplish cast) very stony gritty loam; moderate, fine 
to medium, suV^angular blocky structure; hard when 
dry, friable to somewhat firm when moist, slightly 
plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots few; numy 
fine and medium pores; very strongly acid; gradual, 
irregular boundary; horizon is 8 to 18 incfies thick. 

C 20 to 36 inches -|- : reddish-brown (5YR 5/3), stony and 
very chainiery loam; inherited very weak, laminar 
structure; very few roots; moderately permeable; con- 
sists mostly of red sandstone fragments with some 
fine material; very strongly acid. 



In many places (he entire profile is reddisli brown 
and is distinctly more redtlisli in the A^. and li, horizons 
than the profile described. Tiie Lehew soils iu\t slightly 
less coai-se in texture throughout than cillici' tlic Dekalb 
or the Leetonia soils. 

Lindside Series 

The Lindside series consists of moderately well drained 
soils that were formed from alluvial materials in the 
limestone area. The materials are medium or fine textured. 
They were washed from areas of upland soils underlain 
by limestone, such as soils of the Hager.stown, Duflield, 
Frankslown, and Frederick series. The Lindside soils 
are on bottom lands and also in upland depressions, around 
drainage heads, and on foot slopes clo.se to smaller 
drainageways. They are commonly near areas of Hunt- 
ington soils, which are better drained, and with Dunning 
and Melvin soils, which are more poorly drained, all from 
the same or similar materials. 

Most areas of Lindside soils in the county have been 
cleared. These soils are commonly used for corn or 
pasture, although other general crops are grown where 
drainage has been improved. 

Profile of Lindside silt loam, in a forest adjacent to 
Roundtop Road, three-tenths of a mile south of its 
intersection with Orchaixl Road, about 1 mile north of 
Cohill : 

Ai to 14 inches: brown (lOYR 4/3) silt loam; weak, me- 
dium to coarse, crumb structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and moderately plas- 
tic and moderately sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 
12 to is inches thiclc. 

C, 14 to 26 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4) silt 
loam; common, fine specks of very dark gray; com- 
pound, weak, medium, platy and very weak, fine to 
medium, subangular blocky structure; hard when 
dry, rather firm when moist, and moderately plastic 
and slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful in upper 
part; many fine and some medium pores; moderately 
alkaline; gradual, irregular boundary; horizon is 6 to 
12 inches thick. 
26 to 40 inches: olive (SY 5/3) silt loam; about 20 percent 
medium, distinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 
5/6) ; compound, weak, coarse, platy and very weak, 
medium, blocky structure; very hard when dry, firm 
when moist, and plastic and .sticky when wet; no 
visible roots; contains a few remnants of fresh-water 
mollusk shells, and a few waterworn gravel frag- 
ments; moderately alkaline; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

Dg 40 to 60 inches +: stratified sand, silt, and gravel; silty 
and sandy portions olive (SY 4/3 with a bluish cast); 
about 15 percent fine, distinct specks of strong brown 
(7.SY'R 5/6); weak, very coarse, platy structure; 
silty portion hard or very hard when dry, moderately 
firm when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; 
no roots; variable jiermeability ; bluish color fades 
completely to light olive gray when material is dried; 
gravel is mostly waterworn chert; moderately to 
strongly alkaline. 

The bluish color in the lower substratum is not every- 
where present, nor are the mollusk shells in the sub- 
stratum. Some profiles contain more gravel throughout 
than the one described, and the substratum may not be so 
strongly alkaline. Lindside soils on the flood plains may 
be subject to flooding at times, but those in upland de- 
pressions are less suscept il)le. These soils are fairly wet 
and have a seasonally high water table. 



.")!J!ir).';:{ — i 



(12 4 



40 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Lindside silt loam (Lm). — This soil lias the proiile that 
is (lescfil)ed. Wetness and the possibility of ll()0(lin«j; are 
the greatest hazards on this soil. AVith improved drainage, 
the soil can be used for nearly all crops, but it is used 
mostly for corn and pasture. A few acres may have more 
frecjuent floods, which restrict their use to sod crops and 
grazing. On 45 acres the surface soil is rather gravelly. 
The '2,4:5r> acres ai'c in ca])al)ility unit lI\v-7. 

Lindside silt loam, local alluvium (Ln). — Fhis soil is 
like Lindside silt loam, but it is located in upland 
depressions instead of on Hood plains. It is much less 
likely to be flooded than the soil on the bottom lands. 
Impeded drainage and seasonal excess water are the chief 
hazards, and the 4S!S acres of this soil are in capability 
unit Tlw-7. 

Litz Series 

The Litz series consists of somewhat e.xcessively drained 
to excessively drained, shallow, skeletal soils that were 
developed on light -colored, acid shale that contains some 
thin beds of limy shale or limestone, or both. The Litz 
soils resemble the Montevallo soils in their general iirofile, 
but, since they were dev eloped from and influenced l)y par- 
tially limy materials, they are somewhat moi-e [)ro(luct ive. 
The liitz soils are chiefly on ridges within the ridge ami 
valley section of the western part of the county. They also 
occur on a few isolated ridges within the limestone valley 
in the northeastern pixvt of the county, where they are 
intricately mixed with soils of the Teas series. 

The Litz soils are fairly extensive. They are not widely 
used in agriculture, and most areas remain in forest. 
Some areas, however, are used for genei'al farming or, 
more connnonly, for orchards. 

Pi'ofile of Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, in a 
forested area just off Orchard Koad, 1 mile south of its 
intersection with Koundtop Road, about one-half mile 
northwest of Coliill : 

An to 1 inch: black (lOYR 2/1) loam with about 15 per- 
cent shale chips; weak, fine, crumb to granular 
structure; soft wlien dry, very friable when moist, 
and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; 
roots matted; strongly acid; al)rupt, wavy bound- 
ary; horizon is '2 inch to 3 inches thick. 

A12 1 to 3 inches: light yellowish-brown (lOYR 6/4), shaly, 
heavy loam; weak to moderate, coarse, crumb struc- 
ture; moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, 
and sticky and moderately plastic when wet; roots 
plentiful; about 25 percent shale; very strongly acid; 
clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 1 to 4 inches thick. 

B/C 3 to 16 inches: brown (7. SYR 5/4) very shaly silt loam; 

compound, inherited, laminar and moderate, fine, 
blocky structure; hard when dry, firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; a few large roots; 
at least 60 percent pale-brown to pinkish shale; 
strongly acid; abrupt, irregular to broken boundary; 
horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. 

Dr 16 inches -|-: hard, pale-brown, gray, or greenish-gray, 
slightly limy shale. 

In spots there is a B horizon, but it is very thin. Be- 
cause the soil is so thin, it easily becomes droughty in 
periods of low or poorly distributed rainfall. Locally, 
the soil is less acid than the descriljed ])rofile. 

Litz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (LoB2). — This soil has a profile like the one 
descril)ed, excei)t that the shale fragments are larger and 
harder, and there are some hard, thin, flat fragments of 



sandstone on and in the soil. These sandstone fragments 
were derived from seams of that rock that are present 
at places in the shale, and some of them pi'obably were 
deposited by gravity from higher areas of other soils. 
Although this soil is thin and droughty, risk of erosion 
is probably the most signilicant management ])roblem. 
The soil is suitable for cultivation, with the pi-o[)er ])i'e- 
cautions, including the selection of cro))s that can at 
least partially withstand (hoiiglil. The 2'.V2 acres ai'e in 
capal)i]ity unit 1 le-1 1. 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (LoC2). — On this sloping soil there is need 
for careful mamigement and protection and careful selec- 
tion of crops. There are 97 acres, in capability unit 
irie-:51. 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (LoC3). — Ki-osion has been severe on this thin and 
droughty soil, and very s])ecial management is necessary 
if the soil is to be cultivated. This soil is in capability 
unit IVe-.')l. It occu])ies 10!) aci-es. 

Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes (LsB). — This 
.soil has the ))roiile that is described as repi'esentative of 
the series. Slopes are not great, ami there has been little, 
if any, erosion, but there is an ei'osion hazard. The soil 
is well suited to .some cro])s, including orchards. There 
are ."*)()() aci-es, in capal)ility unit IIIc 

Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (LsB2). — This soil can be cultivated if it is jiroperly 
managed and pi'otected. The (V.V2 acres are in capability 
unit Ille .'51. 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (LsC2). — Because of its .strong slopes, this soil de- 
mands careful management and protection if cultivated 
crops are to be grown. The management needed is that 
outlined for capability unit IVe-3L There are 1,493 
acres. 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (LsC3). — This soil has been so severely eroded that 
further cultivation is not advisable. It is also more 
droughty than the noi'inal uneroded soil. It should be 
managed as outlined for capability unit VIe-3. There 
are 604 acres. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (LsD2). — Cultivation produces a .severe hazard of 
erosion on these .slopes, and the 791 acres of this soil are 
in capability unit VIe-3. About 69 acres of the mapping 
unit are somewhat channery as well as shaly. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (LsD3). — This Litz shaly loam is so stee]) and has 
been so severely eroded that it is not suitable for crops. 
With proper management, it could supply some grazing. 
The 579 acres are in capability unit VIIe-3. A few spots 
are channel"}'. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (LsE2). — This soil is too steep and shallow for cul- 
tivation, although there has been onl}' moderate erosion. 
Some grazing might be produced, however, if good stands 
of deep-rooted pasture plants can be established. The 
soil is in capability unit YIIe-3. It occupies 379 acres. 
There are a few channery spots. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, severely 
eroded (LsE3). — On these slopes of severel}- eroded, thin 
soil, grazing is not practical. The areas should be re- 



WASHIN(iT()N COUNTY, MAUVLAM) 



41 



forested. This soil is in (■;ii)iil)ili(_v iiiiil N'ilc ;5. It oc- 
cupies I'M) acres. 

Litz shaly loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes (LsF). This 
is the steepest Ijilz sluily loain. It is uiieroded hecause 
all of it has iviiiaiiied in forest, and that is the hest use. 
The U>2 acres are in capal)ility unit \'lle 'A. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent slopes 
(LtB). — The Litz-Teas complexes consist of intricate nii.x- 
tures of Litz soils and oi" the similar, but reddish, 'IVas 
soils. E\en tlioujili this mapping:- unit is <>-ent]y or mod- 
erately sl()pin<>', there is some thi-eaf of erosion. There 
are acivs, in capability miit Ile-11. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LtC2). — Ln()u<>h erosion has taken 
place on this thin .soil to limit its use for crops. Cul- 
tivated crops may be ojrown with the careful niana<;ement 
to check erosion that is given for its capability unit, 
IIIe-;n. There are (I'jr) aci'es, many of them in orchai'ds. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (LtC3). — Erosion has been so severe on 
these moderate slopes that ci'oppin<»: nnist be very stron<i;ly 
limited if further damage is to be prevented. The 126 
acres are in capability unit IVe-31. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (LtD2). — Erosion has not been severe 
on these soils, but slopes are so p;reat that cropping 
must be severely limited. There ai'e 164 acres, in capa- 
bility unit IVe-31. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (LtD3). — Erosion lias been so act ive 
that these soils are of little use for other than deep-rooted 
sod plants or trees. The 1(57 acres ai'e in capabilitv unit 
VIe-3. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (LfE2). — These slopes are too 
steep and the soils too thin for safe cultivation, but sod 
crops can be produced. Tlie soils occupy 56 acres and 
are in capability unit yie-3. 

Melvin Series 

The Melvin series consists of poorly drained soils of 
the flood plains, made up of fine materials that were 
washed from limestone soils. The soils are more poorly 
drained than either the Huntinoton or Lindside soils 
of the same flood plains, but they are not so pooi-ly 
drained as the Dunniug soils. 

The Melvin soils were also mapped as parts of un- 
differentiated units with the Dunning soils. These undif- 
ferentiated units have been listed after the discussion of 
the Dunning series. 

Profile of Melvin silt loam at a point in the flood ])lain 
of Grove Creek just north of the Smithsburg-Tveitersburg 
Road, about 75 yards northwest of its intersection witli 
Durberry Road : 

A„ to 10 inches: light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) silt loam 
or light silty clay loam; no ai)i)arent structure; hard 
to very hard when dry, moderately firm when moist, 
and plastic and sticky when wet; roots relatively 
few; many fine pores and some worm channels; 
mildly to moderately alkaline; abrupt, smooth 
l)oundary; this is the recent overwash deposit and 
is the present surface soil; horizon is 8 to 12 inches 
thick. 



Ciu 10 to 18 inclu's: dark xrayiHli-brown to oiivoxray (2.5Y 
4/2 to 5Y 4/2) silt loam; 5 to 10 percent mcdiiim, 
distinct splotches of recldisli y(?llow (T./iYll 0/8); 
moderate, m(-dium to coarse, crumb structure; mofl- 
erat(!ly hard when dry, friable when moist, and mod- 
erately [jlastic and moderately sticky when wet; few 
roots; many fine and a few large jjores anfl wonn 
channels; this hori/oii was the surface? soil before the 
overwash was depositefl; moderat(4v alkaline; alirujit, 
smooth boundary, except that fingers extend down- 
ward tiirough old root chaiuiels or siilisoil cracks into 
th(! liori/on below; horizon is 6 to 10 inclu^s thick. 
18 to 30 inches 4 : pale-olive (5Y 6/4) silty clay loarn; 
about no percent sjiecks and sjxjts of light and dark 
gray, olive gray, anfl olive yellow; com[>ound, mod- 
erate, coarse, |)laty and strong, medium, subangular 
blocky structure; very hard wiien dry, firm wh(?ri 
moist, and very i)lastic and very sticky when wet; 
no roots; moderately to strongly alkaline. 

The surface layer varies in thickness from phice to 
place. Tlie subsoil is neaj ly everywhere alkaline. Locally, 
tlie immediate surface layer will be more brown than in 
t lie t y[)ic;il proiile descril)e(l, or somewhat reddish, depend- 
ing tipon the nature of the most recent deposit at that 
point. This is a poorly drained soil and one that may still 
be .subject to flooding. It is wet for long peri(xls, and the 
water table is close to- the surface in wet seasons. 

Melvin silt loam (Me). — A proHle of this soil was 
described. The subsoil and substratum are calcareous in 
some places. Artilicial drainage is needed for fidl nse 
and production. Limitations in use after drainage and 
the frequent flood hazard are the reasons why the soil is 
placed in capability unit IIIw-2. A few areas that are 
more frequently damaged by flooding are better used for 
permanent grass or woodland. There are 146 aci'es in the 
county. The slope is almost everywhere less than 
percent. 

Monongahela Series 

The Monongahela series consists of moderately well 
drained, acid, brown soils on A^ery old ri^-er terraces. 
The soils have a thick, strongly developed fragipan (silt- 
pan) in the lower subsoil. They developed in old alluvial 
deposits that originated in areas of acid sandstone and 
shale. The areas are mostly along the Potomac River, 
but a few small areas are elsewhere in the county. The 
Monongahehx soils are less well drained than the brown 
Holston soils and the reddish Waynesboro soils, but they 
are much better drained than the Tyler soils. All of these 
soils are located on the same terrace formations. Most of 
the acreage of Monongaliela soils in the comity has been 
cleared. 

Profile of Monongahela gravelly loam, o to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a once cultivated, but now 
idle, area 50 yards north of the AYestern Maryland Rail- 
road tracks, one-half mile west of Shankton Road: 

A„ to 8 inches: brown (lOYR 5/3), gravelly, heavy loam; 

moderate, fine, crumb structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and moderately plas- 
tic and moderately sticky when wet; roots plentiful; 
about 15 jjercent waterworn sandstone gravel; me- 
dium acid; abrupt, smooth boundary; horizon is 6 to 
8 inches thick. 

B21 8 to 18 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/6) gravelly 
silt loam; compound, weak, coarse, platy and mod- 
erate, medium, subangular blocky structure; mod- 
erately hard when dry, slightly firm and somewhat 
brittle when moist, and moderately plastic and 



42 



SOIL SURVEY SP:RIES 1 959, NO. 17 



inodoratoly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; many 
fine and medium jiores; about 20 percent waterworn 
gravel; medium acid; clear, smooth boundary; hori- 
zon is 8 to 10 inches thick. 
- Boo,,, 18 to 32 inches: strong-brown (7.5 YR 5/6), gravelly, 
light silty clay loam; about 40 percent horizontal 
streaks of light yellowish l)rown (lOYR 6/4); com- 
pound, strong, medimn, (jlaty and strong, fine to 
medium, blocky structure; very hard when dry, 
firm and very brittle when moist, and plastic and 
sticky when wet; very few roots; slowly permeable; 
this is a true fragipan, or siltpan; about 15 percent 
gravel; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth bound- 
ary; horizon is 12 to 18 inches thick. 

B:),„ 32 to 50 inches: variegated by distinct , mostly horizontal 
lay(>rs, yellowish-red and brownish-yellow (5YR 5/6 
and lOS'R 6/6), gravelly, heavy silt loam to light 
silty clay loam; compound, strong, coarse, platy 
ancl very strong, medium, blocky structure; very 
hard when dry, firm and very brittle when moist, 
and j)lastic and very sticky when wet; no visible 
roots; about 30 percent gravel; a fragipan horizon; 
very strongly acid; fairly clear, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 15 to 24 inches thick. 

C 50 to 60 inches ^ : yellowish-red (SYR 5/6), very grav- 
elly, decomposed shale of loam texture; about 20 
percent medium, distinct mottles of reddish yellow 
(7.5YR 6/6); weak, coarse, platy structure; moder- 
ately hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky 
and slightly j)lastic when wet; no roots; ai)out 40 
])ercent waterworn sandstone gravel; extremely acid. 

The fraf!:ipan layers may be from about 2 to nearly 
G feet (liick. Some areas have a more yellowish and less 
l>i-()wn surface layer and sidxsoil than the horizons de- 
scribed. Cidtivated areas conunonly have many surface 
rills and small erullies that may cut into the fragipan. 
The fragipan slows down internal drainage, increasing 
the runolF and the hazard of erosion. The ]\Ionongahela 
soils are fairly wet and cold in spring, altliough in dry 
midsummer weather their available moisture is generally 
low. Thus, they tend to be too wet part of the year and 
somewhat droughty at other times. 

Monongahela gravelly loam, .3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MgB2). — This soil has tlie prolile that 
is described. The threat of erosion from tiie runoff on 
these slopes is a more significant management [)roblem 
than tlie impeded drainage, and the soil has been ])laced 
in capability unit Ile-l:'). There are oOl acres. 

Monongahela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MgC2). — On these slopes runoll' is 
rapid and the erosion hazard is great. The 110 acres are 
in capability unit Ille-M. 

Monongahela silt loam, to .3 percent slopes (MhA). — 
This soil has a profile like the one described, but it is 
less gravelly throughout and the surface soil is more silty. 
On these nearly level areas, both runoff and internal 
drainage are slow and wetness is a greater hindrance to 
use than the threat of erosion. The 443 acres are in 
capability unit IIw-l. 

Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MhB2). — This is the most extensive soil in 
the ]\Ionongahela series in the county. Over most of the 
acreage, much of the surface layer has been lost. There 
are many gullies in places, but most of them are shal- 
low; on 24 acres erosion has been severe. This soil 
can be used for all suitable crops Avith management to 
prevent further damage. It occupies 861 acres and is in 
capability unit IIe-13. 

Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MhC2). — Because care is required to cul- 



tivate the slopes safely, the 223 acres of this soil are in 
capability unit irie-13. 

Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MhD2). — This is the stee{)est soil of the 
Monongahela series in the county. Because of the slope 
and tlie degree of j)ast erosion, the soil is suited to tilled 
crops grown oidy infrequently in very long rotations. 
If tiUed crops are grown, conservation measures imist be 
carefully applied. The 57 acres are in capability unit 
IVe-9. 

Montevallo Series 

The Montevallo series consists of very shallow, exces- 
sively drained, skeletal soils. The soils have a weakly 
developed A horizcm and practically no B horizon. The 
surface layei' directly overlies i)artially decomposed and 
hard, gray to pale-brown shales. In some places the 
parent shales contain a small amount of lime. 

The ISfontevallo soils occur mostly on the shale ridges 
north and west of Fairview Mountain, but some are on 
ridges and steep areas on both sides of Conococheague 
Creek. Only so)ne of the most gently sloping and least 
eroded Montevallo soils ai-e suitable for regular cultiva- 
tion, and then oidy with very careful management. These 
soils are low in natural fertility and are not very pro- 
ductive. 

Profile of Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded, in a forested area on Blair Valley 
Koad one-half mile south of the Pennsylvania State line: 

A, to 4 inches: brown (lOYR 4/3) shaly loam; moderate to 
strong, medium, crumb structure; slightly hard when 
dry, very friable when moist, and nonplastic but 
slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; about 30 
percent partially decomposed shale; strongly acid; 
clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick. 

C 4 to 12 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) very shah- 
loam; strong, medium, crumb structure; slightly hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and nonplastic but 
slightly sticky when wet; roots few; 70 to 95 percent 
shale, partially decomposed; strongly acid; abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 

Dr 12 inches +: light brownish-grav, pale-brown, and light 
yellowish-brown (2.5 Y 6/2, 10 YR 6/3, and 2.5Y 6/4), 
moderately hard to very hard shale. 

Locally, the immediate surface layer in forested areas 
is almost black. Cultivated areas have a yellowish-brown 
to light brownish-gray surface layer; some eroded areas 
have a surface layer that is more brown and less gray. 
The soil may be more acid than that described in the i^ro- 
file. In the extreme western part of the county, the C 
horizon may have a slight reddish cast, where the Monte- 
vallo soils are close to soils of the Calvin series. 

Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MmB2). — This soil has the jjrofile that is 
described in detail. Erosion is a hazard, but it is less of 
a management problem on these thin, droughty soils than 
the maintenance of moisture and fertility. The 1,857 acres 
are, therefore, in capability unit IIIs-2. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MmC2). — On these slopes the risk of ero- 
sion is the most important management problem, but the 
soil also has hazards of drotightiness and low fertility. 
The soil is in capability unit IVe-32. It occupies 2,972 
acres. 



\vAsiiiN(;'i()N corxrv, mahvland 



43 



Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (MniC3). — 'I'his soil li.is Ihhmi so sovcrolv 
(nodiMl (hilt lluMo is little but shale left. With very careful 
inana^fcnuMit and erosion control, and with stroiijr limita- 
tions on iira/iiii;', I lie soil can he used I'or pasluiv. 'i'liere 
are 1,C)2S acres, in cai)al)ility unit VIe-;5. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to .'{O percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MmD2). — Erosion has not l)een seveiv on 
(his soil, but there is such a strong risk of erosion that the 
soil should not be used for cultivated crops. The 1,812 
acres are in capal)ility unit VIe-S. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to .'JO percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (MmD3).--'riiis steep soil has l)een so severely 
eroded that it should not be cultivated, and firazino; will 
be hazardous. The soil should be refoivsted wherever 
feasible. There are 623 acres, in capability unit VIle-3. 

Murrill Series 

The Murrill series consists of soils that are deep and 
well drained. The soils developed on a combination of 
two very ditl'erent kinds of materials. They are on ex- 
tensive colluvial fans of material from acid rocks, mostly 
sandstone and quartzite. The rocks have been moved by 
gravity from mountains and ridges out into the valleys 
over limestone materials. The mantle of acid material 
is everywhere thin enough to allow" the underlying lime- 
stone or limestone residuum to influence the soil that has 
been deveIoi)ed. In most places the surface layer has been 
strongly influenced by the limestone. There are spots, 
however, where the surface layer and the upper subsoil 
have been developed in nearly pure (puirtzite or sandstone 
material and the lower subsoil has been developed in lime- 
stone residuum. 

The Murrill soils are extensive and important; they 
make up about 6 percent of the county. These soils occur 
at many places on the fringes of the limestone valley, 
but they are most extensive in the Clear Spring area just 
east of Fair\ iew Mountain. The topography is generally 
favorable for agriculture, mostly undulating to gently 
rolling. 

The Murrill soils are fertile, fairly easily managed, and 
highly productive under good management. Besides being 
deep, well drained, and productive, they have a high 
capacity for furnishing moisture to crops. Most of the 
acreage has excellent air drainage and is highly regarded 
for orchards, as well as for general farm crops and pas- 
ture. ]S"early all areas are used for crops, pastures, or 
orchards, with only a few spots remaining in forest. 

Profile of Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes, in a 
cultivated field just back of the new elementary school 
at Clear Spi'ing: 

Ap to 7 inches: dark grayish-brown (lOYR 4/2) silt loam; 

moderate, fine to medium, crumb structure; shghtly 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and moderately sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
occasional subangular to rounded sandstone gravel 
fragments; slightly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 6 to 8 inches thick. 

Bi 7 to 17 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4) silt loam; 

weak to moderate, fine, subangular bloeky structure; 
moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
moderately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; 
roots plentiful; many fine and medium and some large 
pores; occasional gravel fragments; slightly acid; 
clear, wavy boundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. 



lU, 17 to 20 inches: ycllowisli-brown (lOYR 5/fi), light Kilty 
clay loam; itio(lcrat(? to strong, fine ancl riicdiiirn, 
blocky and sul)angular blocky structure!; tiard when 
dry, in<)d(Tately firm when moisl, and sticky and 
moderately plastic when wet; roots fairly (;<jmmon; 
many fine and medium pores; very few gravel frag- 
ments; sliglitly acid; gradual, wavy boundary; hori- 
zon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

J},. 20 to 40 inches: n-ddish-ycilow (7..5YR 0/0) silty clay 
loam; strong, fine and medium, blocky structure; 
hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky and 
plavstic when wet; a few fine roots; fine pores; 
no gravel; common, self-colored clay skins and many 
black films on aggregates; medium acirl; gradual to 
clear, wavy bounriary; horizon is 12 to 20 iiiclies 
thick. The horizcjii appears to be transitional 
between the doniinant iy sandstone ujjper materials 
and the limestoiK; residuuni materials below. 

Bjit 40 to 51 inches: strong-brown (7. SYR 5/0) silty clay loam; 

slightly variegated, with about 20 {)ercent fine specks 
either more yellowish or more reddish than the base 
color; compound, strong, medium to coarse, platy 
and moderate, mcflium, subangular blocky structure; 
very hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky and 
very [jlastic when wet ; a very few fine roots; only fine 
pores; no gravel; common clay skins on block surfaces, 
with some plate surfaces coated with black; strongly 
acid; clear, wavy to irregular boundary; horizon is 
8 to 12 inclies thick. 

C 51 to 72 inches -\- : strong-brown (7.5YR .5/8) very silty 
clay loam; very weak, platy to massive structure; 
hard when dry, moderately firm and brittle when 
moist, and plastic and slightly sticky when wet; occa- 
sional black specks; no gravel; medium to slightly 
acid. 

Throughotit the Murrill series, there is considerable 
variation in depth to the stibstratum, in content of gravel, 
in texture of the surface layer, and, most important, iit 
the proportions of and the degree of mixing of the acid 
colltivial and the residtial limestone materials. There is 
also some variation in color. Where limestone material 
is dominant, the soil is somewhat more red than described; 
vrhere sandstone material is dominant, the upper part 
of the soil, in particular, is somewhat more yellow. 

Murrill gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes (MoA). — 
This soil has a profile mtich like the one described in 
detail, except that its surface layer contains more gravel 
and less silt and clay. There is also more gravel through- 
out the profile. This soil is very gently sloping. It can 
be cultivated freely without danger of damage if good 
farming practices are follow-ed. This soil occupies 1,479 
acres and is in capability unit I^. 

Murrill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MoB2). — This is the most extensive Mur- 
rill soil. There are 9,485 acres; they can be cultivated 
with fairly simple practices to prevent ftirther erosion 
and are well suited to all crops grown in the area. This 
soil is in capability unit Ile^. 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MoC2). — This is another extensive soil. 
With more careful management than that needed on the 
more gently sloping soil, it can be safely used for all 
kinds of farming. The 4,122 acres are in capability unit 
IIIe-1. 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded (MoD3). — This soil has been severely dam- 
aged by erosion. Most of the original surface layer and, 
in some places, part of the subsoil have been eroded, and 
there are frequent gullies in most places. Further cultiva- 
tion is not practical, but this soil can produce excellent 



44 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19.59, NO. 17 



jiraziilii- if well sodded and nmiiaged. There are 84 acres, 
in (•■•ipaljilit y unit Vle-2. 

Murrill f»ravelly loam, 15 to 2.5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MoD2). — The sh)i)i" of this soil is ci-itical 
enou<j:h so that cultivaHon sliould be limited to an 
occasional tilled crop in a long rotation with sod crops. 
The soil is well suited to sodded oi-chards. The .596 acres 
are in capability unit IVe-.'i. 

Murrill gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, mod- 
erately er«)ded (MoE2). — There are only ;>[ acres of this 
steep soil. Because of the slope, pasture would be a 
nuich more suilal)le and safe use than any cropping. This 
soil is in capability unit Vie 2. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes 
(MrB). — This soil has a surface layei- more sandy than that 
of the gravelly loam. The saml, like tlie gi-avel, is materia! 
remaining from the sandstone i)art of the parent material. 
The sand makes the soil somewhat less fertile and less 
productive than the olliei- Alui-i-ill soils and tends to 
make it somewhat droughty. The .'UiS acres are in capa- 
bility unit IIs-2. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, ,3 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MrC2). — On these slopes, where some 
erosion has already taken place, the hazard of erosion 
is of more significance in management than the sandy 
nature of the soil. Because of this combination of ei-osioii 
hazard and sandy soil, the (wf-i acres aiv in ca])ability 
unit IIIe-5. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (MrC3). — Cultivation causes a particular 
hazard of further erosion on this eroded, sloping, sandy 
soil. An occasional crop may be grown witli pro])er man- 
agement, but the soil is better suited to liay or grazing. 
The 84 acres are in capability unit IVe-.5. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MrD2). — On this soil, erosion has not 
been severe, but, because the slopes are steep, there is a 
threat of erosion if cover is not maintained. The 88 
acres are in capability unit IVe-5. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (MrD3). — Tliis steep soil has been too se- 
verely eroded to permit any furtlier c\dtivati(m. It should 
be ke|)t in sod and cai-efully grazed, or it should be planted 
to trees. Tlie soil occupies 40 acres and is in capability 
unit VIe-2. 

Murrill silt loam, to ."> percent slopes (MsA). — Tliis 
is probably the best agricultural soil of the Murrill series. 
It has the jirofile that is described in detail. The surface 
laver is silt loam; the soil is nearly level; tliere is very 
little gravel to interfere with cultivation; and there has 
been practically no erosion. The 269 acres are in capa- 
bility unit 1-4. 

Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MsB2). — Erosion can be controlled on this sloping- 
soil witli the management suggested for its capability 
unit, lie— i. The soil is suited to all the crops of the area, 
and it is especially good for orchards. There are 872 acres. 

Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded (MsC2). — Intensive erosion-control ])ractices are 
required to keep this soil in a condition to continuously 
])roduce good crops. There are 214 acres, in capability 
unit IIle-4. 



Myersville Series 

The Myersville sei-ies consists of deep, well-di-ained, 
brown soils developed in material weatheivd from meta- 
basalt, a rock locally known as greenstone. The Myersville 
soils are somewliat similar to the Highdeld soils, but 
they aie moi-e deeply weathered and more mature, and 
tliey luive stronger coloi-s and more strongly developed 
soil structure. The Myersv ille soils occur mostly at lower 
elevations in valleys, and the Ilighlield soils are mostly 
limited to higher elevations on ridges ami mountains. 
The Fau<juier soils were also developed in the same parent 
rock nuiterial, but they are much redder throughout tlieir 
profile and are more maturely developed than the Myers- 
\ ille soils. 

The Myersville soils are extensive in Washington 
(-ounty, ))arti(ndarly in the southeastern part. They are 
fertile and productive ami are iiiglily regarded for farm- 
ing. Only a few spots, other than stony areas, remain 
in forest. 

Profile of Myersville silt loam, to Z percent slopes, 
in a forest 100 yards west ami 200 yards south of the 
intersection of Kaetzell Koad with State Koad No. 67, 
near Ciai)lan(l : 

Ai to 3 inches: very dark brown (lOYR 2/2) silt loam; 

moderate, fine, crumb structure; sliglitly hard when 
dry, very friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 
sliglitly sticky when wet; roots abundant; medium 
acid; clear to abrupt, wavy boundary: horizon is 1 to 
3 inches thick. 

A2 3 to 8 inches: brown (lOYR 5/3) silt loam; moderate, 
medium, crumb structure; hard when dry, friable 
when moist, and moderately plastic and mofieratelv 
sticky when wet; roots plentiful; many fine and medi- 
um and some large pores; strongly acid; clear, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 4 to 7 inches thick. 

B;., 8 to 16 inches: strong-brown (7. SYR 5^8) gritty silty clay 
loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc- 
ture; very hard when dry, moderately firm when 
moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots rather 
plentiful; many fine and medium pores; strongly acid; 
gradual, wavy boundary; horizon is 6 to 12 inches 
thick. 

B22 Ifi to 38 inches: yellowish-red (SYR S/8) silty clay loam 
to clay loam; strong, meciium, blocky structure; very 
hard when dry, firm when moist, and j)lastic and very 
sticky when wet; few roots; many fine and some 
medium pores; thick self-colored clay skins and some 
black films on aggregate surfaces and in pores and 
root channels; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy to 
irregular boundary; horizon is 12 to 24 inches thick. 

B3 38 to 46 inches: variegated vellowish-red, reddish-vellow, 
yellow, and olive (SYR S/6, 7.SYR 6/6, lOYR 7/6, 
and 5Y 5/3) gritty silty clay loam; weak to moderate, 
coarse, blocky structure; very hard when dry, firm 
and somewhat brittle when moist, and sticky and 
plastic when wet; very few roots; many fine and 
some medium pores; some pores and aggregates coat- 
ed with yellowish-red clay skins or black films; very 
strongly acid; gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; 
horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick. 

C 46 to 60 inches + : yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/8), soft, 
decomposed metabasalt of clay loam texture; in- 
herited laminar structure; moderately hard or hard 
when dry, firm and brittle when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; some red clay flows and a few 
black films in upper part; contains some fragments 
of hard metabasalt schist; strongly acid. 

Some of the Myersville soils are deeper than the profile 
described, ranging up to 6 feet or more of solum over 
the substratum. In such places the lower subsoil may 



WASllINCTON COUNTY, MAKVLAND 



45 



be sonu'whiU niorc reddisli than tlic one dcsci-ilu'd. Soinc 
•^ravtd and small stones are comnion, both of <fivenish 
metahasalt and of while <iiiai-t/,ile, which is a coninion 
impurity in the metahasalt. 

Myeisville channery loam, to :i percent slopes 
(MvA). — The profile of this soil dill'ers from that of the 
silt loam described in that the surface layer is somewhat 
less silty, and tlie entire soil, ])art icidarly the surface 
layer, contains many small, flat pieces of metahasalt or 
fjreenstone. Some of the fra<;ments are hai-d, and some 
have been partly dec<)mi)osed. This neai-ly level soil 
occupies only 47 acres, but it is of particular im])ortance 
because it is' in capability unit 1-4. The soil can be culti- 
vated regularly, without' damafje, if ordinary good farm- 
in<r methods, including rotations, are used. 

Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MvB2). — There are l,-VM acres of this 
good, geiillv sloping soil. The soil is in capability unit 
lIe-4. 

Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MvC2). — Special management to con- 
trol or prevent erosion is necessary to keep this sloping 
soil in regular cultivation. There are 1,676 acres, in 
capability imit IIIe-4. 

Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MvD2). — On this strongly slojiing soil, 
there is a hazard of erosion. Occasional cropping can be 
done if the soil is kei)t in tight vegetative cover, such as 
hay or pasture, most of the time. The soil occupies 418 
aci-es and is in capability nnit IVe-3. 

Myersville channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MvE2). — This is the steepest Myers- 
ville channery loam. Cultivation should not be attempted 
on it because the hazard of erosion is too great. The 
soil will produce excellent pasture if carefully sodded and 
not overgrazed. The 175 acres are in capability unit VIe-2. 

Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (MwB3). — This soil contains some inclu- 
sions of Myersville channery loam and of Myersville silt 
loam. There are i)'2 acres in capability nnit Ille— 1:4. 

Myersville channery silt loam, 10 to 30 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (MwD3). — This soil sliould not be 
cropped. Pernument sod for pasture or perhaps occasion- 
ally for hay would be a much safer use. The 57 acres are 
in capability unit VIe-2. 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (MxA). — 
This soil has the profile that is described as representative 
of the series. It is nearly level, contains very little gravel, 
and has not been appreciably eroded. This is an excellent 
soil for all purposes. The 131 acres are in capability 
unit 1—4. 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded (MxB2). — This soil needs protection against 
erosion. There are 532 acres, in capability unit lie— 4. 

Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (MxC2). — This soil is strongly sloping, and 
it needs to be protected against erosion. Fairly long 
rotations are in order. The soil is in capability unit 
Ille— 4. It occupies 153 acres. 

Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (MyE2). — About 40 percent of the 
acreage of this soil is occupied by stones and boulders 



of greenstone, some l)urie(| iind manv on the sui face. Tiie 
soil is too stony for cult i vat ion, but it makes good pasture 
and pel haps will proilucesome hay crops. Thei'e aiv 1,42S 
aci-es, in capability unit VIs-2. 

Myersville very stony loam, 30 to 5.') percent slopes, 
eroded (MyF2). - Tiiis soil is so steep, so stony, and in .^ome 
places so severely eroded that grazing is not practicable. 
It occupies 147 aci-es and is in c;ipability unit VIIs-2. 

Philo Series 

The Philo .series consists of modeialely well cirained 
to somewhat poorly drained soils of the flood plains. The 
soils are composed of fine matei'ials that were washed 
originally from areas of acid, sedimentary rocks, chiefly 
sandstone and shale. Although the soil materials below 
tlie surface layer show some mottling as a result of im- 
peded drainage and poor aeration, there has been no real 
soil profile development. The Pliilo soils are mostly in 
that })ai't of the county west of Faii'\iew .Mountain, al- 
thougli i)art of the acreage is in the drainage area 
of Little Antietam Creek. The soils consist of materials 
essentially the same as those of the better drained Pope 
soils and the more poorly drained Atkins soils of the 
same areas. 

The Philo soils are moderately extensive, but they have 
not been intensively used. Some hay and corn are grown, 
and some areas are in pasture. 

Profile of Philo silt loam, in a forested area near the 
intersection of Draper Road and Harvey Road North: 

A] to 13 inches: very dark grayish-brown (lOYR 3'2) silt 
loam; very weak, fine to medium, crumb structure; 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary; horizon is 
10 to 16 inches thick. 

Cig 13 to 20 inches: dark grayish-brown (lOYR 4 2) silt loam; 

about 20 percent fine, faint to distinct mottles of 
dark yellowish brown and dark olive gray (lOYR 4/4 
and 5Y 3/2); very weak, fine to medium, subangular 
blocky structure; hard when dry, friable to firm when 
moist, and moderately plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; roots rather plentiful; many fine and me- 
dium pores; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 9 to 12 inches thick. 

Cag 20 to 40 inches +: dark olive-brown (2.5Y 4/2) heavy 
silt loam; about 25 percent very coarse, prominent 
blotches of yellowish red (5YR 4/6) ; compound, 
weak, coarse, platy and very weak, fine or medium, 
flattened blocky structure; hard or very hard when 
dry, moderately firm when moist, and moderately 
plastic and moderately sticky when wet; very few 
roots; strongly acid; grades to sandy and gravelly 
materials. 

The texture of the surface layer ranges from sandy loam 
to heavy silt loam, and some areas are quite gravelly. In 
some places the siibstratum is more olive colored than that 
described, with more prominent mottling in the Cig 
horizon. The Philo soils are normally wet for considerable 
periods, and the water table is close to the surface. Some 
areas are flooded rather frequently. 

Philo gravelly sandy loam (Pg). — The profile of this 
soil differs from the one described only in that it is less 
silty and more sandy and is gravelly throughout. The 
gravel is mostly waterworn sandstone. The surface layer 
tends to be somewhat more sandy than the substratum. 
A few areas that are subject to frequent floods should be 



46 



SOIL SURVEY SEItlKS 19 5!), NO. 17 



mana<j:ed for sod crops and grazing. The 430 acres are in 
capability unit lI\v-7. 

Philo silt loam (Ph). — The profile of this soil is the one 
described for the series. Most areas are nearly level, but 
in many places the slope is about 3 percent. A few areas 
that are subject to frequent floods should be managed 
for sod crops and grazing. There are 1,254: acres, in 
capability unit IIw-7. 

Pope Series 

The Pope series consists of deep, well-drained soils of 
the flood plains. The soils are made up of the same 
kind of materials as the Philo soils, materials that were 
washed originally from soils on acid sandstone and shale. 
They are much IxMtei- drained than the Philo soils, and 
do not show any evidence of soil-forming processes other 
than some darkening of the surface layer by organic 
matter. 

The Pope soils are extensive in the county. They are 
mostly in the western part, in small, widely scattered 
areas along streams. The soils are nearly all in use, 
chiefly for corn, hay crops, and ])asture, but some small 
grains are grown and even some orchards. 

Profile of Pope fine sandy loam, in an area of grazed 
woods in the flood plain of Lanes Run near its crossing 
with Licking Creek Koad : 

Ai to 16 inches: dark grayish-brown (lOYR 4/2) fine sandy 
loam; weak, medium, crumb structure; moderately 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and slightly sticky when wet; roots aVjundant; 
many worm channels; slightly to medium acid; grad- 
vial, smooth boundary; horizon is 14 to 18 inches 
thick. 

C 16 to 4t) inches: brown (lOYR 4/3), heavy fine sandy loam 
or very light silt loam; compound, very weak, me- 
dium, platy and weak, medium, cruml) structure; 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and moderately 
plastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots plen- 
tiful in upper part; medium to strongly acid; abrupt, 
wavy boundary; horizon is 24 to 40 inches thick. 

D 46 inches + : interbedded lavers of gravel and brown sandv 
silt. 

There is some variation in color. In some places the C 
horizon is more yellowish brown or more reddish brown 
than the one described. The reddish-brown colors are 
mostly in the soils in the extreme western part of the 
county, where at least part of the soil material has been 
washed from areas of Calvin soils. The texture ranges 
from sandy loam to silt loam, and some of the soils are 
stony or gravelly, or both. The gravelly D horizon is, 
in some places, many feet below the surface. 

Pope fine sandy loam (Pn). — This soil has the profile 
that is described in detail, and it is the most extensive 
of the Pope soils in the county. Although there is some 
hazard of flooding, this soil is used for all the crops com- 
monly grown. A few areas that could not be separated 
on the map are occasionally or frequently flooded. Their 
cropping intensity and pattern should be adjusted to the 
overflow hazard. There are 1,793 acres of this soil, in 
capability unit 1-6. Most areas are nearly level, but in 
a few places the slope is as great as 8 percent. 

Pope gravelly loam (Po). — This soil contains less sand 
and more gravel than Pope fine sandy loam. Most 
areas are nearly level, but in some places the slope is as 



great as H {)ei-cent. There are 436 acres of this soil, in 
capability unit L-6. 

l*ope gravelly sandy loam (Pp). — iiecause this soil is 
sandy, it is slightly di-oiigiity. There are 446 acres of it. 
Most of the soil is nearly level, but some of it has slopes 
between .') and S percent, 'i'he soil is in capability unit 
I Is 2. 

Pope silt loam (Ps). — This Pope soil has a profile more 
silty and less sandy than the one described. It is produc- 
tive and suitable for practically all uses. The 442 acres 
are in capability unit 1-6. A few areas are occasionally 
or frequently overflowed, and cropping intensity and pat- 
tern should be adjusted accordingly. 

Pope stony gravelly loam (Pt). — This Pope soil is too 
stony for normal cultivation. The stones were probably 
washed from nearby steep slopes during former heavy 
floods. The soil can be so managed as to make fairly good 
grazing, or it would make good woodland. Most oJP the 
soil is in forest. It occupies 87 acres and is in capability 
unit Vs-2. 

Rocky Eroded Land 

Areas of this land type consist of very severely eroded 
remnants of rocky to extremely rocky Hagerstown and 
Frankstown soils and a few areas of Corydon soils. The 
areas are more rocky than the areas of Eroded land, lime- 
stone materials. Kocky eroded land is shai i)ly limited in 
usefulness, and its t reatment is difficult. 

Rocky eroded land (Rk). — There are 823 acres of this 
land type, in capability unit VlIs-1. Cultivation is im- 
possible, and grazing is mostly impracticable. The best 
use for this land would be to have it reforested, mostly for 
watershed protection, although there might be some re- 
turn from tlie woodland products. 

Rohrersville Series 

The Rohrersville series consists of poorly drained soils 
that were developed in fine materials washed from areas 
of Fauquier, Myersville, and Highfield soils. The fine 
materials were deposited in upland depressions, around 
heads of drains, or on narrow foot slopes. The original 
source of the fine materials was the metabasalt, or green- 
stone, that was weathered to form the parent material 
of those soils. 

The Rohrersville soils occur only in small areas, but 
these are distributed through the greenstone areas of the 
county, especially in Pleasant Valley, which is drained by 
Israel ('reek. Where drainage can be improved and con- 
trolled, the soils are well suited to some crops and are 
fairly productive. They are used mostly for corn and 
hay, but some small grain crops and soybeans are pro- 
duced, and some areas are used for pasture. 

Profile of Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 perceiit 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a cultivated field about thre^- 
tenths of a mile southwest of Gapland: 

Ap to 6 inches: olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) silty clay loam; very 
weak, platy structure, readily crushing to weak, fine 
and medium crumbs; moderately hard to hard when 
dry, friable to somewhat firm when moist, and mod- 
erately plastic and moderately sticky when wet; roots 
abundant; medium acidj clear, smooth boundary; 
horizon is 5 to 7 inches tliick. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHYLA.NI) 



47 



Ho,^ (i to 15 inches: U^hi olivi'-brown (2.5Y 5/4) silly cliiy 
loam; about 30 percent very fine, distinct mottles of 
Xray and strong brown; coniponnd, weak, nu'dium, 
plaiy and weak, fine to medium, blocky structure; 
very hard when dry, firm and somewliat brittle when 
moist, and sticky and very plastic wlien wet; a few 
roots; strongly acid; al)rupt, smootli boundary; hcjri- 
zon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

B22£ 15 to 36 inches + : olive (5Y 5/3) sandy clay loam to sandy 
clay; about 20 percent medium, distinct mottles of 
dark brown (7.5YII 4/4); compound, moderate, 
coarse, platy and moderate, medium, irri'tjular, blocky 
structure; hard when dry, firm wlien moist, and 
plastic and sticky when w(?t; no visible roots; very 
slowly permeable; strongly acid. 

Ill some places there are recent, t liiii deposits ol" waslied- 
iii material on the surface. This matei-ial is more reddish 
than that in the i)roHle described. In places there are 
soft, iron concretions in the lower subsoil. Locally the 
soils are tuiderlain either by bedrock or by an old, buried 
soil that is within .'5 or 4 feet of tlie surface. The soils 
are snbject to temporary ])eriods of flooding or ponding. 

Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (RoB2). — This is the only soil of this 
series in the county. Erosion has been active, and there 
are some rills and small gullies. Because wetness is a 
greater hazard and management problem than tlie risk 
of erosion, the 216 acres are in capability unit IlIw-1. 

Stony Land 

This land type is so stony and bouldery, contains so 
many outcrops of rock, and is so rough that its uses are 
strongly limited. In general, it is not suitable for graz- 
ing and does not produce much if used for woodland. 
The most suitable uses are for wildlife food and cover 
areas, for watershed protection, and for recreational areas. 

The small amount of soil between the stones and boul- 
ders may resemble a soil of any of several series, generally 
the Highfield, Dekalb, Chandler, or Edgemont soils. The 
rocks are all acid rocks and there is no limestone. 

Stony rolling land (Sr). — ^This land is generally in for- 
est and should remain so. Slo|)es range to as much as 
35 percent. Although the land is not ideal for forests, 
some timber can be produced. High yields of timber 
cannot ordinarily be expected, however, and the growth 
of seedlings or young stock will be slow and the returns 
small. Deer and other wildlife find protection in these 
areas. Since most of the areas are in hilly or mountainous 
parts, well toward the heads of drainageways, they fur- 
nish watershed protection if they are forested. There 
are 4,643 acres, in capability unit VIIs-2. 

Stony steep land (Ss). — Because this land is steep and 
rough, tree i)laiiting is not practicable, and production 
of timber will be slow. In addition, the land is so rotigh 
that little, if any, economic return from forest products 
can be expected. The most valuable uses of this land will 
be for wildlife and for watershed protection. The 2,857 
acres are in capability tinit VIIIs-1. 

Talladega Series 

The Talladega series consists of shallow, well-drained 
soils on highly micaceous schists. In Washington County, 
however, the Talladega soils are somewhat deeper than 



the average for the series elsewhere. They werc! devcloiied 
in weathered mica schist covered by surface; d(;])f)si)s of 
sandstone material that is probal)ly colluvium from higher 
slopes. The Tiilladega soils occur in Wtishiiiglon ( Vjunty 
on intermediate and lower slopes and benches of South 
Moinitain. Oravel is common in the light-colored surface 
layers of the soil, but it is absent from the lower sub.soil 
and the substratum, which contain many flat fragments 
of schist or phyllile. 

The Talladega soils are used in (his county for a variety 
of crops. They appear to be especially desirable for berry 
crops and orchards because of their good position and 
air drainage. 

Profile of Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum 
variant, to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded, in a 
forest just east of Moser Road, about nine-tent lis of a 
mile south of its intersection with Altei-nate TT.S. High- 
way No. 40: 

Ai to 2 inches: dark reddish-brown (SYR 2/2), light grav- 
elly silt loam; moderate, fine, crumb structure; soft 
to slightly hard when dry, very friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
matted; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy to irregular 
boiuidary; horizon is 1 to 4 inches thick. 

A2 2 to 7 inches: yellowish-brown (lOYR 5/4), light gravelly 
silt loam; weak, fine, crumb structure; moderately 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly pla.s- 
tic and slightly sticky when wet; roots jjlentiful; many 
fine and mcfliuni pores; very strongly acid; clear to 
abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. 

B21 7 to 22 inches: weakly variegated vellowish-brown and 
yellowish-red (lOYR 5/6 and 5YR 5/6), gravelly and 
somewhat channery, light silty clay loam; moderate, 
medium, blocky structure; hard when dry, friable to 
firm when moist, plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
rather few; many fine and some large pores; this ap- 
pears to be a transition between the soil derived from 
sandstone or quartzite above and that part derived 
from phyllite below; has a somewhat greasy feel; con- 
tains considerable fine mica; very strongly acid; clear, 
wavy to irregular boundary; horizon is 12 to 20 inches 
thick. 

B22 22 to 30 inches: yellowish-red (2.5 YR 5/8), channery, light 
silty clay loam; compound, very weak, coarse, platy 
and moderate to strong, medium, blocky structure; 
hard to very hard when dry, firm when moist, and 
plastic and sticky when wet; very few roots; many- 
fine and medium pores; contains no angular gravel 
but many chips and fragments of phyllite and much 
finely divided mica; strongly acid; clear, irregular 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick. 

C 30 to 42 inches + : marbled vellowish-red and reddish- 
yellow (5YR 5/8 and 7.5 YR 6/6), decomposed phyl- 
lite of silty clay texture; inherited laminar structure; 
hard to very hard when dr\', firm when moist, and 
plastic and sticky when wet; a few woody roots; con- 
tains considerable hard phyllite and an abundance 
of fine mica; strongly acid. 

In some places the surface layer is a little more silty 
and contains less gravel than the one in the profile de- 
scribed. These less gravelly areas are usually at the lowest 
elevation. In wooded areas the Ao horizon sometimes has 
a very faint or weak, platy structure. In eroded areas 
the light-colored surface material has been removed, and 
the exposed new surface is distinctly reddish. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 
to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded (TaC2). — This 
is the most extensive Talladega soil in the county. It 
has the profile that is described. Because the soil is 
highly susceptible to erosion and is, at best, only moder- 



48 



SOIL SUHVEY SKHIKS 1959, NO. 17 



ately deep over bedrock, it is classilied in (■apahilit y unit 
lIIe-10. Tliis means that it may be cultivated re<xidarly, 
but only in I'airly lonj; rotations with very careful man- 
agement to check erosion. This soil is well suited to 
orchards and berry croi)s. There are Ti)4 acres in the 
county. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 10 
to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded (TaC3). — This soil 
has been severely ei-oded and is no longer well suited to 
cultivation. An occasional tilled crop can be grown in 
rotation with hay or pasture plants, and the soil is suited 
to orchards if kept in sod or cover crops. There aiv 5.'} 
acres, in capability unit IVe-10. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 
20 to 30 percent slopes (TaD). — Tliere has been little ero- 
sion on this steep soil, sin(;e the areas of it have been 
exceptionally well managed or left in forest. The 160 
acres could be cultivated occasionally, as long as the 
proper management is maintained. Tliis soil is in capa- 
bility unit IVe-in. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 
20 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded (TaE2). — This 
soil is steep, and erosion has been active but not severe. 
Tlie danger of furtlier loss or damage is so great that the 
soil should not be cropped. If pi'0))erly managed, it can 
be safely grazed. This soil occui)ies 1 1 1 acres and is in 
capability unit VIe-3. 

Teas Series 

The Teas series consists of somewhat e.\cessi\ ely di'ained 
to excessively drained, shallow, skeletal soils that consist 
of materials weathered from dark-red to purplish-red 
sandstone antl shale that is slightly limy in places. The 
Teas soils somewhat resemble the soils of the (^ilviii 
series, but they ditl'er chiefly in being tliinner and shal- 
lower and somewhat iiiHuenced by lime. 

All the Teas soils of this county are in mapping units 
that are complexes of Litz and Teas soils. I^itz soils 
make np between 50 and 60 percent of the complexes, 
and Teas soils the remainder. 

Profile of Teas channery silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in an orchard about one-half 
mile south of Ringgold : 

Ap to 6 inches: dark reddish-gray (SYR 4 2) channery silt 
loam; moderate, fine, crumb structure; slightly hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and slightly plastic 
and slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
coarse material is pinkish to purplish sandstone frag- 
ments and some shale; slightly acid; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 4 to 6 inches thick. 

B) 6 to 11 inches: dark reddish-brown (SYR 3/2) shaly and 
very channery silt loam; very weak, fine to medium, 
subangular Ijlocky structure; moderately hard when 
dry, friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots common; medium acid; 
gradual, wavy boundary; horizon is 5 to 10 inches 
thick. 

C 11 to 20 inches: fairly soft to hard, pinkish and purplish 
shale and fine-grained sandstone fragments; infiltrated 
with about 10 to 15 percent fine material from the Bo 
horizon above; very gradual to diffuse Vjoundary; 
horizon is 3 to 12 inches thick. 

Dr 20 inches -|- : hard purplish shale and sandstone, in places 
weakly calcareous below 30 inches. 

Where the Teas soils blend into the Litz soils, the colors 
are more brownish than those described. 



Terrace Escarpments 

Throughout Washington ('ounty, wherever tliere are 
alluvial flood plains, there are some narrow and, as a 
rule, small areas of steep land made up of alluvium. 
These narrow strips are most commonly the sides of 
draws or small ravines that have been cut through the 
fi(K)d plains from adjacent uplands down to the main 
drainageways. In some other places, they are the short, 
sharp slopes from one level of a flood plain to another; 
for example, between a first bottom and a second bottom 
or low terrace. In still other ))laces, they are at the edge 
of a flood plain whei'e it adjoins steep or very steep 
uplands. 

Although most of these areas are small, many of them 
ai'e shown on the soil map. They may be made up of 
the soils of several .series, including Congaree, Hunt- 
ington, Lindside, Philo, Pope, or Warners. Although the 
soil materials thus vary considerably, these areas have 
one characteristic in comnum — they are all so steep and 
so sul)ject to erosion that they require special care and 
management if they are cultivated. 

Terrace escarpments (Te). — All of the areas just de- 
scribed have been included in this one mapping unit. 
Because of the danger of erosion, they have been placed 
in capability unit IIIe-6. The mapi)ed areas amount to 
341 acres. In most areas the slope is between 8 and 25 
percent, but 36 acres have slopes greater than 25 percent. 
If all areas ai'e treated and managed according to prac- 
tices outlined for capability unit lIle-6, they should be 
sufficiently protected for practical use in farming. 

Thurmont Series 

The Thurmont series consists of rather deep, well- 
di'ained soils that developed in deposits of colluvial rock 
debris. The rock debris contains a mixture of materials, 
chiefly greenstone or metabasalt, l)ut it includes some sand- 
stone and quartzite. The Thurmont soils occur on 
mountain slopes wherever fragmented rock material has 
accumidated, notably on foot slopes and on intermediate 
benchlike areas. They are in close association witli the 
Braddock soils. Some undifferentiated areas of liraddock 
and Thurmont soils have been described under the Brad- 
dock .series, but soils of the Thurmont series also occur 
by themselves. 

The Thurmont soils are used for general crops, but 
they seem especially desirable for orchards and berry 
crops, chiefly because of the good air drainage in their 
side-slope positions. Some vegetables, such as tomatoes, 
are also grown on these soils. 

Profile of Thurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded, in an apple orchard on Edgemont 
Road, about one-half mile south of the Pennsylvania State 
line : 

Ap to 8 inches: grayish-brown (10 YR 5/2) heavy gravelly 
loam; moderate, fine, crumb structure; moderately 
hard when dry, friable when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and slightly sticky when wet; roots abunciant; 
slightly acid; clear, smooth to wavy boundary; horizon 
is S to 8 inches thick. 

B21 8 to IS inches: light yellowish-brown (lOYR 6/4) gravelly 
silt loam; moderate, fine to medium, subangular 
blocky structure; moderately hard when dry, rather 
friable when moist, and sticky and moderately plas- 



WASIIIXCTOX COrXTV. NfAHYLAXI) 



49 



tic when wot ; roots ahuiuiaiif ; miiiiy fine and iiicdiuMi 
and some larn(> pores; inedinni acid; n''ii<li'iil. wavv 
bovmdarv; liorizon is (1 to 10 inches illicit. 

B22 15 to 31 inciies: iinht yeilowisli-hrown (lOYR 6/41, 
gravelly, gritty, heavy silt loam; moderate, fine to 
medium, l)locky sinirture; hard wiien dry, frial)le to 
(irni wluMi moist, moderately jjl.'istic and moderately 
sticky when wet; roots few; tliick, nearly continuous, 
self-colored clay skins; medium to strongly acid; 
gradual, wavy to irregular boundary; horizon is 12 
to 18 inches thick. 

Kj 31 to 40 inches: light yellowish-brown (lOYR ()/4), 
gravelly, very gritty silt loam; weak, medium, platy 
to weak, irregular, l)locky structure; hard when dry, 
firm when moist, and sticky and moderately plastic 
when wet; roots few; some silt and clay coatings on 
aggregate surfaces; strongly acid; clear, irregular 
boundary; horizon is 8 to 12 inches thick. 

C 40 to 48 inches +: brown (10 YR 5/3), gravelly, ex- 
tremely gritty loam; very slightly variegated with 
gray and yellow; very weak, medium to coarse, 
platy structure; hard when ciry, firm when moist, 
and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; 
practically no roots; very strongly acid. 

Gravel consists mostly of ojreenstone or metabasalt, but 
in places there are many fra<;ments of quartzite or sand- 
stone. In some places the subsoil is a little more brown 
than the one described. 

Thurmont gravelly loam, Z to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (ThB2). — Tliis soil lias the profile that is 
descril)ed. Erosion has been active, but not very severe. 
The 4C() acres are in capal)ility unit IIe-4. 

Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (ThC2). — Tliis soil occupies -J-ib acres. 
It is in capability unit IIIe-4. 

Trego Series 

The Trego series consists of moderately well drained 
soils on gravelly deposits of quartzite, sandstone, and 
metabasalt similar to those that were parent material for 
the Braddock and the Thurmont soils. The Trego soils 
are essentially red, like the Braddock soils, but they have 
a thick, platy fragipan in tlie lower siibsoil that retards 
drainage somewhat. The Trego soils were named as 
gravelly silt loam, but small areas of silt loam and 
gravelly loam are present. 

These soils are not extensive. They are used for general 
crops and for orchards, altliough some ai'eas are in forest. 

Profile of Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded, in a young second-growth 
forest area along old U.S. Highway No. 40, two-tenths 
of a mile west of its intersection with the new U.S. High- 
Avay No. 40, in the Mount I^ena community : 

Alp to 5 inches: dark-brown (lOY'R 3/3) gravelly silt loam; 

moderate, fine, crumb structure; slightly hard when 
dry, friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots fairly abundant; 
slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 
4 to 6 inches thick. 

A2 5 to 11 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4) grav- 
elly loam; compoimd, very weak, fine, platy and 
moderate, very fine, crumb to granular structure; 
slightly hard when dry, friable when moist, and 
slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; roots 
rather plentiful; medium acid; gradual, wavy bound- 
ary; horizon is 5 to 10 inches thick. 

Bi 11 to 21 inches: reddish-yellow (7.5Y'R 6/8), gravelly, 
gritty, heavy loam to light sandy clay loam; a few 
faint streaks of yellowish red (5Y'R 5/8) ; compound, 
weak, medium, platy and strong, fine to medium, 



irregular, blocky Htructurt;; nioth-rateiy harfl to hard 
and brittle when dry, moderately firm and brittle 
when moist, and moderately plastic and moderafelv 
sticky when wet; roots few; many firi(! and merliuni 
|)ores; v(;ry strongly acid; gradual, wavy bcjundury; 
horizon is 7 to 10 inches thick. 

Ho|,n 21 to 2!) inches: yeliowish-rcfi (5YR 5/8), gravelly, verv 
gritty sandy clay loam; ratlKir strongly streaked 
with reddish yellow (7. SYR 6/8); coinpound, moder- 
ate to strong, medium, platy and very irr<;gular, 
blocky structure; hard and brittle when dry, firm 
and brittk^ when moist, and plastic and sticky 
when wet; practically no roots; vc^ry strongly acid; 
gradual to clear, wavy to irregular boundary; hori- 
zon is 6 to 12 inches thick. 

B22m 29 to 36 inches: rcnl (2.5YR 4/8), gravelly, gritty, sandy 
clay loam; moderately streaked horizontally with 
yellowish brown and strong brown (lOYR .5/6 and 
7.5YR 5/6); compound, strong, medium, jilaty and 
strong, fine, irregular, l;locky structure; very hard 
but brittle when dry, firm to very firm but Ijrittle 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wvA; no 
roots; very strongly acid; clear to abrupt, wavy to 
broken boundary; horizon is to 12 inches thick, 
being absent in some places. 

C 36 to 48 inches +: pale-yellow (2.5YR 7,4) gravelly 
very fine sandy clay loam; a few horizontal streaks 
of reddish brown (5YR 5 4); weak, very coarse, 
platy structure; hard to very hard but brittle when 
dry, very firm but brittle when moist, and plastic 
but only slightly sticky when wet; no roots; very 
strongly to e.xtremely acid. 

The surface layer in some places is moie reddish than 
the one described, and the subsoil is somewhat more 
yellowish. The tliickness of all horizons and the grade 
of their structure are variable. The lower subsoil, or 
Boom horizon, in many places is discontinuous. It is 
present in some places but absent in others. The Trego 
soils blend more or less gradually with the nonplaty 
Braddock and Tliurmont soils. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, to .3 percent slopes (TrA). — 
These more or less level areas of the Trego soils, even 
though they are moderately well drained, tend to l^e wet 
at times because of their slow permeability. This wetness 
is more of a problem than erosion on the more level areas. 
The soil is, therefore, in capability unit IIw-1 : there are 
89 acres. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 1.5 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded (TrC2). — This soil has the profile that is 
described for the series. On these sloj^es there has been 
active erosion, and the erosion hazard is more critical 
than the drainage problem. The 252 acres are in capa- 
bility unit IIIe-13. 

Tyler Series 

Tlie Tyler series consists of poorly drained soils on 
old alluvial terraces that consist of materials washed 
originally from areas of soils on sandstone and shale. 
The Tyler soils occur on fairly smooth river and stream 
terraces in the western part of tlie comity. On tliese same 
terraces are the moderately well drained Monongahela 
soils and the well drained, brown Holston and red 
Waynesboro soils. The fine-textured parent materials of 
the Tyler soils were deposited in quiet water or in slack 
water, and the soils have a very fine textured subsoil. 

Tyler soils are very difficult to cultivate or plow when 
either slightly too wet or slightly too dry. However, most 
areas are used for late corn, but some are in pastui'e. 



ol) 



SOIL SURVKY SKHIKS IQSO, NO. 17 



Profile of Tyler silt loam, in a once cultivated hut 
now idle area, 1% miles east of Orchard Kidge Koad, 
on a terrace of Licking; Creek : 

A I, to 5 inches: dark grayisli-hrovvn (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam; 

strong, fine, flatteiu'd, crumb or very fine, platy 
structure; moderately hard when dry, friable when 
moist, and inoderalely plastic' and moderately sticky 
when wet; roots fairly abundant; very strongly to 
extremely acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 
5 to () inches thick. 

B.g 5 to 12 inches: pale-olive (5Y ()/3) fine silty clay loam; 

about 50 percent fine to medium, distinct mottles of 
grayish l)rown (2.5Y 5/2) ; compound, moderate, 
medium, platy and weak, fine, sul)angular blocky 
structure; hard when dry, somewhat firm and t)rittle 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; few 
roots; very strongly to extremely acid; clear, smooth 
boundary; horizon is 6 to 10 inclies thick. 
12 to 25 inches: olive-gray (5Y 5/2) fine clay loam; about 
50 percent medium to coarse, prominent mottles of 
yellowish l)rown (lOYR 5/8); compound, moderate, 
medium, platy and moderate, fine, blocky structure; 
very hard when dry, firm and brittle when moist, and 
plastic and sticky when wet; very few roots; extremely 
acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 12 to 15 
inches thick. 

C„ 25 to 42 inclies h : dark-gray (N 4/0, with a bluish cast) 
clay; 20 to 30 percent coarse, prominent mottles of 
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/0); compound, very weak, 
coarse, platy and weak, medium, l)locky structure; 
very hard when dry, firm but not brittle when moist, 
and sticky and plastic when wet; no visible roots 
or pores; extremely acid; several feet thick. 

In some places the surface layer is more hrownish than 
the one in the profile described, and the lo^ver horizons 
are somewhat less line textured and plastic. 

Tyler silt loam, to 8 percent slopes (TyB). — This is 
the only Tyler soil in the county. Because poor drainajje 
and wetness are greater hindrances to use than the hazard 
of erosion, it is in capability unit IIIw-1. The area is 
127 acres. 

Warners Series 

The Warners series consists of deep, dark-colored, very 
limy soils of the flood plains. The soils are made up of 
fine materials washed from areas of limestone rocks, and 
they are ])()orly drained to moderately well drained. The 
soils contain rather large accumulations of organic mat- 
ter. The ai'eas occupied by Warners soils were probably 
once swampy or ponded, but they have been filled in by 
deposits of soil imtil the surface is now well above the 
water level. On the same flood plains are soils of the 
Lindside, Melvin, and Dunning series, and, on some, soils 
of the Huntington series. 

The Warners soils are moderately fertile and produc- 
tive, but, because of their strong alkalinity, they may 
lack certain minor plant food elements, such as manganese, 
that are necessarj' for strong and healthy crops. The 
substrata of these soils are sometimes removed and used 
as sources of lime, leaving borrow pits or barren areas. 

The Warners soils are used for hay, pasture, and corn, 
and, to a lesser extent, for other crops. 

Profile of Warners loam, in a cultivated flood plain of 
West Branch of Marsh Run, about 100 yards north of 
State Road No. 60, in the Longmeadow community : 

Alp to 8 inches: dark grayish-brown (lOYR 4/2) loam; 

strong, medium, granular structure; moderately hard 
when dry, friable when moist, and sticky and mod- 



erately plastic when wet; roots abundant; numerous 
worm channels; moderately alkaline and slightly 
calcareous; gradual, smooth boundary; horizon is 7 
to 10 inclies thick. 

Ai2 8 to 38 inches: dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) loam; mod- 
erate, medium, granular structure;; moderately hard 
to hard when dry, friable to somewhat firm when 
moist, and sticky and moderately plastic when wet; 
roots ])lentiful in upper part; many fine and medium 
I)ores and some worm cliannels; moderately alkaline 
and calcareous; clear to abrupt, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 24 to 36 inches thick. 

Cig 38 to 48 inches: pale-brown (lOYR 0/3), shelly and fine, 
gravelly marl of varial)le texture but mostly clay 
loam; about 20 j)ercent medium, distinct mottles of 
light gray (2.5Y 7/2); weak, medium, stratified struc- 
ture; hard to very hard when dry, firm when moist, 
and very plastic and very sticky when wet; a few 
roots in upper part; mottling disappears on drying; 
moderately to strongly alkaline and strongly cal- 
careous; clear to abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon is 
f) to 12 inches thick. 

Cjg 48 to 00 inches +: pale-brown (lOYR 6/3) fine gravelly 
silty clay to clay; alxjut 20 percent coarse, distinct 
mottles of dark brown (lOYR 4/4); massive; hard 
when dry, firm when moist, and plastic and sticky 
when wet; no roots; less calcareous than C|g horizon, 
containing few, if any, shells; moderately to strongly 
alkaline. 

T'ndisturbed areas have a darker .siiiface layer, and 
some cultivated areas have a lighter colored surface layer 
than tiie one de.sci'ibed. Shells, mostly of fresh- water 
snails, are found within 2-1 inches of the surface, and, in 
some place.s, as clo.se as 4 inches below the surface. There 
is .some variation in drainage, and some wet areius could 
not be shown on the map. 

Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes (Wo). — This soil 
has the profile that is described. Because it is sometimes 
wet, and is subject to possible flooding, it is placed in 
capability unit IIw-7. There are 1,646 acres. A few 
areas may have frequent floods. 

Waynesboro Series 

The Waynesboro series consists of deep, well-drained, 
red soils on river terraces. The Waynesboro soils have 
been developed in very old alluvial deposits of materials 
that were washed originally from areas of acid rocks, 
mosth' sandstone. In Washington County they are almost 
exclusively on high terraces of the Potomac River, where 
they are present along with soils of the Holston and 
Monongahela series. 

Although the Waynesboro soils are very strongly acid 
or extremely acid, they are fairly productive if limed and 
properly managed. Large areas of AVaynesboro soils are 
used for general crops and pasture, and some areas are 
in orchards. 

Profile of Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent 
slopes, in a forested area just off State Road No. 56, 
about 50 yards west of the entrance of Fort Frederick 
State Park: 

Ai to 3 inches: black (5YR 2/1) gravelly loam; weak to 
moderate, fine, granular structure; very slightly hard 
when dry, very friable when moist, and slightly plas- 
tic and slightly sticky when wet; roots abundant; 
very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary; horizon 
is 2 to 4 inches thick. 

.^2 3 to 8 inches: brown (lOYR 5/3) gravelly loam; weak to 
moderate, fine, crumb structure; slightly hard when 
dry, friable when moist, and slightly plastic and 



WA.SHIN(iT{)N COUNTY, MARYLAND 



slif?htly .sticky when wet ; roots rattu-r plentiful; inaiiy 
fine and iiuidiiun and some larRC pores; very strongly 
aeid; clear, wavv boundary; horizon is 4 to (1 inches 
thick. 

B21 8 to 14 inches: reddish-yellow (5YR ('1/8), gravelly, heavy 
silt loam; moderate, medium, subaiigular blocky 
slructAire; moderately iiard when dry, friable to firm 
when moi.st, and plastic and sticky when wet; roots 
few; many fine and medium pores; extremely acid; 
gradual, wavv boundary; horizon is (> to 9 inches 
thick. 

B22 14 to 35 inches: red Ci.SVR 5/8) gravelly silty clay loam 
or gravelly clay loam; very slightly variegated with 
liglUer red in lower ]):\r{ ; strong to very strong, 
m(>dium, blocky structure; \ er\' hard when dry, firm 
when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; very 
few roots; many fine and medium pores; self-colored, 
contiinious clay skins in pores and on aggregate sur- 
faces: e\t icnielN- acid; clear, wavy boundary; horizon 
is 18 to :W incliVs thick. 

C 35 to 42 inclies 1 : red (2.5YR 4/8) very gravelly sandy 
clay loam; stratified; moderately hard when dry, fri- 
able to firm when moist, and slightly i^lastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; no roots: moderately to 
moderately rapidly permeable; extremely acid. 

Some spots are somewhat less gravelly than the soil 
described, iuid in some places tlie surface layer is sonle^vll!lt 
more silty. In some places the soil is not so intensely 
red in the lower subsoil and substratum, but it is some- 
what more yellowish or brownish. The yellow or brown 
color is most common where the Waynesboro soils grade 
to Holston soils. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 
(WbA). — This soil has the profile that is described for the 
series. Because it is well drained, of good texture, and 
nearly level, it has no particidar limitation for cultivated 
crops. Proper fertilizing and liming, along with general 
good management, are necessary for good yields of crops. 
The 166 acres are in capability unit I^. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (WbB2). — Because of the danger of 
erosion, this soil is in capability unit IIe-4. There are 
2,387 acres. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (WbC2). — On these slopes, practices 
and management to control erosion are needed. Long 
rotations should be used and contour tillage and other 
methods of erosion control carried out. The 1,490 acres 
are in capability unit Ille^. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (WbC3). — Intense good management is 
needed on this soil to prevent further erosion. The soil 
occupies 475 acres and is in capability unit IIIe-44. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (WbD2). — This soil is steep enough so 
that there is great danger of erosion. It is in capability 
unit IVe-3. There are 236 acres. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 
severely eroded (WbD3). — On this soil, erosion has been 
severe. If the soil is carefully protected, it makes good 
hay land, permanent pasture, or orchards. The 322 acres 
are in capability unit VIe-2. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded (WbE2). — This soil is too steep for 
safe cultivation. It can be grazed, however, if well sodded 
and managed. There are 98 acres, in capability unit VIe-2. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent 
slopes (WgB). — This soil has a profile like the one de- 



scribed for (he series, except that it is mon; sandy 
throughout, especially in the surface layer. Drouglit iness, 
because of the sand, is a more important managenuint 
problem than the danger of erosion. For this reason, 
the 125 acres are in capability unit Ils-2. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (WgC2). — Danger dI' erosion 
is more critical on this soil tlian the sandiness, but the 
sand also allects the nianagemcnl . Tlierc arc 628 aci-es, 
in capability unit lIIe-5. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (WgC3). — The soil can be culti- 
vated, but only occasionally and with special manage- 
ment. The 103 acres are in capability unit IVe-5. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (WgD2). — The threat of ero- 
sion is great enough on this steep soil so that the soil 
is in capability unit IVe-5. There are 137 acres. 

Wehadkee Series 

The Wehadkee series consists of poorly drained, very 
acid soils of flood plains. The Wehadkee soils consist of 
fine materials that were washed originally from areas 
of soils on crystalline rocks. Most areas of Wehadkee 
soils in Washington County are in the southern part, on 
both sides of Elk Ridge. On the same bottom-land areas 
are the moderately well drained Chewacla soils and the 
well drained Congaree soils. Because they generally 
occur in narrow strips along smaller streams, many 
ai'eas of Wehadkee soils have not been cleared. Some 
areas are used for corn, pasture, or natural meadow. 

These soils are poorly drained and are very wet for long 
periods because of both impermeable substrata and a high 
water table. They are not extensive and are of little 
importance in agriculture. 

Profile of Wehadkee silt loam, in a willow and alder 

thicket on the flood plain of Israel Creek, about 1 mile 

northwest of Gapland: 

All to 5 inches: dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) silt loam; 

weak, medium, crumb structure; hard when dry, fri- 
able to firm when moist, and slightly jjlastic and 
slightly sticky when wet; roots plentiful; strongly 
acid; clear, smooth boundary; horizon is 5 to 6 inches 
thick. 

A, 2 5 to 12 inches: dark yellowish-brown (lOYR 4/4) silt 

loam; about 10 percent medium, faint specks of gray; 
weak, fine to medium, platy structure; very hard 
when dry, moderately firm and slightly brittle when 
moist, and moderately plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet; roots fairly plentiful; very strongly acid; 
clear to abrupt, smooth boundary; horizon is 6 to 8 
inches thick. 

B, g 12 to 28 inches: light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4), light silty 

clay loam; about 30 percent fine and medium, dis- 
tinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5 6) and of 
bluish gray; moderate, medium to coarse platy 
structure; very hard when dry, firm and rather brit- 
tle when moist, and plastic and sticky when wet; few 
roots; slowly permeable; very strongly acid; abrupt, 
wavy to irregular boundary; horizon is 12 to 30 
inches tliick. 

Dg 28 to 36 inches + : variegated dark olive-gray (5Y' 4/2) 
and bluish-green fine sandy clay: 5 to 10 percent 
fine, reddish-brown specks, and reddish-brown linings 
in the few old root channels: massive; very hard to 
extremely hard when dry, firm when moist, and sticky 
and very plastic when wet; very slowly permeable to 
extremely slowly permeable, bluish-green color fades 
completely to gray on drying; strongly acid. 



52 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



The bluisli-fjreen color is not present everywliere in 
the substraluni. Locall}', there may he an overwasli of 
very new material, some of it very thin, and most of it 
sandy- 

Wehadkee silt loam (Wh). — This is the only Wehadkee 
soil mapped in the county. It is subject to occasional 
lloodin<>-, but, if the (h'aina<i'e is improved, fairly <jo()d 
yields of corn, hay, or past\ire can be obtained. The bS."! 
acres are in capability unit IIIw 1. A few areas ai'e 
Hooded frecjuently and should bi' maintained in pei inaneni 
<xrass or woodland. 

Westmoreland Series 

Tlu^ West nioreland series consists of (Un^p, well-di-ained 
soils developed in materials weathered from mixtures 
of acid ami limy shale, with occasional inclusions of 
sandstone and hard, <rray limestone. These materials 
•generally occur in altei'nate bands across soil areas, 
with the shale, as a rule, in wide bands and the sandstone 
or limestone in fairly narrow bands. The Westmoreland 
soils are, therefore, somewhat vai'iable in characteristics, 
particulai-ly in the lower subsoil and the substratum. 
These soils are on nearly level to sti'on<;ly sloping rid<res 
in the western part of the county, <>:enerally alon<j!' with 
soils of the Lit/ series. 

The "Westmoreland soils are not vei-y extensive. They 
are very good agricultural soils and are used for nearly 
all crops, including orchards. 

Profile of Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 
percent slopes, modei-ately eroded, in a forest just north 
of Tonoloway Creek Koad, about 2 miles northwest of 
Hancock : 

A] to 2 inches: black (lOYR 2'1), lislit cliannery silt loam: 
moderate, fine, crumb structure; soft when dry, very 
friable when moist, and nonplastic and nonsticky wiien 
wet; roots abundant; slightly acid; abrupt, wavy 
boundary; horizon is 2 to 3 inches thick. 

A2 2 to (1 inches: sjrayisli-ljrown (lOYR 5/2), light channery 
silt loam; moderate, fine, granular structure; sliglitly 
hard when dry, very friable when moist, and slightly 
plastic and slishtly sticky when w(>t ; roots plentifuj; 
medium acid; cle:ir, wavy Ijoundary; horizon is 3 to 5 
inches tliick. 

Bi G to 14 inches: brown (lOYR 4/3), heavy channery silt 
loam; moderate, fine, blocky and subangular blocky 
structure; moderately hard when dry, friable or some- 
what firm when moist, and moderately plastic and 
moderately sticky when wet; roots fairly plentiful; 
many fine and medium pores; medium acid; gradual, 
wavv boundarv; horizon is 6 to 9 inches thick. 

Bi 14 to 32 inches: brown (7.5YR 5/4), shaly silty clay loam; 

moderate to strong, fine and medium, blocky and sub- 
angular blocky structure; moderately hard to hard 
when dry, friable to firm when moist, and plastic 
and sticky when wet; roots few; many fine and medi- 
um pores; thin, almost continuous, self-cclored clay 
skins; medium to strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary; 
horizon is 12 to 20 inches thick. 

C 32 to 42 inches: strong-brown (7.5Y'R 5/6), very shaly 
loam or light silt loam; very weak, fine, blocky struc- 
ture; moderately hard when dry, friable when moist, 
and slightly plastic and slightly sticky when wet; a 
few roots in upper part; about 40 percent shale; 
slightly to medium acid; gradual, irregular boundary; 
horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick. 

Dr 42 inches -|- : hard, slightly calcareous, brown shale. 

Ill some places the surface layer contains few coarse 
fragments. In places where there is an underlying band 



of red sandstone, the subsoil and subsfratinn are more 
reddish than tiiose described. The Westmoreland soils 
geiu'rally grade to suiiounding soils without sharp 
boiuularies. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (WmB2). — This soil has the 
pi'olile dcsci ibed. Tlieiv is a hazard of erosion, and, be- 
cause of it, the soil is ])hifed in capability unit lIe-1. 
There are .'51 1 acres. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (WmC2). — Theie is a strong 
threat of erosion on this soil, and it is placed in capa- 
bility unit lTTe-1. There are 203 acres. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (WmC3). — Ki'osion has damaged 
this soil so that it must be very carefully managed and 
])i-otected if cidtivation is to continue safely. A good 
use woidd l)e for sodded orcliards. The 27>^ acres are in 
capability iniit IVe-1. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded (WmD2). — The sloi)e of this soil 
is strong enougli to cause severe risk of erosion if it is 
cultivated. Tlie 82 acres are in capability unit IVe-1. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes, severely eroded (WmD3). — Erosion has been severe 
enough on this soil to make further cultivation im- 
practicable. A better use woidd be permanent .sod for 
pasture, or occasional hay crops. There are 100 acres, in 
capability imit VIe-1. 

Estimated Yields 

The soils of Washington County vary considerably in 
])roduct ivity. Some of them consistently ])roduce high 
yields of the cidtivated crops, and others are better suited 
to less intensive uses. 

Table 5 shows, for the soils suitable for crops or pasture, 
tlie average estimated yields of specified crops under 
present management and imder the improved manage- 
ment that is suggested for the different capability units in 
the next section of tliis report. These yields are averages 
for a normal 5-year period. In any given crop year, the 
yield of any crop nniy be more or less than the figure 
shown. 

These estimates are based on information obtained from 
agricultural workers in the county and at the Maryland 
Agricultural Experiment Station, and from observations 
by farmers in the county. 

The yields under improved management are not pre- 
sumed "to be the maximum obtainable. Yields from the 
same soils vai-y, depending on variations in management, 
weather, crop varieties, and diseases and insect pests. 

Improved management includes some or many of these 
management practices : 

1. Necessary conservation measures, which may in- 
clude contour tillage, stripcropping, terracing, or contour 
furrowing; drainage; water control on both drained and 
undi-ained soils, especially disposal of excess water; and 
irrigation where needed and feasible. 

2. Selection of varieties of crops suitable to the soil 
and the county. 



WASHINCTON COUNTY, MAHYLAND 



53 



8. Kot at ions of MdcMiualc l(Mi<itli, <;('iHM-all y iiicliKliii*^ 
the l'ollo\viii«i- : A tilled cioi) to coiUrol weeds; a deep- 
rooted crop to improve peniieahilitv ; one or more crops 
of le<;nmes to maintain or ini[)rove fertility; and a close- 
f;r()\vin<>: crop or green-manure crop to improve structure 
and tilth, supply or<ianic matter, and control erosion. 

4. Return of manure and ci'op residues to the soil to 
supply nitroj^en and other nutiMents and to improve the 
physical characteristics of the soil. 



5. Api)licat ion of fertilizer- and lime as indieated hy 
soil tests. The county a<feiil"s oflice can he consulted 
ahout soil-test in<^ services. 

(■). Suitahle methods of plowing, preparing the seed- 
bed, and cultivating. 

7. Planting, cultivating, and harvesting at the ftroper 
time aiul in the proper way. 

s. Control of weeds, diseases, and in.sects. 



54 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Taisle 5. — Estimated average acre yields of specified crops under 
[Iti foluiniis A lire yields under present management ; in columns B are yields under improved management. Where 



Soil 



Corn 



Wheat 



Barley 



Asliton fin(> sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes 

Atkins silt loam 

Ben(>vola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Benevola clay loam, '.i to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent sloj^es, severely eroded 

Berks ch;iniiery loam, I'idges, to 10 j^ercent slopes, moderately eroded 

l^erks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slojjes, severely eroded 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Bei ks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Berks shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks shalv silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 jx'rcent slopes, moderately eroded 

I^erks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

lierks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slojies, moderately eroded 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes _ 

Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded^, 

C'alvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded l. 

Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes 

Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded ^_ 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes 

Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes 

Calvin-Berks chaimery loams, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Berks chaimery loams, 3 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Mont evallo shaly loams, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Mont evallo shaly loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. _ 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded- 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam 

Chewacla silt loam 

Chewacla stony silt loam 

Congaree silt loam and gravelh- loam 

Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Corydon extremely rocky clay loam, to 15 percent slopes 

Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Duffield silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Duffield silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

See footnotes at end at table. 



Bu. 
65 
35 
65 
60 
50 
30 
30 
25 
15 
15 
35 
30 
25 
18 
30 
25 
15 
18 
35 
30 
20 
40 
40 
35 
30 
20 
30 
30 
25 
20 
18 



Bti. 

90 
60 
90 
85 
70 
45 
45 
35 
25 
25 
60 
50 
40 
28 
50 
40 
25 
30 
60 
55 
35 
60 
60 
55 
45 
30 
50 
50 
40 
35 
25 



Bu. 

20 



Bu. 
40 



40 
35 
30 
20 
15 
12 
10 
10 
18 
15 
15 
12 
15 
15 
10 
12 
20 
15 
12 



60 
55 
40 
30 
25 
20 
15 
15 
25 
22 
22 
17 
22 
22 
15 
20 
28 
25 
18 



20 
18 
15 
12 
20 
20 
15 
12 
10 



30 
25 
20 
18 
30 
30 
25 
20 
15 



25 
20 
15 
15 



40 
35 
22 
22 



15 
12 
10 
10 



20 
20 
15 
15 



30 
25 
18 
18 
25 
20 
15 
30 
25 
20 



35 
45 



60 
55 
50 
40 



70 
65 
55 
30 
40 



55 
45 



50 
40 
25 
25 
40 
35 
22 
45 
40 
30 



20 
15 
10 
10 
15 
12 
10 
17 
15 
12 



30 
25 
15 
15 
20 
20 
15 
25 
22 
20 



65 
75 



90 
95 
85 
75 



30 
25 
22 



50 
45 
35 



100 

95 
85 
55 
65 



40 
35 
30 
20 
25 



60 
50 
45 
30 
35 



85 
75 



30 
25 



45 
35 



Bu. 
30 



50 
45 
40 
25 
25 
20 
15 
15 
30 
25 
20 
17 
25 
20 
15 
18 
30 
25 
18 



30 
28 
25 
20 
25 
25 
20 
15 
15 



20 
20 
15 
15 



25 
20 
15 
15 
20 
20 
15 
25 
22 
20 



40 
35 
32 



55 
45 
40 
25 
30 



40 
30 



Bu. 

50 



75 
65 
60 
35 
40 
30 
20 
20 
40 
35 
30 
25 
35 
30 
20 
25 
45 
40 
30 



40 
40 
35 
28 
35 
35 
30 
25 
20 



32 
30 
20 
20 



35 
30 
20 
20 
32 
30 
20 
35 
32 
30 



60 
55 
50 



80 
70 
60 
40 
45 



60 
50 



WASmN(iT().\ roUNTY, MAHYI>A.\I) 55 

tiro Ii n Is of iiKt iut(j< iiK lit on llii soils siiitoh/i for rro])s or jxisture 



yields are liol f: i \ cii , ril licr 1 lie snil is ikiI >iul ;i I ilc f( n I I ci np ( ii I Iktc is no infc ii iikiI ic )ii on u liich 1 o .-in est itnat <•] 



Oiits 


Alfalfa 


('lo\ (T and 


Apples 


Peaches 


Prunes and 


(-'h('rri<!H ' 


Pasture (cow- 










mixed hay 










phims 






acre-days) ' 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Lb. 








35 


60 


2. 8 


5. 2 


1. 7 


3. 


















100 


175 


1. 2 


2. 


















70 


100 


50 


70 


3. 6 


5. 6 


2. 5 


3. 3 




















190 


40 


60 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 4 


3. 2 


















1 10 


175 


35 


55 


3. 


4. 2 


2. 


3. 


















l-'O 


150 


25 


35 


2. 
1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 8 


















95 


120 


25 


40 


2. 4 


1. 2 


1. 6 


120 


180 


90 


135 


105 


150 


60 


90 


60 


95 


15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


50 


85 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


75 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


75 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


25 


40 


2. 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 7 


130 


190 


95 


140 


110 


160 


65 


95 


70 


100 


25 


35 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 7 


120 


180 


90 


135 


105 


150 


()0 


90 


65 


95 


20 


30 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 5 


110 


170 


85 


125 


95 


140 


55 


85 


60 


90 


17 


25 


1. 4 


2. 


. 8 


1. 3 


90 


140 


70 


100 


80 


115 


45 


70 


45 


75 


25 


35 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 7 


120 


180 


90 


135 


105 


150 


60 


90 


65 


95 


20 


30 


1. 6 


2. 4 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


80 


115 


50 


80 


55 


85 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


75 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


18 


25 


1. 4 


2. 


. 7 


1. 1 


80 


110 


60 


85 


70 


95 


40 


55 


45 


75 


30 


45 


2. 2 


3. 6 


1. 4 


2. 3 


150 


200 


110 


150 


130 


175 


75 


100 


80 


110 


25 


40 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 2 


2. 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


145 


60 


85 


60 


90 


15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 4 


. 8 


1. 4 


90 


140 


65 


100 


75 


115 


45 


70 


40 


70 










1. 2 


2. 


















70 


100 










1. 4 


2. 2 


















85 


110 










1. 3 


2. 


















75 


105 










1. 1 


1. 6 


















65 


90 










. 9 


1. 3 


















55 


80 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


2. 


150 


200 


110 


150 


130 


175 


75 


100 


70 


100 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


2. 


125 


175 


95 


135 


110 


155 


65 


90 


60 


90 


15 


25 


1. 5 


2. 3 


1. 


1. 5 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


50 


80 


15 


22 


1. 2 


2. 


. 7 


1. 1 


80 


120 


60 


90 


70 


105 


40 


60 


45 


70 


15 


20 


1.0 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 






























35 


60 


18 


30 


1. 6 


2. 4 


1. 1 


1. 5 


110 


160 


80 


120 


95 


140 


55 


80 


60 


85 


15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


50 


80 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 






























35 


60 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


2. 


125 


175 


95 


135 


110 


155 


65 


90 


60 


90 


15 


25 


1. 5 


2. 3 


1. 


1. 5 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


50 


80 


15 


20 


1. 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


15 


20 


1. 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


18 


30 


1. 6 


2. 4 


1. 1 


1. 5 


110 


160 


80 


120 


95 


140 


55 


80 


60 


85 


15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


50 


80 


15 


20 


1. 2 


1. 8 


. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


55 


80 


65 


90 


35 


50 


40 


60 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


60 


90 


20 


30 


1. 6 


2. 4 


1. 


1. 6 


110 


160 


85 


120 


95 


140 


55 


80 


55 


80 


18 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


. 9 


1. 5 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


45 


70 






























40 


60 






























75 


110 






























100 


150 






























85 


130 










2. 


2. 6 


















150 


IOC 

loo 


40 


55 


2. 8 


4. 4 


2. 


2. 7 


















120 


150 


35 


50 


2. 6 


3. 8 


1. 9 


2. 6 


















110 


140 


30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 4 


1. 6 


2. 4 


















95 


120 


























50 


85 






























75 


110 


60 


80 


3. 6 


5. 6 


2. 6 


3. 4 


















150 


190 


45 


70 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 3 


3. 2 


















140 


175 


40 


60 


3. 


4. 2 


2. 2 


3. 


















120 


150 


25 


40 


2. 2 


3. 


1. 5 


2. 3 


















80 


120 


30 


45 


2. 6 


3. 6 


1. 7 


2. 5 


















100 


135 






















100 


140 






























85 


125 


40 


60 


3. 


4. 4 


2. 2 


3. 


180 


260 


135 


195 


155 


225 


90 


130 


110 


150 


30 


50 


2. 4 


3. 6 


1. 8 


2. 4 


140 


210 


105 


155 


125 


180 


70 


105 


90 


120 



56 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Taulk 5. — Estimated avera(je acre yields of .specified crops under ivx) 
[In columns A are yields under present numageinent; in columns B are yields under improved management. Where 



Soil 



Corn 



Wheat 



linrl.-y 



Dunniny; and Mcl\'iii silty clay loams 

Edgeinont and ]>ai(ilK channcry loams, to 12 percent slopes 

Edgcmont and Laidig channcry loams, 5 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Edgemont aiifl Laidig channcry loams, 20 to 3.5 jjerccnt slopes, moderately eroded 

Edgcmont and Laidig channcry loams, ;j5 to (iO percent slojx's, moderately eroded 

Edgcmont and Laidig very stony loams, to 5 percent slopes 

Eflgcinont and Laidig very stony loams, ■'j to H.'j j:crccnt slojjes 

EUibcr ch(>rty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, modcratt'ly eroded 

Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Elliber cherty loam, 25 to 45 [XTCent sloi)es, moderately eroded 

Etowah gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Etowah gravelly loam, H to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Etowah gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

P^towah silt loam, to ;5 percent slopes 

Etowah silt loam, ;i to 8 ])ercent slojx's, moderately eroded 

P^.towah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Fau(|uicr chaiinery loam. to 5 percent slopes 

Fauciiiier chann(>ry loam, 5 to 10 percent slojies, moderately eroded 

Fauiiuicr channcry loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauiiuicr channcry loam, 20 to .^5 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

P'auciuicr silt loam, to :? i)crccnt slopes 

Fau(|uier silt loam, 3 to II) percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Fau(|uicr silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slojx's, moderately eroded 

Fauiiuicr silt loam, shallow, W to 20 jx-rccnt slopes, moderately eroded 

Fau(iuicr very stony loam, 5 to 35 percent slojx's 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, mod(>rately eroded 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 pcrc<>nt slopes, moderately eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams. to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded.. 

Frankstown and Duffield chaiuicry silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

P'rankstown and Duffield channery siit loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded - 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Hagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and Duffield very rocky silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 

Hagerstown and Duffield silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Bu. 
45 
35 
30 
25 



Bu. 

80 
50 
45 
35 



Bu. 



Bu. 



17 

15 
12 



25 
22 
18 



40 
35 
25 
65 
55 
45 
35 
65 
55 
45 
60 
50 
40 
30 
60 
50 
40 
22 



65 
55 
40 
90 
80 
70 
60 
90 
80 
70 
80 
70 
60 
50 
80 
70 
60 
35 



25 
20 
12 
40 
35 
25 
20 
40 
35 
25 
30 
25 
20 
17 
30 
25 
20 
15 



35 
30 
18 
55 
50 
40 
35 
55 
50 
40 
40 
35 
30 
25 
40 
35 
30 
20 



65 
60 
45 
50 
35 
35 



95 
90 
70 
75 
55 
60 



40 
35 
25 
30 
18 
20 



50 
45 
35 
40 
25 
30 



50 
40 
30 
35 



75 
65 
50 
55 



30 
25 
18 
20 



45 
35 
25 
30 



65 
60 
45 
55 
35 
40 



95 
90 
70 
80 
55 
65 



40 
35 
25 
25 
20 
20 



60 
55 
35 
40 
25 
30 



70 
65 
55 
40 
70 
65 
55 
40 



100 

95 
85 
65 
100 
95 
85 
65 



40 
35 
25 
20 
40 
35 
25 
20 



60 
55 
40 
30 
60 
55 
40 
30 



20 
15 



30 
25 



15 
10 



20 
15 



Bu. 



30 
25 
20 



35 
30 
20 
50 
40 
35 
30 
50 
40 
35 
40 
35 
30 
25 
40 
35 
30 
20 



55 
45 
35 
40 
25 
30 



40 
35 
25 
30 



50 
45 
35 
40 
25 
30 



50 
45 
40 
30 
50 
45 
40 
30 



17 

15 



Bu. 



40 
35 
30 



50 
40 
30 
70 
60 
55 
45 
70 
60 
55 
60 
50 
45 
35 
60 
50 
45 
30 



75 
65 
50 
60 
40 
45 



60 
50 
35 
40 



75 
65 
50 
60 
40 
45 



75 
65 
60 
45 
75 
65 
60 
45 



23 
20 



See footnotes at end of table. 



WASI TON" COUNTY, MAHVLAM) 



57 



levels of nil lit oil tli( soils sii'itdhh for crops or pasture- ( 'oiil iiiiicd 

yields iire not given, eiLlior the soil is not suitable for that crop or there is no information on wliicli to base an cHtimate] 



Ouls 


Alf.i 


ll'a 


( 'lovor and 


A nplos 


Peaches 


I'ruiK^s and 


Cherries ' 










mixed hay 










plums 






A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


Bu. 


Bit. 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 
1. 5 


Tons 
2. 8 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Lb. 


I.b. 


oU 


- - 

40 




^ 9 


1 Q 
1. 


u 




1 OA 


A C 

yo 


160 


I iU 


IKK 

loo 


£1 K 


yu 


25 


35 




9 S 


1 *> 




120 


170 


90 


125 


lUo 


1 KA 

loU 


60 


85 




30 


1 A 


9 4. 


. 9 


1. 4 


yu 


1 .1 A 

141) 


*7A 


1 A C 

1U5 


85 


130 


45 


7U 


























































o c 

6b 


50 


2. 4 


3. 6 


1. 9 


2. 5 


1 CA 


4 A 

z4U 


1 1 A 
1 10 


1 OA 


130 


210 


--- 

/5 


t OA 

IzU 




40 


1. o 


0. u 


J. 4 


9 




2UU 


A e 

ys 


1 CA 
15(J 


115 


1 T K 
1 / 


65 


1 AA 
lUU 


20 


30 






1. U 


1. 


100 


150 


75 


110 


00 


1 QA 

loU 


50 


75 


50 


70 


Q 9 




2. 3 


3. 




4U 


60 


3. 


4. 


2. 


2. 9 


1 OA 

loU 


OCA 

zoU 


135 


1 A C 

195 


160 


230 


AA 
90 


1 OA 

loU 


35 


55 


9 8 


0. 


1. 8 


2. 6 


140 


240 


105 


180 


120 


210 


70 


120 


30 


45 


9 9 


^ 9 


1. 4 


2. 1 


110 


190 


80 


140 


95 


165 


55 


95 


50 


70 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 3 


3. 


















40 


60 


3. 


4. 


2. 


2. 9 


180 


260 


135 


195 


160 


230 


90 


130 


35 


55 


2. 8 


3. 8 


1. 8 


2. 6 


140 


240 


105 


180 


120 


210 


70 


120 


40 


60 


3. 6 


4. 6 


2. 2 


3. 


















35 


55 


3. 2 


4. 


1. 9 


2. 7 


180 


260 


135 


195 


160 


230 


90 


130 


30 


50 


3. 


4. 


1. 8 


2. 4 


140 


240 


105 


180 


125 


200 


70 


120 


25 


35 


2. 6 


3. 6 


1. 6 


2. 1 


110 


190 


80 


145 


95 


165 


55 


95 


40 


60 


3. 6 


4. 6 


2. 2 


3. 


















35 


50 


3. 2 


4. 


1 A 

1. y 


T 
^. / 


180 


260 


135 


195 


1 AA 

loU 


OQ A 


90 


130 


30 


50 


3. 


4. 


1 Q 
1. 


Z. 4 


140 


240 


105 


180 


1 OK 

Izo 


OAA 
ZUU 


70 


120 


OA 


30 






1 '3 
1. 


1 


1 AA 
lUU 


1 7A 


'7 c 

to 


1 OA 

IzU 


00 


14U 


C A 

60 


c 






























































50 


70 


^ A 

O. 4: 


Pi J. 


2. 4 


3. 2 


















40 


60 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 3 


3. 


















30 


50 


2. 6 


3. 8 


1. 8 


2. 6 
2. 8 


















35 


55 


3. 


4. 2 


2. 


















25 


40 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 4 


2. 2 


















30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 2 


1. 6 


2. 4 






























































40 


60 


3. 


4. 4 


2. 2 


3. 


180 


260 


135 


195 


155 


230 


90 


130 


35 


50 


2. 4 


3. 6 


1. 9 


2. 5 


150 


240 


105 


180 


125 


210 


75 


120 


25 


35 


1. 4 


2. 4 


1. 2 


2. 


110 


180 


80 


120 


95 


150 


55 


90 


30 


40 


1. 6 


3. 


1. 4 


2. 2 


130 


210 


90 


150 


110 


180 


65 


100 






- - - 
























50 


70 


3. 6 


5. 6 


2. 5 


3. 3 


















40 


60 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 4 


3. 2 


















35 


50 


2. 6 


3. 8 


1. 8 


2. 6 


















35 


55 


O A 

3. 


4. 2 


2. 


3. 


















25 


40 


I. u 


2. 8 


1. 4 


2. 2 


















30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 2 


1. 7 


2. 4 




































50 


75 


3. 6 


5. 6 


2. 5 


3. 3 


















40 


60 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 4 


3. 2 


















35 


55 


3. 


4. 2 


n 
u 


0. u 


















30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 2 


1. 7 


2. 4 


















ou 


/ 


3. 6 


5. 6 


2. 5 


3. 3 


















40 


60 


3. 2 


4. 6 


2. 4 


3. 2 


















35 


55 


3. 


4 2 


2. 


3. 


















30 


45 


2! 4 


3! 2 


1. 7 


2. 4 
















































































































































































































17 


23 






. 7 


1. 2 


75 


110 


55 


85 


65 


95 


40 


60 


15 


20 






. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


50 


75 


60 


85 


35 


50 



Pasture (cow- 
acre-days) ' 



90 
70 
60 
40 
30 
60 
30 
85 
65 
40 
150 
135 
120 
95 
150 
135 
120 
135 
125 
115 
75 
135 
125 
115 
60 
55 
100 
75 
150 
140 
110 

r.'o 

90 
100 
65 
70 
110 
85 
55 
65 
50 
55 
150 
140 
110 
120 
90 
100 
70 
150 
140 
120 
100 
150 
140 
120 
100 
100 
85 
100 
75 
85 
110 
90 
50 
40 



150 
100 
90 
70 
50 
90 
50 
120 
95 
70 
190 
170 
150 
120 
190 
170 
150 
170 
160 
145 
100 
170 
160 
145 
85 
80 
140 
110 
185 
170 
140 
150 
120 
135 
95 
105 
150 
120 
90 
100 
70 
80 
190 
175 
140 
150 
120 
130 
100 
190 
175 
150 
130 
190 
175 
150 
130 
140 
125 
140 
110 
125 
160 
125 
75 
60 



58 SOIL SUIU'EY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 5. — Estimated average acre yields of specified crops under two 



[In coliiiinis A are yields iiiuler present management; in columns B are yields under improved management. Where 





Corn 


Wheat 


Barley 


Soil 
















A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 




Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Hazel channerv silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded - 






« 

D 


1 
lU 


lU 


1 K 
1 


Ha/cl channerv silt loam, 20 to 'M) percent slopes, moderatelv eroded.- . _ . . . 


10 


15 


8 


12 


12 


17 


Higlitichi gra\'cllv loam, to 5 percent slopes .. . _ . - . 


ou 


7K 
1 


zo 


oO 


40 
4U 


K K 
00 


HiRhficld gravellv loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded.. 






99 


■^9 
oZ 


OO 


A K 
40 


Highficld gravcUv loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded. 




00 


90 

zu 


97 
Z / 


OO 
oU 


Ai\ 
4U 


Highfield gravellv loam, 20 to :{5 percent slopes, moderately eroded . 




40 


I D 


99 

zz 


90 
ZU 


on 

OU 
















Highfield verv stony loam, 5 to 'M) percent slopes. .. .- . 
















40 


/u 


9^1 
ZO 


oO 


OK 
■JO 


Kn 
OU 


Holston graAcUv loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 


4U 


00 


9'i 
ZO 




oU 


A K 
40 


Holston gravellv loam, 8 to 15 {)ercent slopes, moderately eroded 


oO 


00 


90 

zu 


98 
Zo 


9'; 
ZO 


K 
OO 


Holst(jn gravellv loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, se\-erelv eroded ... . . 














Holston gravellv loam, 15 to 25 percent slojx's, moderatelv eroded . - 


oyj 


OU 


1 7 


99 
zz 


99 
ZZ 


■^9 
OZ 


Holston grav(>llv loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded.. .. 
















oO 


00 


10 


9"^ 
ZO 


■^0 

OU 


An 

4U 


Holston gravellv sandv loam, ',i to 15 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded 




iC\ 

4U 


1 9 
1 z 


90 
ZU 


90 
ZO 


OU 


Holston gravellv sandv loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded . .. . 


18 


30 


10 


15 


15 


20 


Holston silt loam, to ',i percent slopes _. . . 


40 


7n 


9^ 
ZO 


OtJ 


oO 


Kn 

OU 


Holston silt loan), 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded . 




00 


9'^ 
ZO 


oO 


on 


A K 
40 


Holston silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. .... .. 


35 


55 


20 


28 


25 


35 


Huntington fine sandv loam_ . _ __ __ 


DO 


1 no 


*?0 

OU 






KK 
00 


Hutitington gravellv ioain _ _ ._ .. .. .. 


7n 
1 u 


1 TO 


90 

CO 


*tVJ 


40 
4U 


KK 
00 


Huntington silt loam . 


70 


1 10 


30 


40 


40 


55 


Huntington silt loam, local alluvium . .... .. . 


1 


1 lo 


A O 

4U 


no 

DU 


KK 
00 


TK 
1 




oO 


OU 


1 8 


98 
Zo 


"^O 
OU 


A K 
40 


Laidig gravellv loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded .. .. _ . 


QO 
OZ 


KK 

00 


10 


ZO 


oc 
Zo 


AO 
4U 


Laidig gravellv loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . .. 




KO 
OU 


1 9 
IZ 


on 

ZU 


O K 

ZO 


OK 
OO 


Laidig gravellv loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . .. 


OK 


Ar\ 

4U 


1 
lU 


1 7 
1 / 


90 
ZU 


TO 
oU 


Laidig verv stonv loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes .. . . 














Landisburg chert v silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded .. ... 


Af\ 

4U 


AK 
DO 


OK 
ZO 


0(i 
OO 


K 
oO 


A K 
40 


Landisburg chert V silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . . . 


oO 


00 


OO 

zu 


on 
oU 


on 
ou 


ACl 
4U 


Largent silt loam. . ._ 


40 


1 










Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. . . 


40 


70 


20 


30 


30 


40 


Leadvale gravellv silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. . . ... 


35 


55 


15 


25 


25 


35 


Lindside silt loam .... .. . .. 


oU 


OO 










Lindside silt loam, local alluvium. _ . ... .... 


55 


OO 

yo 


on 
ZU 


on 
oU 


on 
oU 


An 

4U 


litz channerv loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded . ... ... 




00 


lo 


OK 

Z5 


Zo 


OK 
oO 


Litz channerv loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded. . ... 


ZO 


45 


10 


OO 

ZZ 


OO 

zz 


OO 
oZ 


Litz channerv loam, 10 to 20 perc(Mit slopes, severelv eroded. ... ... 


20 


35 


12 


20 


18 


25 


Litz shalv loam, to 10 percent slopes . . .. _ . 


30 


50 


18 


25 


25 


35 


Litz shalv loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded ... 


28 


45 


18 


25 


25 


35 


Litz shalv loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . . ._. 


OK 
ZO 


A O 

40 


15 


OO 

zz 


99 
ZZ 


Q9 
oZ 


Litz shalv loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severelv eroded 


OO 

ZO 


on 


1 o 
IZ 


on 
ZU 


1 8 

lo 


9K 
ZO 


Litz shalv loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded _ . . . . 


on 


QO 
OU 


1 o 
IZ 


on 

ZU 


1 a 

lo 


ZO 






























Litz-Teas channerv silt loams, to 8 percent slopes _ .. 


30 


55 


on 
ZU 


on 
oU 


OK 
ZO 


OK 
OO 


Litz-Teas channerv silt loams, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded _ . .. 


25 


45 


15 


oc 
Z5 


OO 

zz 


OK 
oO 


Litz-Teas channerv silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severelv eroded . . 


or* 

zO 


OA 


1 o 
IZ 


on 
ZU 


lo 


98 
Zo 


Litz-Teas channerv silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . ... 


20 


35 


12 


20 


18 


30 
















Litz-Teas channerv silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 














Melvin silt loam. .... 


40 


70 










Monongahela gravellv loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . . . 


35 


55 


15 


25 


25 


35 


Monongahela gravellv loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded 


30 


45 


15 


25 


20 


30 


Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes .... . . 


40 


60 


20 


30 


30 


45 


Monongahela silt loain, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . . . 


35 


55 


15 


25 


25 


35 


Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . . .. 


30 


45 


15 


25 


20 


30 


Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded .. ... ... 


25 


40 


12 


20 


15 


25 


Montevallo shalv loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . .......... 


25 


40 


12 


20 


20 


30 


Montevallo shalv loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderatelv eroded . .. .. .. 


20 


35 


12 


20 


18 


25 





























See footnotes at end of table. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHVLAM) 



59 



levels of management on the soils sultabh for crops or pasture — Conlinucd 

yields are not given, either the soil is not suitable for that crop or there is no information on which to base an estimate) 



OiUs 


Alfiilfn 


Cloxcr Mild 


Apples 


Peiiches 


Pniiios and 


(Jlicrric'S ' 










niixt'd hay 










plums 






A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


i> 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 




A 


B 


Bit. 


Bu. 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


nu. 


Uu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


L'>. 


Ui. 


10 


15 






0. 5 


0. 8 


















12 


17 






. 5 


. 9 


60 


80 


45 


60 


50 


70 


30 


40 


35 


55 


3. 2 


4. 


1. 9 


2. 7 


180 


260 


135 


195 


160 


230 


90 


130 


30 


45 


3. 


3. 8 


1. 8 


2. 6 


140 


240 


105 


180 


125 


210 


70 


120 


30 


40 


2. 6 


3. 4 


1. 5 


2. 3 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


GO 


85 


20 


30 


2. 2 


3. 


1. 2 


2. 


110 


160 


80 


120 


95 


140 


55 


80 






























35 


50 


2. 8 


3. 8 


1. 7 


2. 4 


170 


240 


125 


180 


150 


210 


85 


120 


30 


45 


2. 6 


3. 2 


1. 5 


2. 2 


140 


210 


105 


155 


125 


180 


70 


105 


25 


40 


2. 4 


3. 


1. 3 


1. 9 


130 


180 


95 


135 


115 


160 


65 


90 


22 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 2 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


145 


60 


85 


30 


40 


2. 2 


3. 2 


1. 3 


2. 


130 


180 


95 


135 


110 


155 


65 


90 


20 


30 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 6 


90 


130 


70 


110 


80 


120 


45 


65 


15 


20 






. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


50 


75 


60 


85 


35 


50 


35 


50 


2. 8 


3. 8 


1. 7 


2. 4 


170 


240 


125 


180 


150 


210 


85 


120 


30 


45 


2. 6 


3. 2 


1. 5 


2. 2 


140 


210 


105 


155 


125 


180 


70 


105 


25 


40 


2. 4 


3. 


1. 3 


1. 9 


130 


180 


95 


135 


115 


160 


65 


90 


40 


55 


2. 4 


3. 6 


2. 


2. 6 


















40 


55 


2. 4 


3. 6 


2. 2 


3. 


















40 


55 


2. 4 


3. 6 


2. 2 


3. 


















60 


80 


3. 4 


5. 4 


2. 5 


3. 5 


















30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 4 


1. 4 


2. 2 


130 


180 


95 


135 


115 


160 


65 


90 


28 


40 


2 2 


3 2 


1. 3 


2. 


130 


180 


95 


135 


115 


160 


65 


90 


25 


35 


'i 


2. 8 


1. 2 


1. 8 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


20 




1. 4 


2. 4 


. 9 


1. 4 


90 


140 


65 


105 


80 


120 


45 


70 


35 


45 






1. 8 


2. 6 


















30 


40 






1. 4 


2. 2 














































1. 4 


2. 2 


























1. 2 


1. 8 


























1. 8 


2. 7 


















30 


40 






2. 


3. 


















25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


1. 8 


140 


190 


105 


140 


120 


165 


70 


95 


20 


32 


1. 6 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


18 


25 






1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


125 


50 


75 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


1. 8 


140 


190 


105 


140 


120 


165 


70 


95 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


1. 8 


140 


190 


105 


140 


120 


165 


70 


95 


20 


32 


1. 6 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


18 


25 






1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


125 


50 


75 


18 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


125 


50 


75 






























25 


35 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 3 


1. 8 


140 


190 


105 


145 


120 


175 


70 


95 


20 


30 


1. 6 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


15 


25 






1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


125 


50 


75 


15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


125 


50 


75 






































1. 5 


2. 8 


























1. 5 


2. 3 


























1. 2 


1. 8 


























1. 5 


2. 5 


























1. 5 


2. 3 


























1. 2 


1. 8 


























1. 


1. 4 


















15 


25 


1. 4 


2. 2 


1. 


1. 4 


100 


150 


75 


115 


90 


135 


50 


75 


18 


25 


1. 3 


2. 


. 8 


1. 2 


85 


125 


65 


95 


80 


115 


40 


65 
















1 - i 









Pasture (cow- 
acre-days) ' 



25 
30 
120 
100 
80 
60 
75 
55 
100 
90 
75 
55 
65 
60 
70 
50 
40 
100 
90 
75 
135 
150 
160 
160 
75 
70 
60 
45 
35 
70 
60 
100 
80 
70 
130 
130 
70 
60 
50 
70 
65 
60 
50 
55 
35 
40 
70 
60 
50 
50 
30 
40 
85 
70 
60 
80 
70 
60 
50 
50 
45 
35 
40 



40 
45 
145 
125 
100 
80 
100 
75 
135 
125 
105 
80 
90 
85 
100 
80 
60 
135 
125 
105 
175 
190 
190 
200 
110 
100 
90 
70 
55 
100 
90 
150 
115 
100 
165 
170 
100 
90 
75 
100 
95 
90 
75 
80 
60 
65 
100 
90 
75 
80 
55 
60 
140 
100 
90 
120 
100 
90 
85 
80 
75 
65 
70 



60 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 5. — Estimated average acre yiebh of specified crops under two 
[In coluiiuis A are yields under present management; in columns B are yields under improved management. Where 



Soil 



Murrill gravelly loam, to '.i j)erceiit slopes 

Miirrill Kraxclly loam, to S percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, inod(>rately eroded 

Murrill gravellN- loam, 8 to 25 })ercent sloj)es, severely eroded 

Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly loam, 25 to 45 i)ercent sloi)es, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 p(>rcent slopes, severely eroded ^ 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Murrill sill loam, to 8 percent slojx^s, moderately eroded 

Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myers\ ille channery loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville chaiuiery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 {)ercent slojx's, moderately eroded 

Myersville chaiuiery loatri, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, .severely eroded 

Myi'rsville chainier\ silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes _._ 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 j)ercent slopes, moderately eroded 

Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Philo gravelly sandy loam 

Philo silt loanu 

Pope fine sandy loam 

Pope gravelly loam , 

Pope gravelly sandy loam 

Pope silt loani_ 

Pope stony gravelly loam 

Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 10 to 20 percent slopes, .severely eroded 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 20 to 30 percent slopes I 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 20 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded... 

Terrace escarpments 

Thurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 [jercent slopes 

Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Tyler silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly loatn, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Wehadkee silt loam 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 



60 
50 
40 



35 



35 
30 
22 
22 



60 
50 
40 
60 
55 
45 
30 



35 



60 
55 
45 



35 
45 
60 
60 
45 
60 



50 
30 
20 
20 



35 
30 
40 
35 
40 
70 
45 
42 
40 
30 
35 



Bu. 

95 
85 
70 



Wh(?at 



Bu. 

35 
25 
20 



60 



55 
50 
40 
40 



95 
85 
70 
95 
90 
80 
55 



60 



95 
90 
80 



15 



20 
15 
12 
12 



35 
25 
20 
30 
25 
20 
18 



18 



30 
25 
20 



65 
75 
90 
90 
75 
90 



80 
45 
35 
35 



35 
30 
20 
25 
35 
55 
45 
35 
40 



65 
55 
65 
55 
65 
100 
75 
70 
65 
50 
55 



55 
50 
35 
45 
60 
85 
75 
55 
65 



25 
25 
20 
25 



Bu. 
50 
40 
35 



25 



30 
25 
20 
20 



50 
40 
35 
40 
35 
30 
25 



25 



40 
35 
30 



20 
15 
12 
12 



18 
15 
20 
15 



25 
22 
20 
15 
18 



15 
15 
8 
10 



30 
22 
18 
20 



35 
35 
30 
35 



30 
22 
18 
18 



28 
25 
35 
20 



35 
30 
28 
22 
25 



25 
22 
15 
20 



40 
30 
25 
28 



Barley 



Bu. 
40 
35 
30 



25 



30 
25 
20 
20 



40 

35 
30 
40 
35 
30 
25 



25 



40 

35 
30 



35 
35 
30 
35 



80 
22 
18 
18 



30 

25 
30 
20 



35 
32 
30 
20 
25 



28 
20 
15 
18 



40 
30 
25 
28 



' Yields for cherries are not given on an acre basis, but as pounds per tree. 



WASHINCiTON COUNTY, MAHYLAND 



01 



Icrds of inainKjOiu iil on lite soI/k sititnhh for crop.s or pdsliii >, ( 'out iiiiird 

yields are not i^iven, either the soil is not suitable for that crop or l here is no information on wliich to base an estimate] 



Oats 


Alfalfa 


Clove 


r and 


Apples 


Peaches 


Priiii(;s and 


C/herri(?s ' 










mixed hay 










piiini!-: 






A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


^- 

A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


li 




Bu 


7ons 


Tons 


1 0718 


_ 

/ 0718 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


tsu. 


lilt. 


Lh. 


Lb. 


40 


60 


3. 


4. 


2. 


2. 9 


















oO 


00 


9 R 


"< R 

o. o 


1. 8 


2. () 


180 


260 




1 Q^i 

1 tjO 


160 


230 


Qn 

I7U 


1 xn 

1 ou 


30 


45 


2. 2 


3. 2 


1. 4 


2. 1 


140 


240 


105 


180 


120 


210 


70 


120 


25 


40 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 8 


110 


190 


80 


145 


95 


165 


55 


95 


30 


40 


2. 6 


3. 4 


1. 5 


2 3 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 




OO 


1 . o 


9 fi 


1. 2 


1. 7 


1 1 n 

1 1 u 


160 


Rn 

ou 


120 


95 


140 


00 


Rn 

ou 




ou 


1 4 


9 9 


. 9 


1. 3 


Qn 


130 


fit; 

uo 




80 


115 


4'i 


fi'i 
uo 


20 


30 


1. 4 


2. 2 


9 


1. 3 


90 


130 


65 


95 


80 


1 15 


45 


65 


in 


fin 


n 

o. u 


4 n 

u 


2. 


2. 9 




















OO 




R 

O. o 


1. 8 


2. 6 


180 


260 


135 


195 


160 


230 


Qn 


1 "^n 

1 ou 


ou 


^O 


9 9 


9 

O. 


1. 4 


2. 1 


1 4n 

1 rtu 


240 


105 


iRn 

1 ou 


120 


210 


7n 

1 u 


1 9n 

1 ^u 


4.n 


fin 


fi 

o. u 


4 fi 


2 2 


3. 




















p>n 
ou 


9 

o. ^ 


4 n 

U 


l! 9 


2. 7 


180 


260 


135 


1 vo 


160 


230 


90 


1 "^n 

1 ou 


"iO 
oU 


^o 


1 n 

O. 1/ 


4 n 


1. 8 


2. 4 


140 


240 


105 


180 


120 


210 


70 


120 


25 


32 


2. 6 


3. 6 


1. 6 


2. 2 


1 1 

1 1 u 


190 


Rn 

ou 


1 4*^ 


95 


165 




Q^ 




OO 


9 8 


o. o 


1. 7 


2. 3 


125 


220 


Qn 

i7U 


160 


105 


185 


fin 

uu 


1 nn 

1 uu 


40 


60 


3. 6 


4. 6 


2. 2 


3 


















35 


50 


3. 2 


4. 


1. 9 


2. 7 


180 


260 


135 


195 


160 


230 


90 


130 




^O 


■? n 


4 n 

rr. U 


l! 8 


2! 4 


1 4n 

1 rrU 


240 


105 


180 


120 


210 


7n 

1 u 


1 9n 

1 ^u 



























































ou 


'in 

ou 


9 4 


4 

O. t: 


1 


2. 2 


















OO 


fin 

ou 


9 4 


^ 4 
O. T 


1 . o 


2. 2 


















■^fl 
oyj 


'±o 


1 R 
1. o 


n 

o. u 


1. 4 


2! 1 


















OO 


"in 

ou 


9 4 


^ 4 

O. T 


1. 5 


2. 2 










































1. 6 


2. 5 


















20 


35 


1. 6 


2. 6 


1. 2 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


150 


60 


85 


18 


25 


1. 2 


2. 2 


1 n 

1 . u 


1 

1. 


100 


150 


75 


110 


00 


130 


50 


75 


18 


25 


1. 2 


2. 2 


1 n 

1 . u 


1 ^ 
1. 


100 


150 


75 


110 


Ri^ 
00 


130 


50 


75 






























30 


45 


2. 2 


3. 2 


1 4 
1. t 


9 ^ 


150 


200 


105 


150 




1/0 


75 


100 


25 


40 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 2 


2. 


120 


170 


90 


130 


105 


150 


60 


85 










1. 


9 '^ 


























1. 2 


2. 3 


























1. 2 


2. 2 


























2. 6 


3. 7 


















35 


50 


2. 8 


3. 8 


1. 7 


2. 4 


170 


240 


125 


180 


150 


210 


85 


120 


32 


45 


2. 6 


3. 2 


1 

1 . o 


9 9 


140 


210 


110 


160 


1^0 


1 R^ 

1 00 


70 


105 


30 


40 


2. 4 


3. 


1. 3 


1. 9 


130 


180 


95 


140 


110 


160 


65 


90 


90 


"in 
ou 


1 4 


9 9 


. 9 


1. 3 


on 
yu 


1 ^n 

1 ou 


fiI^ 
DO 


inn 

lUU 


75 


115 


•±o 


UO 


25 


35 


2. 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 7 


120 


170 


90 


125 


105 


145 


60 


85 






























28 


40 


2. 2 


3. 2 


1. 3 


2. 


130 


180 


95 


140 


110 


160 


65 


90 


20 


30 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 1 


1. 6 


90 


130 


65 


100 


80 


115 


45 


65 


15 


20 






. 6 


1. 


70 


100 


50 


75 


60 


85 


35 


50 


18 


25 


1. 2 


2. 


. 7 


1. 2 


80 


120 


60 


90 


70 


105 


40 


60 










1. 2 


2. 


















35 


55 


3. 


4. 2 


2. 


2. 8 


180 


260 


135 


195 


155 


225 


90 


130 


30 


45 


2. 4 


3. 2 


1. 6 


2. 4 


140 


210 


105 


155 


125 


160 


70 


105 


25 


38 


1. 8 


2. 6 


1. 3 


2. 


100 


150 


75 


110 


85 


130 


50 


75 


28 


40 


2. 


2. 8 


1. 4 


2. 2 


120 


175 


90 


130 


105 


145 


60 


85 































i'ast lire Ccow- 
acre-days) ' 



1 35 
120 
95 
70 
70 
60 
90 
70 
55 
55 
35 
135 
120 
95 
135 
125 
115 
75 
55 
85 
70 
135 
125 
115 
55 
75 
100 
120 
120 
90 
120 
95 
115 
60 
45 
45 
35 
75 
80 
60 
85 
65 
70 
160 
100 
90 
75 
55 
60 
50 
55 
70 
50 
40 
45 
70 
120 
100 
75 
80 
50 



The number of days in a calendar year that 1 acre will support 1 cow, horse, or steer without injury to the pasture. 



62 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 5 9, NO. 17 



Use and Management of Soils 

This section has four subsections. The first consists 
of an exphmation of the capability chxssilication of soils 
and of suf^gestions for the use and management of the 
soils of the county for agriculture; the second discusses 
the use of the soils for forest; the third is concerned 
with engineering properties of soils in relation to high- 
way construction, irrigation, sewage disposal, and other 
engineering jjrojects; and the fouith discusses the use 
of the soil survey in community and county planning. 

Capability Groups of Soils 

The capability classification is a grouping of soils that 
shows, in a general way, how suitable they are for most 
kinds of farming. It is a practical grouping based on 
limitations of the soils, the risk of damage when they 
are used, and the way they respond to treatment. 

In this system all tlie kinds of soil are grouped at 
three levels — the capability class, subclass, and miit. The 
eight cai^ability classes in the broadest groui)ing are 
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. In 
class I are the soils that have few limitations, the widest 
range of use, and the least risk of damage when they 
are used. Tiie soils in the other classes have progressively 
greater natural limitations. In class VIII are soils and 
landforms so rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that 
they do not produce wortliwhile yields of crops, forage, 
or wood products. 

The subt'lasses indicate major kinds of limitations with- 
in the classes. Within most of the classes there can be up 
to four subclasses. The subclass is indicated by adding 
a small letter, e, tv, s, or c, to the class numeral, for 
example, He. The letter e shows that the main limitat ion 
is risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover is 
maintained; w means that water in or on the soil will 
interfere with j^lant growth or cultivation (in some soils 
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drainage) ; 
s shows that the soil is limited mainly because it is 
shallow, droughty, or stony, and c, used in only some 
parts of the country, indicates that the chief limitation 
is climate that is too cold or too dry. 

In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of 
this class have few or no limitations. Class V can con- 
tain, at the most, only subclasses to. s. and c. because the 
soils in it have little or no erosion hazard but have other 
limitations that limit their use largely to pasture, range, 
woodland, or wildlife. 

Within the subclasses are the capability units, groups 
of soils enough alike to be suited to the same crops and 
pasture plants, to require similar management, and to 
have similar productivity and other responses to manage- 
ment. Thus, the capability unit is a convenient grouping 
of soils for many statements about their management. 
Capability units are generally identified by numbers 
assigned locally, for example, IIe-1 or IIIe-4. 

Soils are classified in capabilit}^ classes, subclasses, and 
units in accordance with the degree and kind of their 
permanent limitations; but without consideration of major 
and generally expensive landforming that would change 
the slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soil ; and 
without consideration of possible but unlikely major rec- 
lamation projects. 



The eight classes in tlie capability system, and the 
subclasses and units in this county, are given in the list 
that follows. The numbers of the units in the list are 
not consecutive because they are a i)art of a statewide 
system of capability grouping, not all units of wliicli are 
represented in Washington County. 

(^lass I. Soils that have few limitations that restrict 
their use. 

Capability unit I-l. Deep, well-drained, nearly 
level soils developed from or influenced by 
limestone. 

Capability unit 1-4. Deep, well-drained, nearly 
level soils not significantly influenced by lime- 
stone. 

Capability unit 1-6. Deep, well-drained soils 
on flood plains and low terraces. 
Class II. Soils that have some limitations that reduce 
the choice of plants or that require moderate conserva- 
tion practices. 

Subclass He. Nearly level to gently sloping soils, 
subject to erosion if tilled. 
Capability unit IIe-1. Deep, well-drained, near- 
ly level to gently sloping soils with a friable 
surface layer; developed from or influenced 
by limestone and moderately limited by the 
hazard of erosion. 
Capability unit IIe-4. Deep, well-drained, near- 
ly level to gently sloping soils; not appreciably 
influenced by limestone but moderately limited 
by the hazard of erosion. 
Capability unit IIe-10. Nearly level to sloping, 
well-drained soils that are somewhat shallow 
to moderately deej) to acid rock. 
Capability unit lIe-11. Nearly level to sloping, 
somewhat excessively drained soils that are 
shallow to materials somewhat influenced by 
lime. 

Capability unit IIe-13. Gently sloping, moder- 
ately eroded soils that have a tight subsoil that 
restricts drainage. 

Capability unit IIe-19. Deep, well-drained, 
nearly level to gently sloping, heavy-textured 
or fine-textured soils developed from lime- 
stone, and which are moderately limited by 
the hazard of erosion. 

Capability unit IIe-26. Deep, well-drained, 
nearly level to gently sloping, friable soils 
developed from cherty limestone, and which 
are moderately limited by the hazard of 
erosion. 

Subclass IIw. Moderately wet soils. 

Capability imit IIw-1. Nearly level to gently 
sloping soils that have impeded drainage and 
that are not influenced by lime. 
Capability unit IIw-7. Nearly level to slop- 
ing, moderately well drained soils of flood 
plains and upland depressions, not subject 
to frequent damaging floods. 
Subclass lis. Nearly level to sloping soils, moder- 
ately limited by physical characteristics. 

Capability unit ils-1. Deep, well-drained, near- 
ly level, heavy-textured or fine-textured soils 
that have developed from limestone; moder- 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



ately limited by difFiculty of cult ival ion and 

mana<2;ement. 
Capability unit IIs-2. Nearly level to slopinjr, 

sandy and <^ravelly soils; moderately limited 

by low moisture capacity. 
Capability unit IIs-7. Nearly level to sloping, 

well-drained soils that are rather shallow to 

acid rock; moderately limited by low moisture 

capacity. 

Class III. Soils that have severe limitations that reduce 
the choice of plants or that require special conservation 
practices, or both. 
Subclass Ille. Sloping soils that have high risk 
of erosion if tilled. 

Capability unit IIIe-1. Deej), well-drainod, 
sloping to somewhat rolling soils with a friable 
surface layer; developed from or influenced 
by limestone, and moderately eroded. 
Capability unit Ille— 1. Deep, well-drained, 
sloping to somewhat rolling soils, not ap- 
preciably influenced by limestone, and moder- 
ately eroded. 
Capability unit IIIe-5. Deep, well-drained, 
gently to strongly sloping, sandy and gravelly 
soils that are moderately eroded. 
Capability unit IIIe-6. Well-drained soils on 
bottom land that have short, irregular, and, 
in some places, rather steep slopes; subject to 
serious erosion. 
Capability unit IIIe-10. Sloping to strongly 
sloping, well-drained soils that are somewhat 
shallow to acid rock, and are moderately 
eroded. 

Capability unit IIIe-13. Sloping to strongly 
sloping, moderately eroded soils that have a 
tight subsoil that restricts drainage. 

Capability unit IIIe-26. Deep, well-drained, 
sloping to strongly sloping, moderately eroded 
soils tliat liave developed from cherty lime- 
stone. 

Capability unit IIIe-30. iModerately deep and 
deep, well-drained, sloping and moderately 
eroded, or gently sloping and severely eroded, 
fine-textured soils that have developed from 
limestone. 

Capability unit IIIe-31. Sloping to strongly 
sloping, somewhat excessively drained, moder- 
ately eroded soils that are shallow to materials 
somewhat influenced by lime. 
Capability unit IIIe-32. Sloping to strongly 
sloping, well-drained, moderately eroded soils 
that are rather shallow to acid rock. 
Capability unit IIIe-44. Deep, well-drained, 
gently sloping and slo])ing, severely eroded 
soils not influenced by limestone. 
Subclass IIIw. Wet soils that require artificial 
drainage if tilled. 

Capability unit IIIw-1. Poorly drained soils of 

flood plains, not influenced by lime. 
Capability unit IIIw-2. Poorly drained and 
very poorly drained soils of flood plains, 
strongly influenced by lime. 
Subclass Ills. Soils that are severely limited by 
their physical characteristics. 

599553—62 5 



Capability unit IlIs-2. Gently sloping and slop- 
ing, excessively drained, moderately eroded, 
very shallow soils. 
Class IV. Soils that have very severe limitations that 
restrict the choice of plants, or that recjuire very careful 
management, or both. 

Subclass IVe. Soils that are very severely limited 
by risk of erosion if tilled. 

Capability unit IVe-1. Moderately deep and 
deep, rolling to hilly, well-drained soils; 
moderately to severely eroded and developed 
from or influenced by limestone. 

Capability unit IVe-3. Deep, rolling to hilly, 
well-drained soils, mostly moderately eroded 
and not appreciably influenced by limestone. 

Capability unit IVe-5. Deep, well-drained, 
sloping to rolling, gravelly and sandy soils 
that are moderately and severely eroded. 

Capability unit IVe-9. Strongly sloping to 
hilly, moderately eroded soils that have a tight 
subsoil that restricts drainage. 

Capability unit IVe-10. Strongly sloping to 
hilly, well-drained soils that are somewhat 
shallow to acid rock; moderately to severely 
eroded. 

Capability unit IVe-26. Deep, well-drained, 
rolling to hilly soils developed from cherty 
limestone; moderately to severely eroded. 
Capability unit IVe-31. Rolling to hilly, some- 
what excessively drained soils that are shallow 
to materials somewhat influenced by lime; 
moderately to severely eroded. 
Capability unit IVe-32. Rolling to hilly soils 
tliat are shallow to acid rock; moderately and 
severely eroded. 
Class V. Soils that have little or no erosion hazard but 
have other limitations that are impractical to remove 
and that limit their use largely to pasture, woodland, 
or wildlife food and cover. Only sulaclass Vs is in this 
county, but the soils subject to frequent floods, if 
mapped separately, would be in this class, subclass V-^v. 
Subclass Vs. Soils that are limited in use to grazing 
or woodland because of excessixe stoniness or 
rockiness. 

Capability unit Vs-1. Nearly level, well-drain- 
ed, very rocky soils; rockiness consists of lime- 
stone outcrops. 

Capability unit Vs-2. Nearly level or very 
gently sloping, stony and very stony soils 
that are mostly well drained and not afi'ected 
by limestone. 

Class VI. Soils that have severe limitations that make 
them generally unsuitable for cultivation and limit 
their use largely to pasture, woodland, or wildlife food 
and cover. 

Subclass Vie. Soils that are moderately limited for 
pasture or trees by risk of erosion if cover is not 
maintained. 

Capability unit VIe-1. Rolling and severely 
eroded or steep and moderately eroded, well- 
drained soils that have developed from lime- 
stone. 

Capability unit VIe-2. Rolling and severely 
eroded or steep and moderately eroded, well- 



64 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



drained, fairly deep soils that have not been 
appreciably affected by limestone. 
Capability unit VIe-3. Sloping and severely 
eroded to moderately steep, practically un- 
eroded, shallow and very shallow soils. 
Subclass VIw. Soils severely limited by poor drain- 
age or by very frequent damaging overflow, or 
both. 

Capability unit VIav-1. Poorly drained soils 
subject to very frequent overflows. 
Subclass Vis. Soils severely limited by stones and 
outcrops of rock. 

Capability unit VIs-1. Sloping to steep, well- 
drained, very rocky soils that are moderately 
eroded; rockiness consists of limestone out- 
crops. 

Capability unit VIs-2. Gently sloping to moder- 
ately steep, well-drained, very stony soils that 
are not affected by limestone. 
Class VII. Soils that have very severe limitations that 
make them unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict 
their use largely to pasture, woodland, or wildlife 
shelter. 

Subclass Vile. Soils restricted in use to woodland 
and grazing because of extreme hazard of erosion. 
Capability unit VIIe-1. Very steep or very 
severely eroded soils, or both, which have 
developed from limestone. 
Capability unit VIIe-2. Very steep or very 
severely eroded soils, or both, which are not 
influenced by limestone. 
Capability unit VIIe-3. Very steep or very 
severely eroded, sliallow soils, or both. 
Subclass VIIs. Soils restricted in use to woodland 
and grazing by extreme rockiness or stoniness. 
Capability unit VIIs-1. Severely eroded or very 
steep, very rocky and extremely rocky soils; 
rockiness consists of limestone outcrops. 
Capability unit VIIs-2. Shallow or steep, very 
stony soils that are not influenced by lime- 
stone. 

Class VIII. Soils and land types not suitable for agri- 
culture and restricted in use to recreation and wildlife. 
Subclass VIIIs. Land restricted to nonagricultural 
uses because of adverse physical characteristics. 
Capability unit VIIIs-1. Extremely rough, 
stony, and steep land, and large expanses of 
barren rock. 

Management by Capability Units 

On the following pages each capability unit is de- 
scribed briefly, the soils in each unit are listed, and 
some suggestions for the use and management of those 
soils are given. 

CAPABILITY UNIT I-l 

This unit consists of deep, well-drained soils that have 
been developed in material that weathered from limestone 
or was otherwise strongly influenced by lime. The soils 
occupy nearly level areas in valleys and on old stream 
terraces. None of these soils has been significantly af- 
fected by erosion. All of them have a rather friable sur- 



face layer, and tliey are easily worked and managed. The 
soils of this unit are — 

Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Etowah gravelly loam, to 3 percent sloi)es. 
Etowah silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Fraukstown and Duffield chauuery silt loams, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Ilagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Ilagerstown silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

These soils occur throughout the great limestone valley 
section of the eastern part of the county. Their total 
area is about 5,300 acre^s, or 1.8 ])ercent of the county. 

All of the soils of this capability unit are fertile and 
productive. They have the highest natural fertility of 
any group of scjils in the county. They are easily worked, 
with little danger of deterioration by erosion or loss of 
productiveness. These soils are well suited to all crops 
common to the county, with the possible exception of 
orchard crops because of poor air drainage in many loca- 
tions. Tliey are excellent for pasture. Tliey are deep and 
well drained and have a thick, frialile surface layer of 
medium to moderately fine texture. The Frankstown soils 
contain some chert, shale, or in some places limestone 
fragments, but this in no way interferes with cultivation 
or lessens their productiveness. 

Practically all soils of this capability unit have been 
cleared and are in use for crops or pasture (except for 
some urban areas). Agriculture in AVashington County 
is essentially dairy and livestock farming. These enter- 
prises are especially concentrated and important on the 
soils in this capability unit. Some of these soils are used 
for corn year after year, almost continuously, but a 3-year 
rotation is more common. Corn or some other row crop 
is generally followed by wheat or barley, or sometimes 
by oats, and these, in turn, are followed by clover or 
mixed hay, or sometimes by alfalfa. Some fields are kept 
in alfalfa for 3 to 5 years, then put into corn for a year 
or more, and then are reseeded to alfalfa. There are some 
excellent pastures on these soils. 

Although some of these soils are being used to their 
best advantage in agriculture, urban and suburban ex- 
pansion are using up some of the best agricultural land 
in the county. On the areas that are still used for agri- 
culture, there are some measures that would increase pro- 
ductiveness. Soil testing should be more universally done, 
in order that fertilizers and lime can be vised to their 
greatest effectiveness. AAHien corn is grown almost con- 
tinuously, a winter cover crop should be grown between 
corn crops. None of these soils has a slope of more than 
3 percent, but the long slopes should be farmed in strips 
at right angles to the direction of the grade, to help 
prevent possible losses by erosion. 

These are the best soils of the county. They should 
be more intensively farmed and even better managed. 
They contribute much to the economy of the county, but 
could contribitte even more. 

CAPABILITY UNIT I^ 

This unit consists of deep, well-drained, nearly level 
soils. The soils occupy small areas on flat ridgetops in the 
uplands and in some valleys, and they are also on some old 
terraces. They have not been significantly influenced by 
limestone, except for some areas of the Murrill soils. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAUVLANU 



65 



None of the soils in this unit luis been significantly af- 
fected by erosion. The soils in (his unit arc — 

Fauquier chauuory loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Fauquier silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Hif^hlield gravelly loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Holston gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Holston silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Laidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Murrill gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Myersville channery loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

These soils occur in many parts of the county. Al- 
thouo-h none of them is strictly within the great lime- 
stone valley, some of them are on foot slopes and other 
areas adjacent to the valley. The total area of the soils 
is about 3,300 acres, or 1.1 percent of the county. 

These soils ai'e deep and not eroded; they have a 
moderate to high moisture-supplying capacity. The soils 
have little limitation for use for any purpose. They differ 
from the soils of capability unit 1-1 in that they are 
commonly more acid, are much more gravelly or chan- 
nery, and as a rule are somewhat less productive. Al- 
though a number of different soils make up this capa- 
bility unit, the individual areas of most of them are 
rather small. They occupy the most nearly level spots 
in much larger areas where most of the soils are sloping 
to hilly. 

None of these soils has been significantly affected by 
erosion. Because they are acid, the soils need lime, and 
they also need a good fertility program. They are, on 
the average, only fairly well supplied with plant nu- 
trients. 

The soils of capability unit are used for all of 
the common crops of the county and for good quality 
pasture. Some of them, particularly those of the Laidig 
and Murrill series, have sufficiently good air drainage 
for good orchards, but this is not true of all the areas. 
Most of these soils have been cleared and put to use, but 
some small areas are still in forest. Yields are commonly 
less than on soils of capability unit I-l, yet some of the 
finest farms in the county are located where these soils 
are being well managed. 

Because they generally occur in small spots, manage- 
ment is commonly the same as for surrounding or ad- 
jacent soils that make up a greater part of many fields. 
The surrounding soils may belong to almost any capa- 
bility unit, but most commonly are in capability unit 
IIe-4 or IIIe-4. The soils of capability unit 1-4 require 
somewhat more careful management than soils of capa- 
bility unit I-l, because they are somewhat less fertile. 
Either 3-year or 4-year I'otations are ideal for them, but 
rotations can well be extended to 5 or more years if such 
a crop as alfalfa occupies the land for 3 or more years. 

Under average present management, yields on soils of 
capability unit 1-4 are fairly high, but could be im- 
proved considerably by more careful management and 
treatment. Good average yields of corn, for instance, are 
probably between 50 and 70 bushels per acre, but these 
yields could be increased by 20 to 30 bushels. It is not 
at all unusual to have yields of 90 to 100 bushels or more 
on the best managed fields, and, if improved manage- 
ment were more widely practiced, the average yields of 
corn could approach such figures. 



CAi'Ar.ii.ri'Y i .M'j- I <; 

This unit consists of nearly level, well-drained, friable 
soils on flood plains and on low sireain terraces. 'J'hese 
soils may be flooded, but normally flooding is very infre- 
quent. The soils of this unit are — 

Ashton fine sandy loam, to ti percent slopes. 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam. 

Huntington line sandy loam. 

Huntington gravelly loam. 

Huntington silt loam. 

Huntington silt loam, local allmiuiri. 

Pope line sandy loam. 

Pope gravelly loam. 

Pope silt loam. 

These soils are located along streams and rivers in all 
parts of the county. The largest areas are within flood 
plains in the great limestone valley, or in upland depres- 
sions where similar materials have accumulated. Small, 
very narrow strips that lie along some of the smaller 
streams and drainageways are generally used and man- 
aged like the adjacent soils. The total area of this iinit 
is about 11,500 acres, or 3.9 percent of the county. 

These soils are well suited to most of the common crops 
and to pasture. The Pope and Congaree soils are fairly 
fertile, and crops on them respond well to management; 
the Huntington and Ashton soils are even more fertile 
and productive. Although orchards are not generally 
planted on soils of the flood plains, there are some or- 
chards on these soils in the county. Some crops can be 
grown on these soils without fertilizer or lime, but the 
practice is not recommended. The moisture supply is 
nearly always adequate for crops, since these deep soils 
are readily penetrated by roots. 

A few areas of these soils may be subject to floods that 
damage crops. The use of these areas should be adjusted 
to the flood hazard; for example, areas that are very 
frequently flooded should be kept in permanent sod or 
trees. 

Corn and hay are the principal crops. Corn may be 
grown continuously year after year, preferably with a 
cover crop between corn seasons. Mixed hay is a com- 
mon crop and may be grazed part of the time. Small 
grains as a rule are not grown, because there is some 
danger of flooding and lodging. 

The average pi-oductivity of these soils, particularly 
of the Ashton and the Huntington soils, is high. Of spe- 
cial importance is the fact that well-managed pastures 
on these soils have perhaps the greatest carrying capa- 
cities of any pastures in the county. Fertilizer and lime 
should be used on these soils as indicated by soil tests, 
and they will generally be applied to corn, whether it is 
grown in rotation or as a continuous crop. Animal 
manure is especially valuable for corn. 

Weeds are a common pest in pastures unless they are 
controlled. They can be controlled with chemical weed 
killers, or by proper fertilization, carefidly regulated 
grazing, and mowing at proper intervals. Perhaps the 
most valuable single tool in pasture management on any 
soil is the mowing machine, and the machine is easily 
used on these soils. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-1 

This mut consists of deep, well-drained, nearly level 
to gently sloping soils that have a friable surface layer. 



66 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



These soils liave been developed in or slronglj^ influenced 
by niatorial that weathered from limestone, and they are 
moderately limited by the hazard of erosion. The soils of 
this unit are — • 

Duffield silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duliield channery silt loams, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Ilagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silty chiy loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

These soils are e.xtensive in the limestone valley, and 
they occur in scattered areas in the western part of the 
county. They occupy about 48,500 acres, which is 16.1 
percent of the comity. 

Besides being deep, well drained, and fertile, the soils 
of this capability unit are fairly easily worked and 
manaoed and ai"e highly productive. Although erosion is 
a problem, it is not a serious one under good manage- 
ment. The soils can be fairly easily conserved. Since 
there has been some erosion, these soils are slightly less 
productive, on the average, than those of capability unit 
I-l. The soils of unit IIe-1 need careful attention, and 
most of them have been getting it ever since the area was 
first settled. 

These soils are used the same way as the soils of capa- 
bility unit I-l ; that is, for corn, small grains, hay ci'ops, 
and pasture, in support of the dominant livestock eco- 
nomy where they occur. In addition, some areas, partic- 
ularly of Dunmore and Westmoreland soils, are used for 
orchards. In general farming, 3-year and 4-year rota- 
tions are commonly used. The chief single crops are corn 
and hay, generally grown in a rotation of 1 year of corn 
followed by 2 or more years of mixed hay or of alfalfa. 
These soils are particularly well suited to legumes, such 
as alfalfa and clover, which in turn contribute much to 
the fertility and productivity of the soils. Yields of all 
crops are high under average prevailing management. 

The special management needed on these soils consists 
chiefly of the maintenance of fertility and the prevention 
of erosion. The soils should be tested and given lime 
and fertilizer according to the needs indicated. Full 
use should be made of all manure and crop residue. 
Erosion is not serious. It never will be a very great 
hazard if proper contour tillage and stripcropping, with 
supporting practices, are used. In some places runoff 
water should be diverted into natural drainageways, and 
the drainageways should be kept cai'efully sodded. Out- 
lets of such diversions must be well prepared and care- 
fully maintained or the concentrated water is likely to 
cause gullies. 

These soils are the most important in the county be- 
cause of their extent and their high productivity. If 
they are properly conserved and carefully managed, pro- 
duction can become even higher and there will never be 
more than a slight danger of damaging soil losses. The 
soils are probably more productive now than they were 
a hundred j^ears ago. 



CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-4 

This unit consists of deep, well-drained, nearly level 
to gently sloping soils that were developed in nonlimy 
materials and are not appreciably influenced by limestone. 
The soils are similar to those of capability unit I^, but 
they are more limited by the hazard of erosion. In this 
unit are — 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, to 12 percent slopes. 
Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Ilighfleld gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Holston gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Holston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Laidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Thurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are located throughout the county except 
in the limestone valley. The total area is about 22,200 
acres, or 7.5 percent of the county. The soils are much 
like those of capability unit IIe-1, except that they have 
not been appreciably influenced by limestone in their 
development. 

All of these soils are acid unless they have been limed, 
although in some places lime is present in the deep, un- 
derlying strata. They are all at least moderately fertile, 
and the best of these soils, particularly those of the 
Fauquier, Highfield, Murrill, and Myersville series, are 
highly productive. Perhaps the soils of the lowest na- 
tural productivity are those of the Laidig series. All 
the soils are medium textured, and many of them have 
considerable amounts of gravel or schist fragments in the 
surface layer and throughout the profile. The surface 
layer is friable and easily worked when moist. 

Some of the soils of this capability unit have slopes up 
to 10 or 12 percent, and, on some of the sloping soils, 
there has been a moderate amount of erosion. Nowhere 
is erosion very serious, but everywhere it is more of a 
hazard than it is on the soils of capability unit 1-4. 

These soils are widely used for livestock and general 
farming. Many of the better orchards are concentrated 
on them, particularly in the areas near Smithsburg, 
Boonsboro, and Clear Spring. This is not only because 
the soils are well drained, permeable, and fertile, but 
also because they are in positions that have the good air 
drainage so essential for practical orcharding. Apples, 
peaches, prunes, and plums are extensively grown. 

Cropping systems are essentially the same as for the 
soils in capability unit 1-4. The 3-year rotation is the most 
commonly followed, but rotations may extend as long as 
5 or 6 years if alfalfa is grown for 3 years or more. A 
large proportion of the soils is in pasture, probably more 
than in any other capability unit. The pastures generally 
have been well managed, and their carrying capacity is 
high. Grass-clover mixtures are most commonly used for 
grazing. Much hay is produced, consisting of alfalfa, 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



67 



clovers, or mixtures of these. Most of these soils have 
been fairly well managed, and many of the farmers are 
cooperators with the soil conservation district. 

The chief re(iuirements for soil management are to 
maintain fertility and prevent erosion. Tliese soils need 
more fertilizer, manure, and lime than do the soils of the 
limestone valley. If sucli amendments are used according 
to the needs indicated by soil tests, fertility and produc- 
tivity can be maintained. 

On long slopes that have gradients of 10 to 12 percent, 
contour tillage, st ripcropping, and very careful water 
disposal are needed to prevent loss of soil. These meas- 
ures, plus the maintenance of a vegetative cover most 
of the time will prevent soil losses, or at least limit them 
to allowable amounts. 

Management of these soils generally has been good, 
but it can be improved on many farms. Observations 
show that the average productivity of these soils can be 
increased by perhaps 30 to 40 percent through the use 
of methods that are already known. A few of the better 
farms are producing at least that much more than aver- 
age farms on the same soils. With improved manage- 
ment, these soils can continue to produce high yields for 
the indefinite future with little, if any, deterioration. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-10 

In this unit are nearly level to sloping, well-drained 
soils that are somewhat shallow to moderately deep over 
shale or schist. Some areas have lost part of the original 
surface layer through erosion, and danger of erosion is 
a limiting hazard on all areas. The soils of this unit are — 

Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, to 10 percent 

slopes. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils are in various parts of the county, except in 
the limestone valley. They occupy about 1,600 acres, or 
one-half of 1 percent of the county. 

Because these soils are somewhat shallow to moder- 
ately deep and are well drained, they become somewhat 
droughty during long, dry periods. All of these soils 
are strongly acid and rather low in fertility, so they are 
less productive, on the average, than most of the other 
soils of capability class II. General farming is the chief 
agricultural pattern, with some emphasis on orchards. 
The Calvin soils are in the western part of the county, 
and the Chandler soils, mostly near the Potomac River 
north and west of Harpers Ferry. 

In general farming the 3-year rotation of corn, a small 
grain, and hay is most commonly used. However from 
a standpoint of maximum soil protection and greatest 
production over long periods, the rotation could be in- 
creased to 4 or 5 years. Hay crops or pasture should 
be used to extend the rotations. On these rather shallow, 
acid soils, alfalfa does not last so well as on most deeper 
soils, and it is seldom kept in fields for more than 2 years 
or possibly 3 years. 

All of the soils of capability unit IIe-10 require meas- 
ures to maintain fertility, and they should have all the 
moisture-conserving practices that can be applied. Con- 



siderable amounts of fertilizer will be required, and a 
great deal of lime. Amounts to be used should be de- 
cided only after the soils have been tested for content 
of the various plant milrients and the requirement for 
lime has been determined. All available animal inanure 
and i)lant residue should be returned to the soil. Legu- 
minous crops and cover crops should be grown wherever 
possible. Contour tillage and contour stripcropping will 
be especially valuable in conserving moisture and in 
checking erosion. "VVlierever w^ater concentrates, as in 
waterways and outlets, it shovdd be dispersed on a sodded 
area. This will slow down the flow of water and allow 
more to penetrate into the soil, and the sod will catch 
much of the soil material carried in the water. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-11 
This unit consists of nearly level to sloping, somewhat 
excessively drained soils that are moderately deep over 
shale material that contains some lime. These soils are 
limited by shallowness and by the moderate hazard of 
erosion. They are — • 

Litz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent slopes. 

The soils of this unit are a little more fertile than the 
soils of capability units IIe-10 and IIIs-2, because of the 
influence of lime. They are in scattered areas in the west- 
ern part of the coimty, and also on some narrow ridge- 
tops within the limestone valley. Their total area is 
about 1,500 acres, or one-half of 1 percent of the county. 

Some of the Litz channery loam is still in forest, but 
practically all of the acreage of Litz-Teas channery silt 
loams in this capability unit are in more intensive use. 
Even though these soils are moderately deep and tend to 
be droughty at times, they are rather extensively used 
for orchards. Orchards on them are somewhat more pro- 
ductive than those on the other somewhat shallow soils 
of the same areas, notably those of capability units 
IIe-10 and IIIs-2. 

Although erosion has not been very active on the soils 
of capability unit IIe-11, the hazard of erosion is pre- 
sent. For control of erosion and management of the soil, 
the same practices are needed that have been indicated 
for capability unit IIe-10. With these practices, the 
soils of capability unit IIe-11 should be productive in 
spite of their shallowness and tendency to be droughty. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-13 

This unit consists of gently sloping, moderately eroded 
soils that have a tight subsoil that restricts drainage. 
These soils are only moderately well drained, even though 
they have good surface drainage. The soils of this unit 
are — 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

;\Ionougahela gi'avelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are in various parts of the county, outside 
the limestone valley. The areas, as a rule, are small. Their 



68 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 17 



total area is about 2,600 acres, or about eight-tent lis of 
1 percent of the county. 

These soils are used for general crops, but many of 
them are still in forest. Altliovigh surface drainage is 
good, much water is retained in tlie soil in wet seasons 
because internal drainage is slow. This causes lieaving, 
particularly in spring; perennial cro2)s, such as alfalfa, 
arc damaged, and the stands do not last long, liecause 
of wetness in spring, corn is genei'ally planted later on 
these soils than on well-drained soils. 

The slow internal drainage promotes runoff, so the 
hazard of erosion is greater than is normal on moderate 
slopes. Runoff shoidd be di\'erted above areas of these 
soils wherever possible. Strips should not be exactly on 
the contour, but graded to promote drainage. All outlets 
of waterways and diversion terraces nmst be sodded or 
otherwise caref\dly protected to prevent the formation 
of rills and gullies. 

In general fai-ming a -'5-year rotation of row crops, 
grain, and hay is satisfactory. The soils are very good 
for pasture, and tall grasses and wet-tolerant clovers 
grow well. Grazing should be limited during wet pe- 
riods to prevent puddling and compacting of the surface 
layer. 

These soils are subject to erosion and also to the haz- 
ards of restricted internal drainage. To manage them 
successfully, it is necessary to provide cover and control 
runoff, provide surface drainage, choose water-tolerant 
crops, and avoid cultivating or trampling when the soil 
is wet. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-19 

This unit consist of deep, well-drained, nearly level 
or gently sloping, fine-textured soils that are umlerlain 
by limestone and are moderately limited by the hazard 
of erosion. The soils of this unit have a finer textured 
surface layer than those of capability unit IIe-1, and they 
are more difficult to cultivate and to manage. The soils 
of this unit are — 

Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils are in various parts of the limestone valley. 

They amount to about 1,200 acres, or four-tenths of 1 
percent of the county. 

These soils contain lime and are above average in 
fertility. They are also hea\^ and tend to warm up late 
in spring. The soils are gently sloping but wash easily 
because water does not readily penetrate the fine-textured 
surface layer. Plowing and cultivating are difficult and 
almost impossible when the soil is too wet or too dry. 
The soils are sticky and plastic; they puddle and form 
clods easily if worked a little too wet, and generally are 
very hard when they are too dry. Maintaining good soil 
structure by turning mider cover crops and crop residues 
and by using large amounts of animal manure may be 
one key to success in managing these soils. 

When properly managed, these are excellent agricul- 
tural soils and are suitable for practically all crops. 
Erosion control is highly important. Farming should 
be done in well-graded strips, with diversions and water- 
ways to control and dispose of water with great care. 



CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-26 

This unit consists of deep, well-drained, nearly level 
to gently sloping, friable soils that are underlain by 
cherty limestone and are moderately limited by the haz- 
ard of erosion. The surface of the soil is generally cov- 
ered with small chert fragments that help to protect it 
from erosion. The soils of this unit are — 

EUiber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These are excellent orchard soils where air drainage is 
satisfactory. They occur, generally on ridgetops, in the 
western part of the county. The total area is about 1,200 
acres, or four-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

For general farming, a 4-year rotation with legume 
hay for 2 years is well suited to these soils. Although 
erosion is the most important management problem, the 
soils are not so readily eroded as many other soils that 
have the same degree of slope. The soils are somewhat 
open and porous, and the numerous chert fragments 
tend to protect tlie surface from rain splash and from 
washing. 

In Washington County these soils are used intensively 
for orchards. They hold moisture well, and nearly all 
the areas have good air drainage. Most orchards are 
kept covered with a sod of grasses and clovers, Avhich 
make excellent green manui'e when turned under once 
a year. The orchards should be planted and cultivated 
on the contour. The combination of contour cultivation 
and sod cover will check runoff and encourage water to 
enter the soil, thus reducing erosioii damage while build- 
ing up the moisture supply for the orchard trees. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIw-1 

This unit consists of nearly level or very gently slop- 
ing soils that have somewhat impeded drainage. The 
soils are on uplands and terraces and have not been in- 
fluenced by lime. The soils of this unit are — 

Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Small tracts of these soils are scattered throughout 
most of the county outside of the limestone valley. There 
are onl}^ about 660 acres, or two-tenths of 1 percent of 
the county. 

The soils of this capability unit are like those of capa- 
bility units IIe-13 and IIIe-13, except that they are 
nearly level. iVlthough they are considei'ed to be mod- 
erately well drained, they are so nearly level that they 
remain wet for rather long periods and are slow to dry 
out and warm up in spring. The wetness resulting from 
impeded drainage in this climate is more of a problem 
than is the control of erosion. 

The use of these soils is limited by their impeded drain- 
age and also by their rather low fertilit3^ The soils are 
used mostly for corn, hay crops, and pasture. Alfalfa 
is not well suited unless good drainage can be established, 
because the soil tends to heave in cold weather. The most 
common cropping systems are either continuous corn or 
corn followed b}- hay for 1 year or more. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



09 



The preseni uses of those soils :irc prohiihly (lie most 
suitable. Hay crops should iuclude tail o-i asses and clovers 
that tolerate wetness. The same plants are also suitable 
for pasture. Fertility nnist be maintained and lime ap- 
plied i'oi- maxinuun productivity. 

Kunoll' water from hio-her areas should be diverted 
around these soils and away from them. Diversion ter- 
races will accomplish part of the draina<^e that is needed, 
and the w^ettest spots should have excess water removed 
by oi)en V-ty^)e ditches or, in some places, by tile drains. 
When the soils are wet they cannot be cultivated and 
should not be "grazed. Good grazing cannot be main- 
taine<l if animals are allowed to trample the soils to 
puddle and compact them. Excluding aninuils when the 
soils are wet allows rest periods for the pastures and 
helps considerably in maintaining good grazing at otlier 
times. 

Weeds and some sedges are connnon invaders of ])as- 
tures on these soils. They should be kept nnder control 
by mowing at proper times. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIw-7 

In this unit are nearly level to sloping, somewhat 
poorly drained to moderately well drained soils of flood 
plains and some upland depressions. The soils of this 
unit are — 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam. 

Chewacla silt loam. 

Largent silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam, local alluvium. 

Philo gravelly sandy loam. 

Pliilo silt loam. 

Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes. 

These soils are present in all parts of the county. They 
occupy about 6,800 acres, or 2.3 percent of the county. 

These soils are grouped in this capability imit because 
they have some hazard of flooding, or because they have 
some impeded drainage and some water-control problems, 
even if they are seldom or never flooded. 

The soils are somewhat more productive and can be 
managed more easily than most poorly drained soils, 
but they are less productive and less easy to manage than 
the well-drained soils of the flood plains. 

The greater part of the acreage of these soils has been 
cleared, but many small areas are still in forest. These 
soils are suitable for crops after the drainage is im- 
proved. Some corn is grown, but it generally has to be 
planted late because the soil is too wet at normal plant- 
ing time. Considerable hay is grown, but the most exten- 
sive use is for pasture. 

Although management is much the same on all these 
soils, there may be considerable difi^erences among the 
soils in response to management as measured by produc- 
tion. The soils of the Lindside and Warners series are, 
on the average, more productive than the soils of the 
Chewacla, Largent, and Philo series. The Warners loam, 
which is dark colored because of organic matter and con- 
tains free lime, is probably the most productive of all 
these soils under intensive management. 

Internal drainage can be improved by use of open 
ditches or tile lines at the proper intei-vals and depth, 
by bedding, and by diversion of runoff. 



CAl'Al'.lLn y UNIT lis 1 

This unit consists of nearly level, dee]j, well-drained, 
fine-textured soils that are underlain by limestone. The 
soils have little or no erosion hazard, but the fine texture 
of the surface layer makes them dillicult to manage and 
cultivate. The soils of this unit are — 

Bencvola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Ilagerstown clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Small areas of these soils are in the limestone valley. 
They amount to only about 300 acres, or one-tenth of 1 per- 
cent of the county. 

These soils are much like those of capability unit 
IIe-19, except (hat they are practically level and show 
little or no effect of erosion. Partly because they are so 
nearly level, these soils remain Avet later in spring than 
most well-drained soils. The fme texture and sticky con- 
sistence also tend to reduce percolation and keep them 
wet imtil the water dries out. Erosion is not a hazard 
of any importance. 

Because the soils are fine textured and sticky, they can 
be plowed and cultivated only within a very narrow 
i-ange of moisture content. When too dry, they are hard, 
and, when too wet, they puddle and clod very easily. 
The structure and consistence can be improved somewhat 
by keeping the soils in sod crops much of the time, by 
growing few crops that need clean cultivation, and by 
turning under large amounts of oi-ganic matter from 
cover crops, crop residue, and animal manure. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIs-2 

In this unit are neai'ly level to sloping, sandy and 
gravelly soils of the terraces and valley slopes that have 
some hazard of erosion when they are cultivated. The 
most important characteristic of the soils for manage- 
ment, however, is that they are more or less open and 
porous and do not hold moisture well. The soils of this 
unit are — 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes. 
Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Pope gravelly sandy loam. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes. 

These soils occur in small, scattered areas. There are 
only 1,050 acres, a little less than four-tenths of 1 per- 
cent of the county. 

These soils are sandy and gravelly enough so that crops 
on them are limited by the supply of moisture during 
drought. There is no drainage problem. The sandy Pope 
soil is slightly droughty and is further limited by a slight 
risk of flooding. 

The soils of this capability unit are suitable for all 
the common crops, but, because they are rather low in 
natural fertility and in moisture capacity, special fer- 
tilizing and moisture-conserving practices are needed. 
Little alfalfa is grown, probably because of the risk of 
drought. 

Heavy applications of fertilizer are needed for most 
crops. The soils are acid and need lime, but, because 
they are sandy, there is some danger of overliming. Lim- 
ing should, therefore, be done only after a soil test. On 
these and other sandy soils, ground limestone is likely 
to be as good as or even better than burned or hydrated 
lime, and, if it is applied, there is little danger of over- 
liming. 



70 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



If the surface is kept covered by vegetation most of 
the time, there is little danger of erosion. Crops on these 
soils generally respond to irrigation; some orchards are 
being irrigated. Sprinkler irrigation is the only suitable 
type. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIs-7 

This unit consists of nearly level to sloping, well- 
drained soils that are moderately deep over shale. Al- 
though there is some hazard of erosion, the most signifi- 
cant management problem is the maintenance of moisture 
and fertility because tlie soils are thin and some\Alial 
droughty. The soils of this unit are — 

Berks oliaiinery loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Berks channery loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils occur in the western pai't of the county and 
in areas more or less bordering Conocheague Creek. 
There are about 6,600 acres, which is 2.2 percent of the 
county. 

These soils are limited by droughtiness and fertility 
problems because they are shallow over bedrock. There 
is not enough space in the soil above the bedi'ock to 
store large amounts of either available moisture or plant 
nutrients. There is also some risk of erosion. 

Fertilizer is needed for the full production of crops. 
The soils will retain nutrients and moisture in larger 
amounts if organic matter is added to the plow layer. 
This can be green-manure crops (particularly legamies), 
crop residue, such as stubble and cornstalks, and animal 
manure. Irrigation is desirable for some crops if water 
is available and if irrigation is economically feasible. 

These soils are used for general farming and are par- 
ticularly well suited to orchards wherever air drainage 
is adequate. Sod cover, especially if the seeding mixture 
contains legumes, helps to control runoff and to hold 
plant nutrients. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-1 

In this unit are deep, well-drained, sloping or rolling, 
friable soils that have been developed over, or strongly 
influenced by, limestone. Erosion has been active, but 
the soils hold moisture and plant nutrients well and are 
fertile and productive. The soils of this unit are — 

Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 i)ercent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam. 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

These soils occur throughout the limestone valley and 
in scattered areas in the western part of the county. There 
are about 13,100 acres, or 4.4 percent of the county. 

The soils of this capability unit resemble, in many ways, 
those of capability units I-l and IIe-1, but they are 
steeper and need more careful management to control 



erosion. Many of the areas are small, and they lie within 
fields of more moderate topography. They tend to be 
farmed with the same rotation and management that are 
employed on more gently sloping soils. The soils of this 
capability unit, however, neecl longer rotations with fewer 
years in clean-tilled crops ; they need contour farming in 
narrower strips; and they need more careful disposal of 
water than the soils of capability imits I-l and IIe-1. 

The principal crops on these soils are corn, small grains, 
hay, and pasture; few areas remain in woodland. The 
3-year rotation that is used on the more gently sloping 
soils is not protective enough to control erosion. Corn 
and a small grain followed by oidy 1 year of hay leaves the 
soil exposed too much of the time. A 4-year or 5-year 
rotation consisting of corn, a small grain, and 2 or 3 years 
of hay, is much more suitable. If hay, especially alfalfa, 
can be grown for 4 or more years after corn and small 
grain, or after corn, the degree of soil protection is still 
better. 

Strips for the rotation of crops should be narrow and 
carefully laid out on the contour or on a slight grade. 
Disposal of water needs to be more carefully done than 
on similar soils of lesser slopes. Drainageways must be 
more carefully and heavily sodded, must receive more 
careful and frequent maintenance, and must have more 
durable and safer outlets. As with all soils, fertility and 
good tilth must be maintained by proper fertilization and 
cultivation and other management practices. 

The soils of capability unit IIIe-1 are good soils, and 
under good management they are, and will remain, pro- 
ductive. Average yields are somewhat less than on soils 
of capability units I-l and IIe-1 but are better than 
on most of the other capability units of class III. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-4 

This unit consists of deep, well-drained, sloping or 
somewhat rolling soils that have not been significantly 
influenced by limestone. The soils are like those of capa- 
bility units 1-4 and IIe-4, but they are more sloping 
and, hence, their use is more strongly limited by the 
hazard of erosion. The soils of this unit are — 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Holston silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Wayne.sboro gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are chiefly on uplands and terraces through- 
out the county, except in the limestone valley. Some of 
them lie along the fringes of the valley. They are ex- 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHYLAND 



71 



tensive and occupy about 10,450 acres, or 5.6 percent of 
the county. These soils are similar, except for stronger 
slopes, to the soils of capability units 1-4 and ]le^, but 
they need nioi-e careful management and protection. 

Many areas of tliese soils :ire small, luid many of tliem 
join the similar, but more o-enlly sloping, soils. Man^ 
fields, however, consist almost entirely of these soils. The 
slopes tend to be somewhat longer in Pleasant Valley, 
for instance, than in the limestone valley. 

Because of the slope and the risk of erosion, rotations 
need to be longer and water disposal needs to be done 
with more care than on soils of capability unit Ile^. 
More of the land should be in hay or pasture. The kinds 
of crops are the same as those suited to soils of capability 
unit IIe-4. There are large areas of orchards. 

The usual 3-year rotation is followed by many farmers, 
but it is not likely to protect and maintain the soil well 
enough. A rotation that is 5 years in length is preferred 
for the soils in this capability unit. A 4-year rotation, 
with 2 years of hay, would be better than the simple 3-year 
rotation. More land should be in grass-clover pasture. 
Hay sod can also be used for pasture in part of the rota- 
tion. In some way there should be a decrease in the rota- 
tion cj'cle of the time the soil is exposed to erosion. If 
these soils are not protected better than they have been, 
they will eventually lose much of their productiveness. 
Already some areas, once in capability unit IIIe-4, are 
now in capability units IVe-3, VIe-2, or even VIIe-2, 
because they were damaged by erosion. 

Yields are fairly good, but these soils will need better 
management than they have received in the past if their 
productivity is to be increased or even maintained. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-5 

This unit consists of somewhat droughty, gently slop- 
ing to strongly sloping, gravelly and sandy soils. The 
soils are rather severely limited by the hazard of erosion 
when they are cultivated. The soils of this unit are — 

Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

These soils occur in many parts of the county outside 
of the limestone valley. They occupy about 1,700 acres, 
or six-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

These soils, in many ways, are like those in capability 
unit IIs-2, but they are more strongly sloping and have 
been moderately eroded. The soils are sandy and tend 
to be droughty. The risk of additional erosion, however, 
is the hazard that dominates their capability classification. 
The subsoil is generally finer textured than the surface 
layer, although both are sandy and gravelly. Fertility is 
rather low, and the soils tend to dry out more quickly 
than do the finer textured soils. 

The usual farm crops are grown on these soils. Some 
areas are used for orchards. The soils need fertility im- 
provement, water conservation, and, of course, control 
of erosion. The cropping system may include a small 
grain, but it does not need to do so ; corn 1 year and hay 
2 to 4 years is a fairly common rotation. Early vegetable 
crops should do well because the soils are well aerated and 
easily worked. Without irrigation, the vegetable croj) 



should be one (hat will be harvested before the summer 
drouglit sets in. With supplemental irrigation, a longer 
growing season is possible. Fertilizer is gniatly needed, 
and lime should be used judiciously. Jnfoi'mation al^iut 
the kind and amount of fertilizer and lime the soil needs 
can be obtained from testing the soil, a service that is 
available through the county agent's ollice. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-G 

This unit consists of only one soil — Terrace escarp- 
ments. This soil is on well-drained terraces and bottom 
lands that have short, irregular, and, in some places, 
steep slopes that are subject to serious erosion if they 
are not protected. Some areas are subject to occasional 
flooding. 

Small areas of this soil are in narrow strips through- 
out the county wherever there are flood plains and ter- 
races. These narrow strips are on the sides of draws 
or in small ravines that cut through terraces or flood 
plains; on short, sharp slopes between one level of a 
flood plain and another; or on fringes of terraces and 
flood plains where they adjoin steep uplands. The total 
area of this land is about 350 acres, or a little more than 
one-tenth of 1 percent of the county. 

The cropping system used on this soil should be much 
the same as for soils of capability unit 1-6, except that 
a crop rotation should contain more years in hay, pasture 
plants, or other close vegetative cover. The steepest areas 
should be in close-growing vegetation a great deal of the 
time. Such areas are particularly well suited to jierma- 
nent meadow strips, even on bottom lands where most of 
the adjoining soils are in corn or some other crop. Careful 
protection of these areas will help protect the soils on 
adjacent bottom lands. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-10 

In this unit are sloping to strongly sloping, well-drained 
soils that are moderately deep over acid shale or mica 
schist and that have been moderately eroded. The soils 
of this unit are — 

Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, to 20 
percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils occur in the extreme eastern and extreme 
western parts of the county, but not in the limestone 
valley. They occupy about 2,900 acres, or 1 percent of the 
county. 

The soils of this capability unit are similar to those of 
capability unit IIe-10, but they are steeper. Both ha^-e 
been moderately eroded. These soils are somewhat 
droughty. Their moisture-supplying capacity is low or 
moderate, and the growth of crops is hindered during 
long dry ])eriods. 

The soils are used for most of the common crops grown 
in the county. They are generally not good for alfalfa, 
because of their shallow depth, low fertility, and strong 
acidity. '\^nTLerever they have adequate air drainage, they 
appear to be fairly well suited to tree and berry fruits. 

A crop rotation needs to be longer on these soils, with 
more years of hay or other close-growing crops, than on 
the soils of capability unit IIe-10. Soil-conserving 
measures are needed, and pastures should be well man- 
aged and not overgrazed. The 4-year and 5-year rota- 



599553—62 C 



72 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 



tions that contain extra years of hay will be much 
more ell'ective than the common 3-ycar rotation of corn, 
grain, and hay. If these soils are ])ro])er]y limed and 
fertilized, fairly good clover, mixed hay, and pasture 
can be grown. Even with tlie best cropping systems and 
management, however, these soils are not highly produc- 
tive. Yields can be increased greatly with good manage- 
ment, but farmers should not expect yields tliat are ob- 
tainable on some of the better soils. 

Tillage and farming operations sliould be on the con- 
tour, with fairly narrow strips of a row crop or grain. 
AVater-conserving terraces can be built in some phxces. 
As much of the runolF as possible should be spread on 
meadow strips, so that most of the moisture can get 
back into the soil. Some runoff is probably unavoidable, 
and this should be channeled through well-protected 
drains and outlets. 

Green-manure crops and cover crops are especially 
valuable on soils of tliis capability unit. They will help 
to maintain or increase fertility. Animal manure and 
ci'op residue are also needed. Pastures should be well 
established l)efore they are grazed, and grazing should 
be regulated and not overdone. Control of weeds is 
especially important in pastures. As a rule, weeds can 
be controlled by seasonal mowing. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-13 

This capability unit consists of eroded, sloping or 
strongly sloping soils that have a tight subsoil that 
restricts drainage. Surface drainage is rapid, but inter- 
nally the soils are only moderately well drained. The 
soils of this miit are — 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongabela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongabela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are in all parts of the county, except the 
limestone valley. They commonly occur in small, scat- 
tered areas. The total area is about 1,300 acres, or four- 
tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

These soils ai^e limited by the hazard of erosion and by 
wetness that is caused by impeded drainage. They are 
not particularly fertile, so neither present nor poten- 
tial production is very high. The soils are suitable for 
cultivation, but they are used more for pasture or for 
mixed hay than for tilled crops. Some corn is grown, 
but little small grain. Alfalfa is not well suited and 
tends to heave in winter and spring. These soils are 
not well suited to vegetable crops or orchards. Most 
areas of these soils, in the agricultural parts of the 
county, are used for pasture and meadow. In the moun- 
tainous areas, they are mostlv^ still in forest. None of 
the soils is in the major valleys of the county. 

The soils of this capability unit are intermediate in 
many of their characteristics. They are neither well 
drained nor poorly drained and neither level nor very 
steep. They are seldom free of the risk of erosion, but 
few of the areas have been severely eroded. Some of the 
soils are rather low in fertility, and none are highly 



fertile. Therefore, they need several kinds of manage- 
ment, in some degree, at the same time. 

Among their requirements, and perhaps (he one of 
most import ance, is tlie pre\ ('iit ion of t'ni-t hcr losses of 
soil. Control of erosion and imi)rovement of drainage 
can well go together. Kimoll from adjacent higher areas 
should be intercepted and diverted around these soils if 
feasible. Otherwise, runoff should be conducted in strong- 
ly sodded waterways through the areas. Certain very 
Avet spots can be partially drained by V-type ditches that 
dischai'ge into the main drains. Tile drains are not 
usually recommended, because most of the soil areas are 
not deep enough over the tight subsoil for tile to work 
effectively. Contour tillage and, in some places, strip- 
cropping can be used on the strongly sloping areas to help 
control runoff. 

These soils should be plowed and tilled only at long 
intervals; generally, the less they are disturbed the better. 
No machinery should be used on them, and no gi-azing 
shoidd be allowed when the surface layer is saturated with 
water. This would puddle and compact the soil and 
make it more difTicult to drain and manage. Neither hay 
crops nor pasture will be produced economically or in 
adequate amounts without attention to soil fertility. 
Unless these soils are properly managed and conserved, 
they will deteriorate progressively until they are of little 
use for any purpose. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-26 

The soils of this capability unit are sloping to fairly 
steep and are rather severely limited by the hazard of 
erosion. They contain pieces of chert and are underlain 
by cherty limestone. There ai"e only two soils in this 
unit^ — 

EUiber cberty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are on the sides of ridges in the western part 
of the county. They amount to about 1,400 acres, or 
nearly one-half of 1 percent of the county. 

The soils of this capability unit are like those of capa- 
bility unit IIe-26, but they are more strongly sloping 
and their erosion hazard is more severe. Some areas 
are still in forest and some are used for general farming, 
but their most important use is for orchards. The soils 
are deep, readily permeable, and have a fairly high 
moisture capacity. They are not so readily erodible as 
many soils that have similar slopes. Air drainage on most 
of them is very good. 

For general crops, long rotations should be used and 
the crops grown in contour strips. Orchards should also 
be planted on the contour, and thei'e should be a well-kept 
ground cover between trees. Although the fertility may 
be at least moderately good, special attention should be 
given to the potash level in orchards and to the phosphate 
level for all crops. 

JNIuch of the rainfall probably will be absorbed by these 
soils. Runoff must be disposed of carefully to prevent 
erosion. Many cultivated areas have a blanket of chert 
fragments on the surface, which gives some protection to 
the soil. Close-growing vegetation will augment the 
protection against erosion. This combination, together 
with contour farming, should provide adequate control 
of runoff and erosion. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-30 

This capability unit consists of sliallow to (loop, lioavy- 
texturod, -well-drained, gently to niodoratcly sloping; soils 
that are underlain by limestone. The soils have a fine- 
textured surface layer that is thin or very thin because 
of erosion. Plowing to a normal depth turns up part 
of the heavy, intractable subsoil, which tends to become 
puddled an(l cloddy. Tiie (inc-lexturod surface layer and 
the severe hazard of erosion make these soils difficult 
to manage. The soils of this unit are — 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and DnfReld channery silt loams, to 8 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 3 to 8 percent .slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

These soils ai-e in spots throughout the limestone valley. 
There are oidy 1,400 acres, which is less than half of 1 
percent of the county. 

The soils of this capability unit are like those of capa- 
bility units IIs-1 and IIe-19, except that they are more 
strongly sloping and some are severely eroded. They 
are finer textured than the soils of ca2:)ability unit IIIe-1. 
Because of the slope, even where there has been only 
moderate erosion, the surface layer in most places is rather 
thin. "Wlien the soil is plowed, some of the finer textured 
subsoil is almost alwaj'S mixed with the clay loam or 
silt loam surface layer. 

Because of their texture, these soils are more difficult 
to plow and to manage than are those of capability 
unit IIIe-1. The soils become puddled and clod easily, 
and a good seedbed is difficult to prepare. These soils 
should receive lai'ge amounts of organic matter, either 
as animal manure or as plant residues. This will help 
prevent puddling and the formation of clods and will make 
the soil more easily workable over a somewhat wider range 
of moisture content. 

Except for the differences because of texture of the 
surface layer, the soils of this capability unit can be used 
and managed much the same as those of capability unit 
IIIe-1. Whenever sod crops can be grown in preference 
to clean-tilled crops, the chances of maintaining good 
tilth will be improved. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-31 

This capability unit consists of sloping to strongly 
sloping, somewhat excessively drained soils that are 
shallow to rnoderately deep over shale or sandstone 
materials, which have been somewhat influenced by lime. 
The soils are like those of capability unit Ile-il, but 
they are more strongly sloping and have a more severe 
hazard of ei-osion. The soils of this unit are — 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes. 
Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

These soils are in the western part of the county and 
on some of the ridges within the limestone valley. They 
amount to about 2,200 acres, a little less than eight-tenths 
of 1 percent of the county. 

The soils of capability unit IIIe-31 contain many flat 
fragments of sandstone or large fragments of shale, even 



in the surface layer. The fragments are especially numer- 
ous where the soils have been plowed and the thin, natural 
surface layer has been mixed with tlie more channery 
subsoil. 

These soils are used for general farming and, to some 
extent, for orchards. Fairly large areas are still in 
forest. Although these soils are sliallow and droughty, 
they are fairly fertile and productive. Erosion is prob- 
ably more of a hazard than droughtiness. The soil should 
be managed in long rotations that include cover crops 
most of the time. Farming sliould be on the contour. The 
soils are readily permeable to water, but their capacity 
for holding water is low. Co)ise(iuoiitly, there is usually 
considerable runoff during and after heavy rains. Rills 
develop readily, and, unless checked, will enlarge into 
gullies. Diversion terraces and heavily sodded waterways 
are needed to control runoff. 

Supplemental irrigation, where it can be done, would 
benefit the crops on these soils. Some irrigation is done 
in orchards on Litz soils in the Hancock area. Irrigation 
would have to be of the sprinkler type, and the water 
should be applied with great care. Water is not readily 
available for many of the areas of these soils. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-32 

This capability unit consists of sloping to strongly 
sloping, well-drained soils that are moderately deep over 
acid shale or sandstone and have a severe hazard of 
erosion. The soils are like those of capability unit IIs-7, 
except that the hazard of erosion is more of a management 
problem than is droughtiness or low fertility. The soils 
of this unit are — 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

These soils are mostly in the far western part of the 
comity, but some are in the vicinity of Conococheague 
Creek. They amount to about 6,200 acres, or 2.1 percent 
of the county. 

These soils are similar to the soils of capability unit 
IIIe-31, but, because there has been no influence of lime 
they are somewhat le.ss fertile and productive, even though 
in most areas the soil is a little deeper over the bedrock. 

Although large areas are still in forest, some of the 
acreage is used for general farming and some for 
oi'chards. Practices to combat erosion and droughtiness 
should be essentially the same as for capability unit 
IIIe-31, but more careful attention is needed for the 
maintenance and improvement of fertilit}-. Fertilizer 
is needed in large amounts for most crops. Additions 
of organic material are especially helpful. The soils 
should be limed and fertilized, as indicated by soil tests. 
These soils cainiot be made highly productive, but good 
management will produce fairly good returns from them. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-44 

This capability mut consists of deep, well-drained, 
moderately sloping, severely eroded soils. In spite of 
the severe erosion that has occurred, there is still a great 
enough depth of soil for man}^ crops, particularly deep- 
rooted crops that can draw on the usually adequate 



74 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 



moisture supply in the deep subsoils. These soils have 
not been influenced by lime. They are — 

Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

These soils are mostly in the Pleasant Valley section 
and on some old terraces of the Potomac River. They 
occupy about 600 acres, or two-tenths of 1 percent of 
the county. 

These soils became eroded when they were not well man- 
aged. Ade({uate erosion control measures should prevent 
further deterioration, and the soils can be cultivated 
regularly if they are managed propex'ly. 

Intensive practices to check further erosion are needed. 
Farming should be on the contour, and special care 
is needed to dispose of excess water. Strips of crops should 
be narrow, and not more than one strip in four should be 
clean tilled. A hay crop should be kept on the land at 
least 2 years, and preferably longer. Cover crops should 
be grown and turned under for green manure. Green- 
manure crops, along with large amounts of animal manure, 
will improve surface structure and tilth, enable water to 
penetrate more rapidly, and decrease the runoff. The 
surface layer Avill also be more friable and easily tilled. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-1 

This unit consists of poorly drained, silty soils of flood 
plains, foot slopes, terraces, or depressions. They have 
not been influenced by lime. The soils of this unit are — 

Atkins silt loam. 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Tyler silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Wehadkee silt loam. 

The Atkins and the Wehadkee soils occur on flood 
plains and ai-e subject to occasional or frequent flooding. 
The other soils occur in lipland depressions, on low foot 
slopes, or on old river terraces, and usually ai-e not subject 
to flooding. These soils are in all parts of the county, 
except in the limestone areas. There are about 1,900 
acres, or nearly seven-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

These are some of the wettest soils in the county. They 
are saturated during most of the winter and spring and 
f re(|uently at other times of the year after hea^y rains. 

]\Iany areas have been cleared, but in other places there 
are gi'owths of willows, alders, birches, and other water- 
tolerant trees. The cleared areas are used chiefly for 
grazing. With adequate drainage, they can be made 
suitable for cultivation. The Brinkerton and Rohrersville 
soils in this unit have more continuing limitations after 
drainage than the other soils. Under good management, 
some fairly good crops are produced, especially on the 
Rohrersville silty clay loam. Hay crops, including some 
soybeans, and late corn are the most common crops. 

Drainage can be improved by the use of V-type ditches ; 
tile is generally too expensive for the returns that can be 
expected. Diversion terraces will partly protect the 
soils from runoff. Danger of flooding can be reduced in 
some places by cleaning and straightening channels and 
by deepening some of them. Cleaned and straightened 
banks should, of course, be sodded to help protect them 
from cutting. 



ITay and pasture are good uses for these soils. Corn 
for silage can also be grown. Prevention of overgrazing 
and trampling while the soils are wet is an important 
item in their management. Pastures should be grazed only 
when tlie surface layer is dry enough that it will not be 
puddled or compacted. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-2 

The only soil in the county in this capability unit is 
Melvin silt loam. It is a poorly drained soil of the flood 
plains and has been strongly influenced by limestone. 
Normally, it is flooded only occasionally. 

This soil occurs on flood plains wherever sediment 
from limestone areas has been deposited. Most of the 
areas, but not all, are within the limestone valley. There 
are about 2,000 acres, or seven-tenths of 1 percent of the 
county. 

The most common use for this soil, without artificial 
drainage, is pasture. Areas that can be drained may be 
used for corn, hay, and pasture. The soil is of good 
fertility and is productive when properly managed. Man- 
agement should be much the same as tliat of soils in 
capability unit IIIw-1; the yields and economic returns 
should be greater. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IIIs-2 

The soils of this unit are well drained to excessively 
drained and are very shallow or shallow over bedrock 
of hard shale or mica schist. The Corydon soil is shallow 
over limestone. Slopes are gentle to moderate, and, 
although there is some erosion hazard, the thinness, 
di'oughtiness, and low fertility of the soil are more im- 
portant limitations than the risk of erosion. The soils 
of this unit are — 

Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Berks shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils occur in several parts of the county. They 
amount to about 5,600 acres, or 1.9 percent of the county. 

These soils are shallow and droughty, of low fertility, 
and strongly to very strongly acid. They are suitable for 
cultivation, but very careful management that includes 
conservation of moisture, improvement of fertility, and 
the control of erosion are necessary for any reasonable 
production. There is not enough soil depth for deep- 
rooted crops; in places bedrock is within a few inches 
of the surface, and generally it is within 2 feet of the 
surface. Close-growing crops should be included in the 
rotation and clean-tilled crops grown no more than neces- 
sary. Tillage encourages erosion, and there is little soil 
to lose. Hay crops and pasture protect the soil, but they 
produce little forage during the dry summer weather. 
Under the best management, pasture produces fairly well 
in spring and in autumn if there is sufficient moisture. 

There are some orchards on these soils. They can be 
managed without erosion if kept in sod, but production 
probably will be low in comparison to that on the better 
orchard soils. Irrigation should be especially helpful for 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



75 



orchards, annual crops, and for pasture, wherever (here 
is water (hat can be developed and used economically. 

Subsoiling, or chiseling, is done on some of these soils, 
but not on tlio Corydon or Hazel soils, which are under- 
lain by very hard rock. A tractor-drawn tool is used to 
cut vertically into and througli the soil, and as deep into 
the shale rock as the available tools and power permit. 
The depth of penetration may average as much as 2 feet, 
but in some areas it is less. The shattered shale permits 
some surface soil, organic matter, nutrients, and especially 
water to penetrate more readily than before. The root 
zone is thus deepened ; the amount of water and nutrients 
available for plants is increased; and the amount of run- 
oft' and erosion are I'educed. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-1 

This capability imit consists of moderately deep and 
deep, rolling to hilly, well-drained soils that are under- 
lain by, or were strongly influenced by, limestone. These 
soils have been moderately to severely eroded, and are 
very severely limited in use by the hazard of erosion. 
The soils of this unit are — 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Frankstown and DuflSeld channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 

These soils are scattered, generally in small areas, 
throughout the limestone valley and in a few spots in the 
western part of the county. There are about 3,600 acres, 
or 1.2 percent of the county. 

Partly because they developed in material derived from 
or influenced by limestone, these soils are productive. 
They lose productivity rapidly if they are cultivated too 
frequently. The slopes are too steep to be used for annual 
tilled crops without serious risk of erosion. Some of the 
soils already have been severely eroded. 

The soils of this capability unit have been and are 
being used for general crops, as a rule in fairly long 
I'otations. Some areas are in pasture, and they are well 
suited to that use. The soils are much better suited to 
close-growing hay crops than to clean-tilled crops. Con- 
siderable corn is grown, but generally no other row crops. 
Some small grains are grown, and there are orchards on 
these soils in the western part of the county. 

Because many areas of these soils are small, the ten- 
dency has been to manage them along with the surround- 
ing, more gently sloping soils. It is difficult and some- 
times impractical to have a separate cropping system for 
these small areas. Many areas of these soils, however. 



are in long, narrow strii)s approximately at right angles 
to the slope of the land. Tliese strips are well suited to 
permanent hay that will not refj^uire rotation, and they 
need very lit tle plowing or other tdlage. It is much Ixitter 
to have a strip of alfalfa or other permanent hay witliin 
a cidtivatod fiehl than to ti-y to include steep or 
severely eroded soil in the rotation itself. 

If corn or any other clean-cultivated crop must be 
planted on tliese soils, it should be only for 1 year in 5 or 
more yeai's. Corn should be grown in contour strips with 
perhaps a terrace below or above it, or both, if the lay 
of the land permits. If the sod strips are kept as per- 
manent meadows, they need to l)e plowed and replanted 
only when the sod becomes thin. 

Although these soils are fertile, they need care to keep 
them productive. Excess water must be very carefully 
disposed of because of the danger of gullying or sheet 
erosion. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-8 

In this unit are rolling to hilly, deep, well-drained soils 
that have not been appreciably influenced by limestone, 
but are severely limited in use by the hazard of erosion. 
These soils are like those in capability unit IIIe-4, but 
they are steeper. The soils of this unit ai-e — 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 35 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 20 to 35 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 20 to 35 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Holston gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Laidig gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

The soils of this unit are present in many parts of the 
county. The total area is about 5,000 acres, or 1.7 percent 
of the county. 

Some of the areas in this capability unit remain in 
forest. Most of the others are in hay crops or pastures. 
The same crops are grown as on most of the adjacent 
soils, which are generally of capability units Ile^, 
IIIe-4, or IIIe-44, Avith scattered spots of soils of 1-4. 
Orchards are fairly common on some of these soils, par- 
ticularly north and east of Smithsburg. 

These soils are suitable for long rotations in which they 
are clean cultivated only 1 year in 5 or 6 years. Manage- 
ment practices are similar to those for the soils in unit 
IVe-1. The great difference between these two capability 
units is that the soils of this unit are generally less fertile 
and productive than those of unit IVe-1. But even if 
they do not produce yields so good as those on the lime- 
stone-influenced soils, they respond well to good manage- 
ment. Most of these soils are especially well suited to 
grass-clover pasture. 



76 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 17 



CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-5 

This capability unit consists of somewhat droughty, 
slo])ing to rolling, moderately or severely eroded, gnvveliy 
and sandy soils that are se\erely limited by the hazard 
of further erosion. The soils of this unit are — 

llolstou gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

iMurrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, mod- 
er;itely eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 i>ercent slopes, 

se\orely eroded. 
AViiyiiesboi-() gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 

These soils are on old terraces and on foot slopes mostly 
near the Potomac lliver. The total area is only 4G2 acres, 
a little less than two-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

Like the other soils of subclass IVe, these soils cannot 
be cultivated with safety except at long intervals. Rota- 
tions sijuilar to those given for soils of capability luiits 
IVe-1 or IVe-3 can be used. However, the light, sandy 
soils of this capability imit are less productive because 
they are somewhat droughty and generally lower in 
supply of plant initrients. If local climatic and other 
factors are favorable (air drainage is extremely impor- 
tant), the soils of this unit are fairly well suited to 
orchards. 

Whatever the use, these soils must be protected from 
erosion. Liberal use of fertilizer and manure is needed 
for whatever crop is planted. Irrigation will increase 
yields greatly and is probably practical on orchards if 
water is available. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-9 

In this capability unit are strongly sloping to hilly 
soils that have a tight subsoil that restricts internal 
drainage. External drainage is rapid. These soils have 
been moderately eroded and are severely limited by the 
hazard of further erosion. They are — 

Buclianan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongaliela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

There ai-e only a few scattered areas of these soils and 
they are in the western part of the county. They amount 
to i43 acres, or one-twentieth of 1 percent of the county. 

These soils have excessive runoff during wet periods; 
rain or snowmelt water penetrate them very slowly, be- 
cause of the tight subsoil. They are thus especially sub- 
ject to erosion. The tight subsoil also causes the soil to 
remain very wet after normal, well-drained soils have 
dried enough that they can be tilled. Annual crops must 
be planted late, after normal seeding time. 

For these reasons, if clean-tilled ci'ops are grown, they 
should be grown in a long-time rotation with hay crops, or 
perhaps with rotation pasture. Pasture should not be 
grazed during wet weather, but should be held in reserve 
for di'ier times of the year. Pasture may not carry well 
through extremely dry weather, because the tight subsoil 
limits the moisture-supplying capacity. 

These soils must be well managed or they will be 
severely damaged by erosion. 



CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-10 

This cai)al)ilily unit consists of strongly sloping to 
hilly, shallow to moderately deep soils that are underlain 
by acid shale and mica schist. The soils of this unit are — 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 
Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 10 to 20 i)ercent 

slopes, ni(^derately eroded. 
Talhulega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 10 to 20 

percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 20 to 30 

percent slopes. 

These soils are in various parts of the county. They 
occupy about 1,070 acres, or six-tenths of 1 percent of the 
county. 

The soils of this capability unit are shallow or mod- 
erately deep, and they contain many fragments of rock. 
Most of them are ratiier low in I'eitility and tend to be 
di-oughty during periods of low rainfall. They are all 
sub ject to a seA ere hazard of ei'osion. The severely eroded 
soils are less productive than the others. 

A considerable part of the soils not moderately or 
severely eroded is still in forest. Most of these wooded 
areas are not large. They generally consist of blocks of 
trees or of woodlots on fairly steep slopes. The cleared 
areas are used mostly for hay crops or for pasture and 
some for tree and berry fruits. Enough corn and small 
grains are grown, or have been grown, to expose many 
areas of these soils to active erosion. Pastures are gen- 
erally rather poor and overgrazed. 

Tliese soils should be used for tilled crops no more often 
than 1 year in about .5, and hay or pasture crops should be 
gi-o\\ n the rest of the rotation. iMore tree and beriy fruits 
could be planted. Well-sodded and well-managed or- 
chards are suitable for the soils in this capability unit. 

Because of their limiting features, these soils must be 
especially well managed if production is to be maintained 
on them. Good management of pasture is especially 
needed because these soils cannot normally produce as 
much grazing as can the deeper and better soils. The 
chance of overgrazing, therefore, is greater. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-26 

This unit consists of rolling, well-drained soils on 
cherty limestone. The soils are very severely limited by 
the hazard of erosion. They are- 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slojjes, severely 
eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are on strongly sloping ridges in the west- 
ern part of the county. They occupy only about 1,200 
acres, or four-tenths of 1 jjercent of the county. 

These soils are so severely eroded or so strongly slop- 
ing that they are very severely limited for use for cul- 
tivated crops. Possibly their most intensive, safe use 
would be for orchards, which need to be kept in sod or 
in cover crops most of the time. Otherwise, they can be 
Vised for hay or for carefully controlled grazing. A 
clean-tilled crop should be grown only about once in 
5 years. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



77 



Good niani)<;(MutMit will prevent further excessive loss 
of soil. The soils of (his unit are not so readily erodihle 
as many others that have similar slopes. They are fairly 
open and porous, and the surface layer is generally fairly 
well paved with fragments of chert gravel, which mini- 
mizes the splashing eil'ects of heavy rainfall. Any crops, 
and particularly orchards, should be planted and culti- 
vated on the contour. Carefully constructed and main- 
tained waterways and outlets should be installed wher- 
ever water tends to concentrate. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-31 

This capability unit consists of rolling to hilly, some- 
what excessively drained soils that are shallow over 
shale or sandstone and have been influenced by lime. The 
soils of tliis unit are very severely limited by the hazard 
of erosion. They are — 

Litz channcry loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz-Teas chanuery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 i>ercent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

The total area is about 1,800 acres, or six-tenths of 1 
percent of the county. 

These soils are shallower than those of capability unit 
IVe-10, but the shale and sandstone from which they 
have been developed were rich in lime. Also, the soils 
tend to be somewhat more naturally fertile than those 
of capability unit IVe-10. 

Because these soils are so shallow, any cultivation, how- 
ever limited, must be accompanied by intensive conserva- 
tion measures. In most places there is only a little more 
than a foot of soil over the bedrock. "Wlien the soils are 
properly managed and protected, however, they are 
fairly productive. Yields would be greater if supple- 
mental irrigation were available during dry periods. 

A common use of these soils is for orchards, and this 
use is suitable and safe if the orchards are well sodded 
and otherwise protected. Clean-cultivated crops should 
be grown no oftener than once in about 5 years. Even 
then, planting and cultivation should be in contour strips, 
with all necessary precautions to check runoff and hold 
the soil. 

CAPABILITY UNIT IVe-32 

In this capability unit are rolling to hilly, somewhat 
excessively drained to excessively drained soils that are 
shallow or very shallow over acid shale or mica schist. 
These soils are very severely limited by the hazard of 
erosion and by droughtiness and low fertility. The soils 
of this unit are — 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin-Berks channery loams, 3 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 



Calvin .M(»iilcvallo slialy loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, niod- 
eralely eroded. 

Hazel cliannery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

The total area of this unit is about 8,200 acres, or 2.7 
percent of the county. 

These soils are as shallow as those of capability unit 
IVe-;31. They are more strongly acid and usually less 
productive. Although they are suitable for limited culti- 
vation with proper precautions and good management, 
they are of such limited productivity that use other than 
for an occasional cultivated crop, hay and grazing, or 
orchards will probably give poor returns. Forested areas 
should remain in forest. Grazed areas should be protected 
carefully from overgrazing and cultivated areas used 
seldom for clean-tilled crops, but chiefly for hay. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Vs-1 

This unit consists of practically level, well-drained, 
very rocky soils. The rocks are chiefly outcrops of lime- 
stone. These soils cannot be cultivated regularly. If they 
are used for pasture or woodland, they are not subject 
to deterioration, because their chief limitation is rockiness. 
These soils have been mapped as one undifferentiated 
unit — 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and DufBeld very rocky silt loams, 
to 3 percent slopes. 

These soils are in scattered areas throughout the lime- 
stone valley. They amount to 424 acres, a little more than 
one-tenth of 1 percent of the county. 

These soils are nearly level, fertile, well drained, and 
not significantly eroded. They are too rocky, however, 
for cultivated crops or for a normal rotation. Some 
patches could be used for corn or hay crops, but only by 
hand cultivation. Therefore, these soils are limited in 
use almost entirely to grazing or to woodland. 

The maintenance of a vegetative cover of either pasture 
plants or trees will protect these soils from erosion. These 
rocky soils make excellent pasture, although either mow- 
ing or control of weeds with chemicals is more than 
normally difficult. In pasture the control of brush also 
may have to be a hand operation, but this will not be 
time consuming or difficult if it is repeated at regular 
intervals. 

These soils are excellent for woodlots if the trees are 
protected from fire and from grazing. All of the local 
trees will do well if given a reasonably good chance. 

CAPABILITY UNIT Vs-2 

In this unit are nearly level or very gently sloping, 
stony and very stony soils, most of them well drained, 
that have not been affected by limestone. Regular culti- 
vation is not practical, but the soils have practically no 
limitations other than their stoniness. Some spots are 
only moderately well drained, and a few areas may be 
occasionally temporarily flooded. The soils of this unit 
are — 

Chewacla stony silt loam. 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, to 5 percent slopes. 
Highfield very stony loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Pope stony gravelly loam. 



78 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Some areas ol" these soils are on nearly level ridgetops, 
and some are on nari'ov^?, stony flood plains. Most of the 
areas are on or adjacent to South Mountain. There are 
415 acres, or a little more than one-tenth of 1 percent of 
the county. 

These soils are not suitable for crops or for normal 
rolalions because the surface layer is too stony. Stones, 
boulcUM's, and some rock outcrops make up about 40 
percent of the surface area. This is enough to prevent 
modern mechanized farmwork, although some row crops 
or hay could be produced by more primitive methods. 

The chief ditlerence between these soils and those of 
cai)ability unit Vs-1 is that nearly all of the stones are 
loose and rounded, and of acid rock material ; in unit Vs-1 
they are ledges of limestone. The soils of this cai)ability 
unit are also somewhat less fertile than those of capa- 
bility unit Vs-1, and will generally yield less pasture 
forage or fewer woodland i)roducts. Pastures should be 
limed and fertilized, as needed, and weeds and brush 
should be controlled. Woodlands should be protected from 
burning and from grazing. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIo-1 

This capability unit consists of rolling and severely 
eroded, or steep and moderately eroded, well-drained, 
deep soils that are underlain by limestone. The soils of 
this unit are — 

Elliber olierty loam, 25 to 4.j ptn-cent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstowu and Uiiflield chaunery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frankstowu and Duffield chaunery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderatel.v eroded. 
Frederick clierty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 

eroded. 

Fredericlv clierty silt loam, 25 to 45 percent sloi)es, moderately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown and Duffield silt loams, 25 to 45 pei'cent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Westmoreland cliannery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 

These soils are in all the limestone areas of the county. 
The total area is about 2,000 acres, or a little less than 
seven-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

These are fertile and productive soils, but they are too 
steep or have been too severely eroded to be used safely 
for cultivated crops. They might produce fairly good 
hay, but the crop would be difficult to cut and to cure. 
A much safer, and generally better, use is to keep the soils 
in permanent sod pasture or in woodland. Properly man- 
aged pastures, particularly if they are not overgrazed, 
can be among the better pastures of the county. Although 
the carrying capacity is not so great as on the soils of 
capability units I-l, IIe-1, IIIe-1, and IVe-1, it should 
be greater than on any other soils of class VI. The soils 
can also be safely used for woodland if protected from 
grazing and from fire. 

CAPABILITY UNIT YIe-2 

This capability unit consists of rolling and severely 
eroded, or steep and moderately eroded, well-drained, 
fairly deep soils that have not been appreciably affected 
by limestone. The soils of this unit are — • 

Edgemont and Laidig cliannery loams, 35 to 60 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 



Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Ilolston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
iNIurriU gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Myersville cliannery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville cliannery silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are in scattered spots in many parts of the 
county. There are about 1,200 acres, or four-tenths of 1 
percent of the county. 

None of these soils can be cultivated witliout undue 
loss of soil, even with all the erosion control measures 
that could be feasibly carried out. Such crops as corn 
or oats could be grown, but only at the e.xpense of losing 
the vegetation-supporting upper layers of soil. 

Some of the less eroded areas are in forest. The areas 
now being cropped are continuing to deteriorate. Some 
of the areas are idle and not producing. l*robably a 
larger acreage is in pasture than in any other use. 

Pasture and woodland are the only really suitable uses 
for these soils. Bluegrass does well on most of the soils, 
and good pastures can be maintained with careful man- 
agement. The chief precaution after sod is established is 
to prevent overgrazing. Livestock should be excluded 
from these pastures during any summer "brown-out" of 
the sod. The soil should be tested regularly and limed 
or fertilized as needed. Good pastures will not maintain 
themselves on these soils; it takes very good management 
to maintain them. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIe-3 

In this unit are shallow soils that range from sloping 
and severely eroded to moderately steep and practically 
uneroded. The soils of this unit are — 

Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 
Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 30 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick .solum variant, 20 to 45 
percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

These soils are shallower than the others of class VI. 
They occupy 7,600 acres, or 2.5 percent of the county. 

Tliere is little difference in necessary management be- 
tween these soils and those of capability units Vle-1 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



79 



and VIe-2. Because those soils are shallow, however, Ihey 
(eiul to be more drou<2;h(y. Tims, the (greatest practical 
(lilhnvnce is in carrviii<? ca])acity, particularly durinf? 
hot, dry weather. (Jrazinii- aiiiinals should not be allowed 
on these soils during such periods. Ivow crops and small 
grains should not be grown because of the hazards of 
drought and erosion. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIw-l 

This unit consists of only one poorly drained to very 
poorly drained soil mappin<j unit — Dunning and Melviu 
silty clay loams. This soil is subject to frequent serious 
damage by flooding or overflow. It occupies about 1,900 
acres, or six-tenths of 1 percent of the county. 

This soil should be kept in permanent vegetation, such 
as pasture or woodland. To be of much use as pasture, 
it needs artificial drainage. Diversions and waterways 
are needed to keep water from adjacent upland soils 
from spreading out on this soil. Surface drainage can 
be improved by V-type ditches at proper spacing. Spoil 
material should be spread away from the ditches, and the 
banks and slopes should be protected by sod. Ditches 
are especially needed to drain any abnormally wet spots. 
Tile drains might work well in some places, but the cost 
is likely to be more than the returns would justify. 

This soil is also suitable for woodland ; trees should be 
of species that tolerate wetness, maless artificial drainage 
is to be established. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-1 

This unit consists of sloping to steep, well-drained, 
very rocky soils that are limited both by rockiness and 
by hazard of erosion. The rocks are outcrops of limestone. 
The soils of this unit are — 

Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes. 
DuflSeld very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 

These very rocky soils are extensive throughout the 
limestone areas of the county. Altogether, they occupy 
about 25,500 acres, or 8.6 percent of the county. 

The soils of this capability unit are much like those 
of capability unit Vs-1, except that they are steeper or 
have been more severely eroded. Because of the rockiness, 
slope, and risk of erosion, cropping these soils would be 
entirely impractical. Nearly all of the areas have been 
cleared, and most of them are used for pasture. Erosion 
was generally a result of overgrazing, which destroyed 
some of the soil-protecting sod between the outcrops of 
limestone. The soils are naturally fertile, however, and 
responsive to treatment so that sod can be readily reestab- 
lished and maintained with proper management. 



Where practical, some of the rock should be removed. 
Bluegrass or other gra.sses along with suitable <;lovers will 
make excellent pasture sod. Lime may be needed, and 
some fertilizer almost certainly will be needed. These 
piactices, along with control of weeds and the prevention 
of overgrazing, should result in very good pastures on 
soils tliat are suitable for this use but for little else 
except woodland. 

CAPABILITY f.MT Vis 2 

This capability unit consists of gently sloping to moder- 
ately steep, very stony soils that are well di'ained and not 
affected by limestone. The uses of these soils are limited 
both by stoniness and by some hazard of erosion. The 
soils of this unit are — 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 5 to 35 percent slopes. 
Fauquier very stony loam, 5 to 35 percent slopes. 
Ilighfield very stony loam, 5 to 30 percent slopes. 
Laidig very stony loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes. 
Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

These soils are mostly on South Moiuitain and on Elk 
Ridge, although some areas are in the western part of 
the county. There are about 16,500 acres, or 5.6 percent 
of the county. 

Stoniness is the chief limiting characteristic of these 
soils. If they were not stony, the gently and moderately 
sloping soils would be suitable for cultivation. Most of 
the areas are forested, but some are cleared and used for 
pasture. Practically none of the cleared land is cultivated. 
A good use for these soils is woodland, and the areas 
now forested should probably remain so. Forests yield 
timber and give good protection for watersheds and for 
wildlife areas. 

Cleared areas make fairly good pasture, however, if 
they are properly managed. Wliere practical, some of 
the stones should be removed, and the soils should be 
treated with appropriate amoimts of lime and fertilizer 
and seeded to bluegrass or orchardgrass with one or 
more of the clovers. Overgrazing of pastures should be 
avoided, particularly before grasses and clovers are well 
established. Even after sod is established, overgrazing 
is the greatest hazard. Control of weeds and brush may 
be somewhat difficult on these soils, but it must be carried 
out if pastures are to be kept in first-class condition. 

Areas of cleared land, not intended for pasture, should 
be reforested. All forests should be protected from graz- 
ing; protection of newly planted or restocked forests is 
particularly needed. Fires should be prevented also. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIe-1 

This unit consists of very steep or very severelj' eroded 
soils that are underlain by limestone. The soils of this 
unit are — 

EUiber cherty loam, 45 to 55 percent slopes. 
Eroded land, limestone materials. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

These soils are m the limestone valley and on some 
ridges in the western part of the county. The total area 
is about 800 acres, a little less than three-tenths of 1 
percent of the county. 



80 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Allliough these very steep soils or very severely eroded 
soils arc iiiliereiitly fertile, no attempt should be made 
to use them for crops or pasture. Forested areas should 
remain forested, and all cleared areas should be reforested. 
Obtaining a stand of seedlings may be dillicult, but, once 
the trees are established, they should make fairly rapid 
growth. Timber operations may be diflicult, and econom- 
ically they may not be practical. The establishment of 
permanent cover, however, whether economically feasible 
or not, will furnish watershed protection and at least 
some possibility of return. All forested areas should be 
fenced to keep grazing animals out. These forested areas 
make good wikUife cover, especially if they are bordered 
by hedgerows of seed-producing grasses or shrubs. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIe-2 

This iniit consists only of very severely eroded land 
types. The two general kinds of land are — 

Eroded land, grcoustone materials. 

Eroded land, sandstone and (luarlzite materials. 

There are 322 acres of this capability unit. This is 
one-tenth of 1 percent of the county. 

These eroded lands have been cleared and farmed, and 
the farming has resulted in exceptionally severe erosion. 
The soils are acid to very strongly acid, unlike those of 
capability unit VIIe-1. These areas should not be culti- 
vated; they are too eroded and most of them are too 
steep even for grazing. Thus, they are of little use in 
agriculture, except for forests, watershed protection, and 
wildlife cover. Forests probably will be poor. Some areas 
may reforest themselves if they are fenced and protected 
from grazing and fire; others coidd be replanted. With 
proper protection, such refoi'ested areas are likely to 
become more valuable than they possibly could under any 
type of farming. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIe-3 

This unit consists of very steep or severely eroded, 
shallow soils. The soils of this unit are — 

Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Berks soils, ridges, 30 to 60 percent slopes. 
Calvin channery loam, 4.1 to 60 percent slopes. 
Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 
Calvin-Berks channery loams, 30 to 60 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 45 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 30 to 60 percent slopes. 
Eroded land, shale and schist materials. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

These soils are in almost all parts of the county, except 
in the limestone valley. Altogether, they occupy about 
11,400 acres, slightly less than 4 percent of the county. 

These soils are not suitable for crops. Because of their 
many adverse characteristics, they cannot be recommended 
for either hay or pasture. Some of the least eroded, very 
steep spots are still in forest. All the severely eroded and 
very severely eroded parts were once cultivated. Most of 
these eroded areas are now either in very poor pasture or 



lying idle; they are still deteriorating and will con- 
tinue to do so while they do not have the protection of 
a complete and undisturbed vegetative cover. For protec- 
tion of the land below them, they should be reforested. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-1 

This unit includes all severely eroded, very rocky soils ; 
all very steep, very rocky soils; and all extremely rocky 
soils of the county. Rockiness is the result of massive 
outcrops of limestone. The soils of this unit are — ■ 

Corydon extremely rocky clay loam, to 15 percent slopes. 
Dullield extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 percent slopes. 
Erankstovvn extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 percent slopes. 
Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 
Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam, to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 
Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky soils, 45 to 55 percent slopes. 
Rocky eroded land. 

These soils are located wherever there are limestone 
outcrops, but most of them are in the great limestone 
valley. The total area is about 17,500 acres, or 6 percent 
of the county. 

These soils have fairly high natural fertility. They are 
too rocky and many of them are much too severely eroded 
to be managed, e\en for pasture. Some areas might fur- 
nish very limited grazing but not enough to be of any 
practical importance. 

Because of their inherent fertility, these soils could 
support good woodlots if they were planted with suitable 
kinds of trees and carefully protected from fire and graz- 
ing. Timber operations will be very diflicult on some of 
the steep and extremely rocky areas, but forestry is still 
the best economic use of the soils. Good woodland cover 
will also provide an excellent habitat for many types of 
wildlife. 

CAPABILITY UNIT VIIs-2 

In this unit are all the shallow, very stony soils and all 
the steep, very stony soils of the county. All are under- 
lain by acid rocks ; none are influenced by limestone. The 
soils of this unit are — 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, to 25 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 45 to 60 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, to 25 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 35 to 60 percent slopes. 
Highfield very stony loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 
Laidig very stony loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville very stony loam, 30 to 55 percent slopes, eroded. 
Stony rolling land. 

Most of these soils are on South Mountain or on Elk 
Ridge. The total area is about 9,700 acres, or 3. .3 percent 
of the county. 

Although these soils are vei\y ston}^ and some of them 
are steep, they are all suitable for some kind of forest. 
They are not good forest soils, but they should produce 
some timbei\ The soils would furnish no substantial 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



81 



economic return in any oilier !i<i:i-icul( mal use. There is 
no good reason for clearing any of the areas for fanning. 
Removal of timber products should be selective while 
the land remains in forest. JNIost of these soils are in 
State or National forests and parks. This is an excellent 
use for them. 

CAPABII.ITY UNIT VIIIs-1 

This capability unit consists of only one soil mapping 
unit, which is Stony steep land. It is too rough, stony, 
and steep for any agricultural use. There are 2,713 acres 
in the county, or nine-tenths of 1 percent of the total 
area. 

Parts of these areas have a cover or partial cover of 
trees and shrubs. They nnist be considered in class VIII, 
however, because the production of timber or other forest 
products is not and never will be a feasible economic 
operation. Most of these areas furnish good cover for 
wildlife and are so located that they furnish sites for 
hiking, camping, picnicking, and other forms of recre- 
ation. Thus, although this land has no use in agricultiu-e, 
it is of considerable importance to the citizens of the 
county. 

Use of Soils for Woodland 

Washington County is in that part of eastern United 
States where the forests are dominated by hardwood 
trees. "\'\niile some conifers, probabl}' redcedar, white 
pine, Virginia pine, and hemlock, undoubtedly grew 
there when the county was first settled by Europeans, 
there is no historical reason to believe that any of them 
existed in even fairly pure stands. 

Practically no truly a- irgin forests remain in the county. 
However, a few small tracts have been observed that 
show no evidence of having been altered by the activities 
of man or domestic animals. At the time this soil survey 
was made, there remained a total of about 84,000 acres 
of woodland in the county; this is about 28 percent of 
the county. According to the U.S. Census of Agriculture, 
there were 31,029 acres of woodland in farms in 1954. H 
can be assumed that the other forests (about 63,000 
acres) are on public lands or on other areas not classified 
as farm holdings. Farm woodlands decreased by some 
3,000 acres between 1949 and 1954. 

The value of commercial timber cut from private lands 
in 1949 was $18,500, and the yearly average from 1952 
through 1956 was $88,500 according to the Marjdand 
Department of Forests and Parks. The increase in 
yearly value is because of a small increase in volume and 
a much larger increase in unit values. In 1954, about 
one-fourth of the income derived from the sale of timber 
products came from famis, and the rest, from nonfarm 
areas. Considerable volumes of small forest products 
are cut and sold or used on the farm by landownei'S who 
do not report them. Increased interest in woodland man- 
agement and higher timber prices indicate that the an- 
nual values of timber and other woodland products 
should increase. 

In the main, the remaining foi'ests of Washington 
County are in the mountainous areas and in the ridge and 
valley section west of Fairview Mountain. There are no 



signilicani remaining forests either in the great valley or 
in Pleasant Valley on the better soils of those areas. 
Trees are growing on some once-cultivated lands that be- 
came so severely eroded or otherwise detei-iorated that 
they were abaiuloned and allowed to revegetate naturally. 

There are four general kinds of forests in the county. 
One kind is old-growth hardwood forest. Another is 
forest on well-drained uplands that has bec^n cut over 
one or more times. A third kind is forest that grows in 
poorly drained areas; and the fourth is forest that grows 
where abandoned fields and pastures are reforesting 
naturally. 

Old-groioth hardwood forests. — These forests are al- 
most all on large farms and estates. Their total acreage 
is small. The dominant trees are white oak, red oak, 
and chestnut oak. 'J'here are some yellow-poplar, locust, 
and hickory trees, and a few black walnut trees. 

These forests have not been exploited because, to their 
owners, their esthetic or sentimental value is greater than 
the value of the timber. Many of the trees are mature 
or overmature. Under proper forest management, the old 
trees should be marketed to make space for the growth 
of younger trees. 

Cutover forests on well-drained sites. — Most of the 
forests in the comity are of this kind. Oaks are dominant, 
and the secondary trees are elm, hickory, locust, maple, 
and dogwood. On some of the thinner and more droughty 
soils, there is some shortleaf pine and, in a few places, 
some Virginia pine. Most of the farm woodlots, which 
vary greatly in composition and condition, are included 
in this kind of forest. 

Most of these cutover forests get little protection from 
fire or grazing. Besides their value for producing timber, 
these forests are valuable for watershed protection and 
for wildlife shelter. 

Forests on poorly drained sites.- — These forests gi'ow 
on poorly drained soils of the uplands and on some of the 
terraces and flood plains along streams. Almost all of 
them have been cut over. The species of trees are different 
from those in the cutover forests of drier sites. Pin oak 
and scarlet oak are the common species, but the stands 
include hickory, swamp maple, and other maples, some 
elm, birch, and willow. Some areas have an undergi-owth, 
and others have nearly pure stands of species, such as 
alder, that have no economic value. 

These forests are of little economic importance. They 
furnish some fenceposts, and most of them are good wild- 
life shelter. Many have been thinned so that pastures 
could be developed and only enough trees have been 
left to provide shade for livestock. 

Forests in abandoned fields. — Most of these forests are 
in fields that were no longer cultivated because they be- 
came too eroded to support crops or good pastures. Under 
natural revegetation, the first plants to become establish- 
ed are sassafras, persimmon, and hawthorn, blackberry, 
and other shrubs. In time, these are followed by oak, 
hickory, dogwood, locust, and other trees. In some places 
stands of Virginia pine and shortleaf pine have become 
established. 

These forests should receive regular forest management. 
Areas that are still in the brushy stage should be planted 
with valuable species of trees. 



82 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Relationships of soils and forests 

Soils vary in their ability to produce trees, just as they 
do in their ability to produce crops. Trees grow better 
on the soils that contain some lime than they do on the 
soils that are entirely acid. Soils that are no longer pro- 
ductive for crops or pasture are likely to be less produc- 
tive of ti-ees than they were before they were cleared. 
Ditierences in elevation and climate also affect the growth 
of trees. 

In Washington County differences in slope, elevation, 
and climate have significant effects on the growth of 
trees, but differences in soils probably have stronger 
effects. Sandy and somewhat droughty soils are more 
suitable for germination of the seed of Virginia pine than 
for the seed of hardwood trees. As a seedbed, severely 
eroded soils that have much of the subsoil exposed are 
inferior to uneroded soils that have friable, granular 
surface soil. On deep, permeable soils the windthrow 
hazard is less serious than on shallow soils. 

Soils affect the ease of harvesting timber and the 
hazards involved in logging. Some areas are too steep 
and too rough even for temporary roads for logging 
vehicles. In these areas logs generally can be skidded 
out by cables. Few forests in the county are extensive 
enough to justify building permanent access or logging 
roads. Temporary roads should be built as nearly as 
possible on the contour, because most of the sloping 
upland soils erode readily. To prevent gullying, the 
I'oads should not be allowed to become rutted. 

Trees have significant effects on the soils of forested 
areas, especially on the surface layer. Under a good stand 
of hardwood trees in an ungrazed upland area, there is 
generally a cover of leaf litter 2 inches or more thick. 
The litter slows runoff', tends to keep the surface laj'er 
friable, and allows rainwater and snowmelt to soak in. 
As the litter decays or is consumed by earthworms or 
other animals, plant nutrients are added to the soil. The 
litter under pine trees is more acid, contains fewer plant 
nutrients, and has less beneficial effect on the surface 
soil than the litter of hardwoods. 

Reforestation 

Soils that are well suited to crops and pasture generally 
are also well suited to forests. However, only soils no 
longer productive for crops or pasture are likely to have 
greater value for forest rj'. 

The soils that are steep or severely eroded should be 
given priority in any reforestation program. They will 
probably give greater returns from forest products than 
from any other use, and, in addition, the trees protect the 
soils. Because severely eroded soils generally are not the 
best forest sites, help should be sought from the district 
forester assigned to the county whenever reforestation 
is considered. 

Soil groups for forestry 

This section contains a grouping of the soils of Wash- 
ington County according to their suitability for woodland. 
Mixed oaks were used as the index trees in making the 
grouping because they are the most common forest trees 
of the county. Most of the soils in the county are classified 
as excellent sites for mixed oaks. Some soils are rated 



as good, and others are rated as medium or poor. Group 
Fl, the excellent sites for mixed oak trees, consists of 
deep soils that have no real impediment to the penetration 
of roots. The good sites include some soils that are fairly 
shallow over bedrock or that have a claypan or siltpan 
that hinders the deep peneti'ation of roots. Medium sites 
include the shallow soils. Poor sites are the soils not 
suitable for growing oak trees because they are excessively 
steep, rough, very shallow, or eroded. 

Soils have been listed in woodland suitability groups by 
giving names of the soil types. Some further statements 
about slope and degree of erosion are given to indicate 
placement of the mapping units that are sloping or eroded 
phases of soil types, and still further information is 
given about the influence of a southern exposure on 
ratings of the sloping soils. In general, a slope greater 
than 25 percent, or a southern exposure, reduces the 
site value of a good soil by one or two groups. All very 
severely eroded soils, and severely eroded, shallow soils, 
are in the lowest site group. 

Woodland suitability groups of soils in the county 
and the soils in each group are given in the following 
list. Except as noted for six poorly drained soils in 
group Fl, the soils have been rated for production of 
the mixed oak trees that were common in the native 
forests. 

Soil group Fl. — Excellent soils for woodland. They 
can produce high yields of good quality forest crops and 
are suitable for intensive forest management if well 
stocked. Poorly drained soils in this group are not suit- 
able sites for mixed oak trees, and their rating is based 
on the production of pin oak. 

Ashton fine sandy loam. 

Atkins silt loam (poorly drained). 

Benevola clay loam. 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams. 

Brinkerton silt loam (poorly drained). 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam. 

Chewacla silt loam. 

Cliewacla stony silt loam. 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam. 

Duffleld silt loam. 

Duffield extremely rocky silt loam. 
Duffield very rocky silt loam. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam. 

Dunning and Melvin silty clay loams (poorly drained). 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams. 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams. 

Elliber cherty loam. 

Etowah gravelly loam. 

Etowah silt loam. 

Fauquier channery loam. 

Fauquier silt loam. 

Fauquier very stony loam. 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam. 

Frankstown and DuflSeld channery silt loams. 

Frederick cherty silt loam. 

Hagerstown clay loam. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam. 

Hagerstown silt loam. 

Hagerstown silty clay loam. 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam. 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam. 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and DuflBeld very rocky silt loams. 

Hagerstown and DuflBeld silt loams. 

Highfield gravelly loam. 

Highfield very stony loam. 

Holston gravelly loam. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



83 



Holston gravelly sandy loam. 

Holstoii silt loam. 

Hunt iiifltoii lino sandy loam. 

Huntington tii'avolly loam. 

Huntington silt loam. 

Uuntington silt loam, local alluvium. 

Laidig gravelly loam. 

Laidig very stony loam. 

Largent silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam, loeal alluvium. 

Melvin silt loam (poorly drained). 

Murrill gravelly loam. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam. 

Murrill silt loam. 

Myersville eliannery loam. 

Myersville ebaunery silt loam. 

Myersville silt loam. 

Myersville very stony loam. 

I'hilo gravelly sandy loam. 

Philo silt loam. 

Pope Hue sandy loam. 

Pope gravelly loam. 

Pope gravelly sandy loam. 

Pope silt loam. 

Pope stony gravelly loam. 

Rohrersville silty clay loam (poorly drained). 
Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant 
Terrace escarpments. 
Thurmont gravelly loam. 
Warners loam. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam. 
W'ehadkee silt loam (poorly drained). 
Westmoreland channery silt loam. 

Soil group F2. — Good soils for woodland. The rate 
of growth is not so rapid as on the excellent soils, but it 
will justify fairly intensive management. Wood pi'oducts 
of high quality can be grown. 

Berks channery loam, ridges. 

Berks shaly silt loam. 

Berks silt loam, ridges. 

Buchanan gravelly loam. 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam. 

Calvin channery loam. 

Calvin shaly loam. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam. 

Corydon clay loam. 

Corydon extremely rocky clay loam. 

Corydon very rocky clay loam. 

Fauquier silt loam, shallow. 

Hagerstown extremely rocky soils. 

Hagerstown very rocky soils. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam. 

Monongahela gravelly loam. 

Monongahela silt loam. 

Trego gravelly silt loam. 

Tyler silt loam. 

Southern slopes of 25 percent or more of soil types listed in 
group Fl. 

Soil group F3. — Medium soils for woodland. These 
soils will grow fairly good timber, but growth is slow. 

Berks soils, ridges. 
Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams. 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams. 
Hazel channery silt loam. 
Litz channery loam. 
Litz shaly loam. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams. 
Montevallo shaly loam. 

Slope phases of 40 percent or more of soil types listed in 
group F2. 



Soil group F4. — Soil.s and land types that are pooi- tor 
woodland. The growth rate, especially of hardwood trees, 
is very slow. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams. 

Kroded land, greenstone materials. 

lOroded land, limestone materials. 

lOroded land, sandstone and quartzite materials. 

Eroded land, shale and schist materials. 

Rocky eroded land. 

Stony rolling land. 

Stony steep land. 

Southern exposures of slope i)hases of 40 percent or more, 

of soil types listed in group F2. 
All severely eroded phases of soil tyi)es listed in group F.3. 
All southern exposures of soil types listed in group V'.i. 

Unfortunately, the soils that need reforestation the 
most urgently are those that make the poorest woodland 
sites. These soils are also the most difficult ones on which 
to obtain a stand of trees. This is particularly true be- 
cause the seedlings of most hardwood trees, including 
oaks, are difficult to transplant and the rate of survival 
is low. Growth is irregular and very slow on tlie soils 
of groups F3 and F4. 

Red oak and black walnut can be planted by direct 
seeding. Black walnut, in particular, needs a good soil 
and is most likely to be successful on the deeper soils 
of group Fl. Because of the difficulty of establishing 
hardwoods, in general, most of the planting that is done 
should be of pine trees. According to information sup- 
plied by the Maryland Department of Forests and Parks, 
the best returns in Washington County, based on cords 
of wood produced, will be obtained from plantings of 
white, shortleaf, loblolly, and Corsican pines. 

Although the county is outside the natural range of 
loblolly pine, this species may prove the most profitable 
for planting, particularly on sites where there is plenty 
of moisture. On very droughty and eroded sites, Virginia 
pine is probably the most suitable species for planting. 
Although it is of less economic importance than the other 
pines mentioned, it will survive on poorer sites. It will 
at least furnish good vegetative protection for the land 
and will provide a better habitat for wildlife than the 
idle, unoccupied land. 

It is not the purpose of this report to give a detailed 
account of forest management, either as it is being, or 
should be, carried out. The purpose is chiefly to point 
out the soils on which forestry, including reforestation, 
might be an economic enterprise. The local district for- 
ester should be consulted on planting, management, and 
other details of forestry operations either on a farm or 
on a more extensive woodland. 

Economic return is not the only benefit to be derived 
from forests. Forests should be left, or should be planted, 
to protect the headwaters of streams; to reduce runoff 
and thus help to control floods and conserve the lands not 
in forests; to furnish protective cover and food for wild- 
life; to maintain public and private recreational areas; 
and for other reasons that cannot be measured directly in 
dollars and cents. Not the least of these is the esthetic 
reason, merely to maintain and enhance the beauty of 
the landscape of Washington County. 



84 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 17 



Engineering Uses of Soils' 

This part of the soil survey report for Washington 
County is intended to be a guide to physical soil properties 
and to the influences of such properties on problems re- 
lated to engineering. It is generally recognized that the 
soil is a primary resource in agricultural production, but 
it is not so widely realized that soils are of great im- 
portance in many kinds of engineering practices and 
projects. We cannot build a road, excavate a basement, 
lay a waterlino or other pipeline, install a septic tank, 
build a terrace or diversion ditch, or create an artificial 
pond without confronting problems created by the nature 
of the soil. How can we best use the soil material that 
is encountered, and how will the nature of the soil 
affect the job at hand? 

The facts on which this section is based were obtained 
by close examination of soils in the field, and by evalua- 
tion of tlie physical characteristics exhibited in relation 
to some engineering needs. The evaluations were verified 
by some laboratory analyses. Extensive testing was not 
done in Washington County, but many interpretations 
were based on physical analyses of the same kinds of 
soil elsewhere, particularly in neighboring Frederick 
County (7). In this way, careful estimates were made 
of some physical properties of the soils of Washington 
County. 

It is not intended that these data be used directly for 
engineering design. These facts and estimates are at best 
a guide; engineering design should be based on field 
surveys and the analysis of samples from construction 
sites. For example, this repoi^t will show tliat the subsoil 
of Tyler silt loam is not suitable for fill material to sup- 
port heavy loads. This report will also show that the 
subsoil of Etowah gravelly loam is suitable for earthern 
dams for small ponds. However, it will not show just 
how good any particular spot of the Etowah subsoil will 
be for building a dam; tests will be necessary to de- 
termine this. The soil map, moreover, does not show 
the small inclusions of different soils that are pi'esent 
in some of the mapping units. For example, within an 
area of Holston soil, which is a source of good fill mate- 
rial, there can Ije in a wet spot or in an old channel a very 
small area of the Tyler soil. It is too small to map but 
should be avoided in searching for fill material. 

Engineering descriptions and physical properties 

The significant phj'sical properties of Washington 
County soils are given in table 6. The table lists the 
names of soils and the symbol for each soil on the accom- 
panying detailed soil map, except the complexes, miscel- 
laneous land types, and some stony or steep soils. Table 6 
also describes the soils and gives the engineering classifica- 
tion of each significant horizon of each soil. Items not 
important in engineering, such as color, are not included. 
The descriptions do include such items as the general 
profile characteristics, the kind of parent material or 

" By Earle D. Matthews and Kendall P. Jarvis. Mr. Jarvis is 
State conservation engineer for Maryland and Delaware, Soil 
Conservation Service. 



oilier substratum, drainage characteristics, depth to 
\vat('r table and to bedrock where these are known and 
significant, and presence of gravel or stones. 

Table 6 also lists the estimated physical properties of 
the soils, by major horizons. Major horizons of all the 
soils of a series are much alike unless there has been a 
great deal of erosion. Unless otherwise specified, the 
physical characteristics and the soil descriptions apply to 
comparatively uneroded and nonstony soils, but there are 
notes on the degree of erosion, stoniness, content of gravel, 
and other items. Thickness of the soil horizons varies 
somewhat from place to place. Thicknesses given in the 
table, as well as the other properties, are those actually 
existing in a specific profile that is a model representative 
of the soil being described and characterized. On severely 
eroded soils, there will be little, if any, of the original 
surface soil remaining; in such severely eroded soils, the 
underlying horizons will be closer to the eroded surface 
than indicated in the table. 

Soil textural classes of the United States Department 
of Agriculture are defined in the Soil Survey Manual (9). 

The Unified classification (10) was developed at 
Vicksburg Waterways Experiment Station by the Corps 
of Engineers, U.S. Army. In this system soil material 
is put in 15 classes that are designated by pairs of letters. 
These classes range from GW, which consists of well- 
graded gravel, gravel and sand mixtures, and a little fine 
material, to Pt, which consists of peat and other highly 
organic soils. 

Many highway engineers classify soil material accord- 
ing to the AASHO method (1). This method was 
adopted by the American Association of State Highway 
Officials. In this system soil materials are classed in seven 
principal groups. The groups range from A-1, consist- 
ing of soils that have high bearing capacity, to A-7, 
consisting of clayey soils having low strength when wet. 

Soil interpretations for engineering 

Table 7 lists some important features of each soil of 
Washington County as they affect different kinds of 
engineering work. These interpretations are made from 
table 6, from various test data, and from field experiences 
of engineers and others. Any soil may be well suited 
to one engineering purpose but poor or even unsuitable 
for some other purpose. For instance, soils of the Dun- 
more series should be fair for disposal of effluent from 
septic tanks, poor or only fair for road subgrade, and 
good as a source of topsoil. Soils of the Litz series 
should be poor for the disposal of sewage effluent, good 
for road fill and subgrade, and only fair as topsoil. 

Individual soil features will also have various inter- 
pretations. A fragipan layer within the subsoil generally 
indicates suitable sites for ponds or reservoir areas, but 
poor materials for embankments or dams; it greatly in- 
creases the difficulty of providing adequate drainage, and 
limits the adaptability of the soil for irrigation. The 
purpose of table 7 is to suggest indicators of either good 
or hazardous features that may be of help in planning, 
engineering design, or construction. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



85 



Tlio interpretalioiis in table 7 are general but will point 
out what the engineer can expect to encounter in any soil 
area that is shown on the detailed soil jnap. However, 
they cannot give exact soil properties and evaluations of 
the soil at the exact points where engineering projects 
may be planned, and, as stated elsewhere, many of the 
mapping units contain spots of difTerent or even of con- 
trasting soils that are too small to be shown at the scale 
of mapping. 

Soil groups for irrigation 

The annual rainfall in Washington County is normally 
adequate in amount for the crops grown, but there are 
periods when it is not well distributed during the grow- 
ing season. Because there are frequent, rather extended 
periods of soil moisture deficiency between June and 
September, many crops, including hay crops and pasture, 
will suffer. If adequate irrigation systems and water 
supplies were readily available during such periods, re- 
ductions in crop yields, as in the summer of 1957, could 
be prevented. 

This section of the report arranges the better agri- 
cultural soils into groups, according to common char- 
acteristics, which would show significant results from 
conservation irrigation. Conservation irrigation simply 
means applying tiie needed amounts of irrigation water, 
with minimum waste of water and damage to soil, to 
maintain productivity at a high level. All irrigation 
herein considered is sprinkler irrigation. 

The following information is not intended to be a guide 
for sprinkler irrigation design. Such a guide has been de- 
veloped by engineers of the Soil Conservation Service 
for use in Maryland. In this discussion the soils will be 
arranged in significant groups of fairly uniform char- 
acteristics, and for each group certain questions about 
irrigation will be answered. How deep should the soil 
of different groups be irrigated for different types of 
crops ? How much water should be applied on each group 
for each crop, and how fast can it be applied without 
waste or damage? The answers to these questions will 
help in establishing the feasibility of irrigation for the 
various soil groups and will give some basic information 
useful in designing irrigation systems for conservation 
irrigation. 

Wlierever conservation irrigation is practiced, it should 
be part of a complete farm program of soil and water 
conservation. Because irrigation is expensive, it can be 
used economically only on productive soils on which 
production can be assured or increased. Proper manage- 
ment of such soils will include liberal fertilization, ade- 
quate liming, and good rotations or other cropping sys- 
tems that will control erosion, minimize leaching, maintain 
good soil tilth, and furnish a supply of organic matter. 
For these reasons, only soils considered suitable for 
regular cultivation are included in the irrigation soil 
groups. These soils are suitable for more or less con- 
tinuous cultivation with the kinds and intensities of 
management appropriate in each case. 

Land to be irrigated advantageously must have good 
drainage. However, in addition to the soils of the county 



that are well diaiiied, some only modci-atcly well drained 
soils are included in the irrigation soil groups. Such 
soils will need adequate artificial drainage before they 
iire suit able for ii-rigal ion. Soils lliat arc sonic.wliiil poorly 
(Iniiiicd or poorly (hiiined are omitted in the irrig;ilion 
soil group, as are all severely eroded soils. 

A common mistake of new irrigators is to overextend 
the use of the available water supply. An adequate water 
supply must be available if irrigation is to be successful. 
The water supply should be adequate to maintain the 
soil at a moisture level, or a series of moisture levels, that 
will yield the greatest return for the funds invested in 
irigation. The ordinary farm pond will not supply 
sufficient water for irrigation, except perhaps for very 
small home gardens. 

Water may be obtained from wells, streams, or res- 
ervoirs. A permit to drill an irrigation well or construct 
a pond or reservoir must be obtained from the State 
Department of Geology, Mines and Water Resources, 
located at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. That 
department can also supply information on ground water 
possibilities for most areas of the State. It is good practice 
to have a test well drilled to determine if an adequate 
water supply is available. 

Only streams with sustained or continuous flow during 
extended periods of drought can be used as sources of 
w\ater for irrigation. The streamflow should be measured 
during periods of drought to determine if sufficient water 
is available at such times. A surface reservoir must have 
a storage capacity large enough to meet crop needs during 
the irrigation season, including losses caused by evapora- 
tion and seepage. As a general rule, from one-half to 
1 acre-foot of storage is recommended during the irriga- 
tion season for each acre to be irrigated. If the reservoir 
can be refilled between irrigations, then the capacity need 
only be large enough to provide one application. 

Quality of water must also be examined. If there is 
any question about suitability of water, samples should 
be sent to the State Soil Testing Laboratory, Agronomy 
Department, University of Maryland, College Park. This 
laboratory will analyze water for acidity, salt content, 
or other constituents that might be harmful to crops. If 
surface runoff water is used for irrigation, it should not 
be collected from areas contaminated by plant disease 
organisms that could be harmful to the crops to be 
irrigated. 

Laws and regulations govern the use of water from 
streams and wells. A landowner does not own all of 
the water in the stream that flows through his land. Land- 
owners who plan to appropriate water for irrigation 
from channelized streams should obtain information re- 
garding their rights from qualified sources, before in- 
vesting in equipment. 

Some locally adapted crops are indicated under each 
irrigation soil group. Irrigation soil groups are defined 
in table 8, and the soils included in each group are listed. 
Tomatoes and Irish potatoes are listed separately, but 
all other truck crops are shown simply as of truck-crop 
groups 1, 2, or 3. 



86 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 



Table 6. — Brief description of soils 



Soil name 



Dept h to 
season- 
ally high 
water 
table 



Depth to 
bedrock 



Brief description of site and soil 



Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 i)ercent slopes. 



Atkins silt loiim_ 



Benevola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

BiMiovola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 

Berks channcry loam, ridges, to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks channery loam, ridyies, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Berks channery loam, ridses, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 

Berks shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks shaly silt loam, S to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Berks soils, ridges, 30 to 60 percent slopes 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 



Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Buchanan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Calvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent 
slopes. 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 
Calvin channery loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes. 
See footnotes at end of table. 



Feet 
4 



0-1 



Feet 
(') 



(') 

3-6 
3-6 

3-6 

0-4 

2-3 

2-3 

0-2 

2-3 

2-3 
2-3 

2-3 

2-3 

2-3 

2-3 

0-2 

2-3 

0-2 

0-3 

(') 



3 2 


(') 


3 2 


(') 


3 2 


(') 


3 2 


(') 




2-4 




2-3 




2-3 




2-3 




2-3 




2-3 




2-3 



Well-drained, deep soils on low terraces; devel- 
oped in old alluvium derived from limestone. 
Subject to very infrequent flooding. 

Poorly drained soils on flood plains; of recent 
alluvium derived from acid shale and sand- 
stone. Very wet; fairly frequently flooded. 

Well-drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from highly sandy limestone. Variable depth 
to bedrock, with occasional outcrops. Se- 
verely eroded areas have a CH (A-7) surface 
layer. 



Well-drained to somewhat excessively drained, 
shallow upland soils developed in residuum 
from acid shale, in many places with sand- 
stone. Channery loams have sandstone frag- 
ments in the surface layer; shaly silt loams 
have shale; silt loams have little shale in the 
surface layer. All Berks soils have abundant 
shale in the subsoil and the substratum. 
Severely eroded soils have lost 6 to 12 inches 
of the original soil, and in some places there 
are many gullies, some to bedrock. 



Poorly drained soils of draws and depressions, 
developed in old local colluvium and alluvium 
from acid shale areas. Very wet. 

Moderately well drained soils on gravelly coUu- 
vial deposits of acid sandstone and some acid 
shale material. Moderately wet. 



Somewhat excessively drained, rather shallow, 
upland soils developed in residuum from red- 
dish, acid shale and sandstone. Physical 
properties given are for Calvin channery 
loam. The channery fine sandy loam has an 
SM to GM surface layer. The shaly loam 
lacks sandstone fragments. Severelj' eroded 
soils have lost 6 to 12 inches of the original 
soil, and in places have many gullies, some to 
bedrock. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 

and their estimated physical properties 



87 



USDA textural class 



Fine sandy loam 

Loam, fine sandy loam, or 

silt loam. 
Gravelly loam 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam 

Gravelly sandy clay loam 

Clay loam 

Clay or clay loam 

Gravelly fine sand 

Hard, sandy limestone 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



Channery loam 

Shaly silt loam 

Fragmented shale- 
Hard shale 



Silt loam 

Shaly silty clay loam 

Clay 

Gravelly loam 

Silty clay loam to clay 
loam. 

Gravelly loam 

Channery loam 

Fragmented shale 



SM. 
ML. 

GM. 

ML- 

CL, 
GC- 



AASHO 



A-2 or A-4. 
A-4 



CL. 
CH. 
SP- 



SM or ML 
SM or ML. 
GM 



ML 

CL 

CH 

SM or GM 

CL 

GM 

GM 

GM 



A-2. 

A-4- 
A-6. 
A-2. 

A-6. 
A-7- 
A-3. 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



A-2 or A-4 

A-4 

A-2 



A-4 

A-6 

A-7 

A-2 or A-4 

A-6 

A-2 

A-2 

A-2 



Percent 
100 
100 

50 

100 
100 
50 

100 
100 
85 



90 
75 
20 



100 
85 
100 

70 
90 
60 



60 
35 



No. 
10 



Percent 
100 
95 

30 

100 
100 
40 

100 
100 
80 



80 
60 
10 



No. 
200 



Percent 
40 
55 

20 

75 
80 
25 

85 
90 
5 



100 
75 
100 

60 
85 
50 



50 

25 



45 
45 
5 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Inchet per hour 
0. 6-2. 
0. 2-2. 

0. 6-2. 

0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 2 
0. 06-0. 2 

0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-0. 6 
2. 0-6. 3 



Reaction 



0. 6-2. 
0. 6-2. 



75 
70 
95 

40 
65 
30 



25 
10 



0. 2-0. 6 
0. 02-0. 06 
0. 0-0. 02 

0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 2 



0. 6-2. 
2. 0-6. 3 



pll 
6. 1-7. 3 

6. 1-7. 8 

7. 4-8. 4 

5. 6-6. 5 

5. 1-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 

6. 6-7. 3 

6. 6-7. 8 

7. 4-9. 



Dispersion 



High. 
High. 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 
High 

Low 

Low 

High 



5. 1-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 
4. 5-5. 



5. 6-6. 

6. 1-6. 5 
5. 6-7. 3 

4. 5-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 
4. 5-5. 



4. 5-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 



Moderate- 
High 



Moderate 

Low 

Low to high. 



Shrink-swell 
potential 



Low. 
Low. 

Very low. 
Low. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 
None. 



Low. 
Low. 
None. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Very high. 

Low. 



Moderate to 
high. 

Low Moderate. 



High- 



Moderate to 

high. 
High 



Low. 

Low. 
Verv low. 



88 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



Soil name 



Depth to 
season- 
ally high 
water 
table 



Feet 


Feel 




2-3 


\ ) 


2-3 


(^) 


1-2 


(^) 


2-3 


(^) 


2-3 


(^) 


3-4 


(^) 


3-4 


(^) 


3-4 


{') 


3-4 


1-2 


0) 


1-2 


(') 


1-2 


(') 


4 


(') 



Depth to 
bedrock 



Brifif description of site and soil 



Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 jxTcent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 
Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 

to 10 percent slopes. 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 

3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 

10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Chandler silt loam and channerj' silt loam, 20 

to 30 j)ercent slopes. 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam 

Chewacla silt loam 

Chewacla stony silt loam 



Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam. 



Corj-don clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Corydon extremelj' rocky clay loam, to 15 

percent slopes. 
Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 

to 25 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 

25 to 45 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 

45 to 60 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, to 25 

percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 to 45 
percent slopes. 

DufReld extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 
percent slopes. 

DufReld silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Duffield silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 
Duffield silt loam 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes. 

Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 
See footnotes at end of table. 



(2) 
(^) 



1-3 
1-3 

1-3 

0-3 

0-3 



(2) 


2-4 


(^) 


2-4 


(^) 


2-4 


(^) 


2-4 


(^) 


2-4 


(2) 


0-6 


(^) 


4-7 


(^) 


4-7 


(2) 


4-7 


(^) 


2-6 


(-) 


4-7 




0-6 




0-6 



Well-drained to somewhat excessively drained, 
shallow, upland soils developed in residuum 
from mica schist. Physical properties given 
are for Chandler channery silt loam. Chandler 
silt loam has a few schist fragments in the 
surface horizon. 



Moderately well drained soils of flood plains, of 
recent alluvium from crystalline rocks. Phys- 
ical properties given are for Chewacla silt 
loam. The gravelly sandy loam is SM 
throughout. The stony silt loam is about 20 
to 40 percent stone. Moderately wet to sea- 
sonally very wet. 

Well-drained, deep soils of flood plains, of recent 
alluvium from crystalline rocks. Areas are 
either silt loam or graveOy loam. Physical 
properties given are for silt loam. Gravelly 
areas contain 20 to 30 percent gravel in the 
ML horizon. 

Well-drained, shallow to moderately deep, up- 
land soils developed in residuum from lime- 
stone. Physical properties given are for 
Corydon clay loam, which has some rock out- 
crops. Rock outcrops cover 25 to 40 percent 
of the surface of the very rocky clay loam, and 
40 to 90 percent of the extremely rocky clay 
loam. 



Excessively drained, upland soils developed in 
residuum from quartzitic sandstone (Dekalb), 
or from coarse-grained sandstone (Leetonia), 
or from acid red sandstone (Lehew). Physical 
properties given are for Dekalb. Lehew and 
Leetonia generaUj' have less coarse skeleton, 
and in places are SM instead of GM to bed- 
rock. 



Well-drained, deep, upland soils developed in 
residuum from interbedded shale and lime- 
stone. Physical properties given are for 
Duffield silt loam. Rock outcrops cover 25 
to 40 percent of the very rocky silt loam, and 
40 to 90 per cent of the extremely rocky silt 
loam. Severely eroded soils have lost the 
original ML surface layer and are CL 
throughout. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 

estimated physical properties — Continued 



89 



USDA textural class 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



AASHO 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



No. 
10 



No. 
200 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Reaction 



Dispersion 



Shrink-swell 
potential 



Percent 



Percent 



Percent 



Inches per hour 



Channery silt loam 

Very channery silt loam.. 



Silt loam 

Gravelly sandy loam. 



ML or MH. 
GM 



A-4 or A-5. 
A-2 



ML. 
SM. 



A-4. 
A-2. 



Silt loam 

Gravelly loam. 



ML. 
GM. 



A-4_ 
A-2- 



Clay loam 

Hard limestone. 



CL. 



A-6. 



80 
55 



100 
85 



100 
60 



100 



75 
35 



100 
65 



100 
45 



100 



65 
15 



75 
35 



70 
30 



85 



0. 2-2. 
0. 6-2. 



0. 2-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 6 



0. 6-2. 
2. 0-6. 3 



0. 06-0. 6 



4. 5-6. 
4. 0-5. 



4. 5-5. 5 
4. 0-4. 5 



6. 1-6. 5 
5. 1-5. 5 



6. 1-6. 5 



Moderate to 
high- 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 



High. 



Moderate. 



Very stony sandy loam 

Hard quartzitic sandstone. 



GM. 



A-1 or A-2. 



30 



20 



15 



2. 0-6. 3 



4. 0-5. 



High. 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam. 



ML_ 
CL. 



A-4 

A-6 or A-7. 



100 
100 



95 
95 



70 
80 



0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 6 



6. 1-7. 3 
5. 6-7. 3 



Moderate. 



Low to 
moderate. 



Low. 
Low. 



Low. 
Low. 



Low. 
Low. 



Moderate. 



None. 



Low. 

Moderate. 



90 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



Soil name 



Depth to 
season- 
ally high 
water 
table 



Depth to 
bedrock 



Brief description of site and soil 



Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 



Dunning and Mclvin silty clay loams. 



Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, to 

12 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 

20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 



p]dgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 

35 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 35 to 

60 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, to 

5 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 5 to 

35 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig very stony loams, 35 to 

60 percent slopes. 

Elliber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Elliber cherty loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Elliber cherty loam, 45 to 55 percent slopes... 



Etowah gravelly loam, 
Etowah gravelly loam, 

moderately eroded. 
Etowah gravelly loam, 

moderately eroded 
Etowah gravelly loam, 

moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, to 
Etowah silt loam, 3 

moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 



to 3 percent slopes. . 
3 to 8 percent slopes, 

8 to 15 percent slopes, 

15 to 25 percent slopes, 

3 percent slopes 

to 8 percent slopes, 



Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent 
slopes. 

Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 20 to 35 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Fauquier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Fauquier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier verj' stony loam, 5 to 35 percent 
slopes. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Feet 



0-1 



Feet 

5-8 

5-8 



(') 





3-5 


\ J 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


{') 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


(') 


o~0 


(') 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


(') 


3-5 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


44- 


(') 




5 + 




5 + 




5 + 


{') 


5 + 


(') 


5 + 


(') 


5 + 


(') 


5 + 


{') 


2 


(') 


1-6 



Well-drained, deep, upland soils developed in 
residuum from cherty limestone. 



Either poorly drained (Melvin) or very poorly 
drained (Dunning) soils of flood plains, of 
recent alluvium from limestone areas. Physi- 
cal properties given are for Dunning; very wet; 
fairly frequently flooded. 

Either Edgemont channery loam or Laidig chan- 
nery loam. Properties and depths given are 
for Edgemont: Well-drained upland soils de- 
veloped in residuum from quartzitic sand- 
stone. Very stony tj'pes in some places con- 
tain as much as 40 to 50 percent stones. 



Well-drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from cherty limestone. There are occasional 
outcropping ledges of limestone. 



Well-drained, deep soils on high terraces, of 
very old alluvium from limestone areas. 
Physical properties given are for gravelly 
loam; silt loam is nearly free of gravel in the 
uppermost 3 feet of the surface layer. 



Well-drained, deep, upland soils developed in 
residuum from metabasalt. Physical prop- 
erties given are for channery loam; silt loam 
has the same essential properties but con- 
tains fewer stone fragments; the shallow 
phase is about 2 feet deep over bedrock; 
very stony loams contain 40 to 50 percent 
stones, and are variable in depth to bedrock. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



01 



estimated physical properties — Continued 



USD A texluial class 



Cherty silt loam. 



Cherty silty clay loam. 
Clay 



Silty clay loam to fine 
sandy clay. 

Gravelly coarse sandy 
loam. 



Channery loam 

Channery sandy clay loam. 

Hard quartzitic sand- 
stone 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



ML- 

CL. 
CH- 



CL. 
SM- 



SM. 
SC- 



Cherty loam 

Cherty silt loam 

Gravelly loam 

Gravelly silty clay loam 
Very gravelly coarse 
sandy clay. 



Channery loam or silt 
loam. 

Channery silty clay loam.. 
Silt loam 



AASHO 



A-4. 

A-6. 
A-7- 



A-6 or A- 7. 

A-2 



A-2 or A-4. 
A-4 or A-6. 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



Percent 
85 

70 
85 



100 
80 



80 
85 



SM. 
ML 

ML 
CL. 
GC. 



ML or MH 



CL.. 
MH. 



A-4 
A-4 

A-4 
A-6 
A-4 



A-4 or A-5. 

A-6 or A-7. 
A-5 or A-7- 



90 
85 



85 
90 
65 



No. 
10 



Percent 
75 

65 
80 



100 
50 



55 
65 



75 
75 



75 
80 
55 



90 

90 
95 



85 

85 
90 



No. 
200 



Percent 
65 

55 
75 



80 
30 



40 
50 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Inches per hour 
0. 6-2. 

0. 2-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 6 



0. 06-0. 2 
6. 3 + 



0. 6-6. 3 
2-2.0 



40 
55 



50 
60 
45 



60 

75 
85 



0. 6-2. 
0. 6-2. 



0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-0. 6 



0. 2-2. 

0. 06-0. 6 
5. 1-6. 



Reaction 



pll 

5. 1-6. 5 

6. 1-6. 5 
4. 6-5. 5 



6. 6-7. 8 

7. 4-7. 8 



5. 1-6. 5 
5. 1-5. 5 



5. 6-6. 5 
5. 1-5. 5 



5. 6-6. 5 

6. 6-7. 3 
6. 6-7. 8 



5. 6-7. 

5. 1-6. 5 
5. 1-6. 



Dispersion 



Low to 

moderate. 
Moderate.. - 
Low 



Moderate to 
high. 



Moderate 

Low to 
moderate. 



High 

High to 
moderate. 

Moderate... 
Low 



Moderate 

Low 

High 



Sh rink-swell 
potential 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 



Moderate to 

high. 
None* 



Low. 

Low. 



Low. 
Low. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 



Low to moder- 
ate. 
Moderate. 
Moderate. 



92 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



Soil name 



Depth to 
season- 
ally high 
water 
table 



Depth to 
bedrock 



Brief description of site and soil 



Frankstovvn and DufRold channery silt loams, 

to 3 percent slopes. 
Frankstovvn and Duflicld channery silt loams, 

3 to 8 percent slojjes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstovvn and DufTield channery silt loams, 

to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Diif field channery silt loams, 

8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Duffield channery silt loams, 

8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Duffield chaimery silt loams, 
15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Duffield channery silt loams, 

15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Duffield channery silt loams, 
25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstovvn and Duffield channery silt loams, 
25 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Hagerstovvn clay loam, to 3 percent slopes.. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderatel}' eroded. 
Hagerstovvn clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstovvn extremely rocky silt loam, to 

25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn extremely rocky silty clay loam, 

to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn extremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 
percent slopes. 

Hagerstow^n silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Hagerstovvn silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn silty clay loam, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Hagerstovvn silty clay loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn siltj' clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn v'ery rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn verj' rocky silty clay loam, 3 to 15 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstovvn very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 
15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
See footnotes at end of table. 



Feet 

(») 
(') 
(0 
(») 
(') 
0) 
(') 

(') 

{') 
{') 
C) 

(') 
i") 

(») 

(») 

(»; 
{') 
(') 
(^) 
0) 



(^) 
(') 

(') 
(») 
(') 
(') 
(») 
{') 



Feet 
0-5 + 

0-5 + 

2-4 

0-5 + 

2-4 

0-5 + 

2-4 

0- 5 + 
2-4 

4-6 
4-6 
2-5 
4-6 

2-7 
2-7 

1- 6 

2- 7 

1- 6 

2- 7 

1- 6 
0-7 
0-7 
0-5 

2- 7 
2-7 

2-7 

2-7 

2-7 

2-7 

2-7 

2-7 

0-7 

0-7 

0-7 

0-6 



Either Frankstovvn or Duffield channery silt 
loam. Physical properties given are for 
Frankstovvn channery silt loam. DufTield 
channery silt loam fias physical properties 
like those given for Duffield silt loam, except 
that it contains more coarse skeleton. Se- 
verely eroded soils will be CL from surface to 
parent material. 



Well-drained, deep, upland soils developed in 
residuum from cherty limestone. Severely 
eroded soils have lost the original ML horizon 
and are CL almost to the surface. 



Well-drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from fairly pure, massive limestone. Very 
irregular depth to bedrock, with occasional to 
extremely abundant outcrops of hard lime- 
stone. Physical properties given are for the 
silt loam. The clay loams have a CL surface 
layer. Limestone outcrops cover 40 to 90 
percent of the surface of the extremely rocky 
phases, and 25 to 40 percent of the very rocky 
phases. Severely eroded soils have lost most 
of the original surface layer, and have occa- 
sional to frequent gullies. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 

estimated physical properties— Continued 



93 



USDA textural class 



Channery silt loam 

Channery silty clay loam. 

Fragment(!d shale 

Shaly cherty limestone. . 



Cherty silt loam 

Cherty silty clay loam 

Cherty clay loam to clay. 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam. 



Silty clay to clay.. 

Silty clay loam 

Massive limestone. 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



ML. 
CL. 
GM. 



ML. 
CL. 
CH. 



ML. 
CL. 



CH. 
CL. 



AASIIO 



A-4. 
A-6- 
A-2. 



A-4. 
A-6. 
A-7. 



A-4. 
A-6. 

A-7. 
A-6. 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



Percent 
85 

70 

25 



85 
95 
95 



98 
100 

100 
95 



No. 
10 



Percent 
80 

65 

20 



80 
85 
90 



95 
100 

100 
90 



No. 
200 



Percent 
60 

55 

10 



60 
70 
80 



75 
85 

90 
80 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Tnchet per hour 
0. 6-2. 

0. 2-0. 6 



0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 2 



0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 6 

0. 06-0. 2 
0. 06-0. 2 



Reaction 



5. 6-6. 
5. 1-6. 
5. 6-6. 



5. 1-6. 5 
4. 0-5. 

6. 6-7. 3 



5. 1-7. 3 
5. 6-6. 

5. 6-6. 5 
5. 6-6. 5 



DisiKTsioii 



Low to mod- 
erate. 

Low to mod- 
erate. 



Moderate to 

high. 
Low to 

moderate. 
High 



Moderate... 
Low to 
moderate. 

Low 

High 



Slirink-swoU 
potential 



Low. 

Moderate. 
None. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
High. 



Low. 

Moderate. 

High. 
Moderate. 



94 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 







Depth to 






Depth 






season- 






from 


Map 


Soil name 


ally high 


Depth to 


Brief description of site and soil 


surface 


symbol 




water 


bedrock 


(typical 






table 






profile) 






Feet 


Feet 




Inches 


UI DO 

n n 


llazel cnaiincry silt loam, to lu percent 


(■*) 


1 o 


Very shallow, excessively drained, upland sous 


0-24 




slopes, moderately eroded. 






developed in residuum from liard, very 






TTazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 


{') 


1 O 
1 —Z 


resistant phyllite. The severely eroded soils 


24 + 




slopes, moderately eroded. 






consist of about 12 inches of soil over bedrock. 




HnC3 


Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 


{') 


1 








slopes, severely eroded. 










HnD2 


Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 


{') 


1-2 








slopes, moderately eroded. 










HnD3 


Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent 


0) 


1 








slopes, severely eroded. 










HnE 


Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent 


(') 


1-2 








slopes. 








noD 


TT- 1 c 1 1 11 1 n * c * 1 

iiigiineld gravelly loam, to o percent slopes. 


f2\ 

(V 




T~> U A • A 1 ^ -1 1 1 J • 

JJeep, well-drainea, upland soils developed in 


U— OD 


noDZ 


Highficld grav(^lly loam, 5 to 10 percent 




A A 


residuum from metabasalt or greenstone. 






slopes, moderately eroded. 




Phy.sical j^roperties given are for the very 


OA 

OD— 0^ 


n 01^/ 


Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent 


{') 




stony loam, which has 20 to 40 perc(*nt of the 






slopes, moderately eroded. 




surface area occupied by ston(!s or boulders. 




HoE2 


Highfield gravelly loam, 20 to 35 percent 


0) 


4-6 


The gravelly loam is essentially the same, 






slopes, moderately eroded. 






except that it is gravelly instead of very 




HpB 


Highfield very stony loam, to 5 percent 


{') 


4-6 


stony. 






slopes. 








HpD 


Highfield very stony loam, 5 to 30 percent 


{') 


4-6 








slopes. 










HpE 


Highfield very stony loam, 30 to 45 percent 


(') 


4-6 








slopes. 










U A 

n rA 


Holston gra^'(Miy loam, to o percent slopes 


4 + 


('J 


Well-drained, deep soils on high terraces, of very 


A O /l 




Holston gra\'elly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 


A 1 

4 + 


v) 


old alluvium from shale and sandstone areas. 






moderatelj' eroded. 




Physical properties given are for the silt loam. 


24-37 


n rv^z 


Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 


A t 

4 + 


( } 


The gravelly loam is ess(?ntially the same. 


07 AO _L 




moderately eroded. 






except that the surface layer contains about 20 




u .-no 
n rUz 


Holston gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 


4 + 




percent waterworn gravel. The gravelly 






slopes, moderately eroded. 






sandy loam is SM throughout and contains 




n rUi 


Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 


4 + 


(v 


considerable gravel. Severely eroded soils 






severely eroded. 






have lost up to half the original solum. 




W .-FO 
n rt-Z 


Holston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 


A 1 

4 + 








moderately eroded. 










U e R 

nsD 


Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent 


4 + 


r) 








slopes. 










HsC2 


Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 


4 + 


(') 








slopes, moderately eroded. 










HsC3 


Holston gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 


4 + 


(') 








slopes, severely eroded. 










HtA 


Holston silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 


4+ 


0) 






HtB2 


Holston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 


4 + 


(') 








moderatel}' eroded. 












xi-oisLuii sub loam, o lo id percent slopes. 


4 + 


en 
\ ) 








moderately eroded. 










Hu 


Huntington fine sandv loam. 


4 


(') 


Well-drained, deep soils of flood plains and up- 


0-48-1- 


Hv 


Huntington gravelly loam 


4 


(') 


land depressions, of recent alluvium from areas 




Hw 


Huntington silt loam. 


4 


(') 


of limestone-derived soils. Physical properties 




Hx 


Huntington silt loam, local alluvium . 


4 


(') 


given are for the silt loam. The gravelly loam 












contains about 20 percent waterworn gravel. 












The fine sandy loam is SM or ML throughout. 




La A 


T -A- 11 1 nil 

Laidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 






Well-drained soils developed in gravelly to stony 




LaB2 


Tjaidiff f?r.TVpllv loRm ^ to 8 nprfpnt stnnps 


84- 




cnllnvijil dpnrmit^ nf mifirtzitic sandstono 






moderately eroded. 






materials. Physical properties given are for 


38-90-1- 


LaC2 


Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. 


8 + 


(') 


the gravelly loam. The very stony loam has 






moderately eroded. 






up to 40 percent of the surface occupied by 




LaD2 


Laidig gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 


8 + 


(') 


stones. 






moderately eroded. 










LbD 


Laidig very stony loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes.. 


8 + 


0) 






LbE2 


Laidig very stony loam, 15 to 45 percent 


8 + 


(') 








slopes, moderately eroded. 











See footnotes at end of table. 



VVASllINUTON COUNTY, MAKVLAXI) 



9.") 



estimated physical properties — Continued 



USDA Icxtiinil fhiss 



Channprj- ^ilt loiuii. 
Hard pli\ llite 



Loam to liuht silt loam. 



Grave^lly silt loam. 
Hard metabasalt.. 



Silt loam. 



Gravelly silty clay loam. 
Very gravelly sandy clay 
loam. 



Silt loam. 



Gravelly fine sandy loam 
Fine sandv clav loam 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



GM. 



ML.. 

Gi\r. 



ML 

CL. 
GC. 



AASHO 



A-2. 



A-4_ 
A-2. 



A-4 

A-6 
A-2 



ML. 



SM. 
SC. 



A-4. 



A-2. 
A-2. 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



Percent 
50 



95 
60 



No. 
10 



Percent 
40 



90 
45 



95 

80 
60 



100 



80 
100 



85 

75 
45 



No. 
200 



Percent 
30 



65 
30 



65 

60 
25 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Indies per hour 

0. 6-6. 3 



0. 2-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 



0. 6-2. 

0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-0. 6 



100 



70 
95 



80 



30 
35 



Reaction 



pii 
5. 1-6. 5 



4. 5-5. 5 

5. 1-5. 5 



4. 5-5. 5 

4. 5-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 



0. 2-2. 



0. 2 6. 3 

0. 2-0. (i 



Dispersion 



High to 
moderate. 



Low to high. 
High 



High to 
moderate. 

Low 

High 



6. 6-7. 3 



4. 5-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 



High to mod- 
erate. 



High to mod- 
erate. 
Moderate 



Shrink-swell 
potential 



Low. 



Low to 

moderate. 
Low. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Low. 



Low. 



Low. 
Low. 



599553—62 7 



96 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



svinbol 



Roil 



Landisburp; cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

Landisbvirfi cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 i)erc<Mit 

slojjes, moderately eroded. 

Largeiit silt loam _ 



Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 i)erceiit 
slopes, moderateU' erodefl. 

Lindside silt loam _ . 

Liiuiside silt loam, local alluvium 



LcB2 
LcD2 

Le 

LgA 
LgB2 

Lm 
Ln 



LoB2 

LoC2 

LoC3 

LsB 
LsB2 

LsC2 

LsC3 

LsD2 

LsD3 

LsE2 

LsE3 

LsF 

LtB 

LtC2 

LtC3 

LtD2 

LtD3 

LtE2 

Me 

MeB2 Monongahela gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 
lgC2 Monongahela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 
MhA Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes_. 

MhB2 Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
MhC2 Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
MhD2 Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



T.itz channerv loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Tiitz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 

T.iitz shaly loam, to 10 j)ercent slopes 

Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 
moderateh' eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
moderatel\' eroded. 

lAtz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 i)ercent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 i)ereent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, se- 
verely eroded. 

Litz shaly loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent 
slopes. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 25 to 45 per- 
cent slopes, moderatel}- eroded. 

Mehin silt loam 



Depth to 
season- 
ally highD 
water 
table 



Feel 
3 1 



epth to 
bedrock 



Feet 

(■) 



3 ] 




2 


(') 




(') 


3 2 


(') 




(') 


1-2 


(') 


\ ) 


1 -'> 


if\ 

Kv 


1 •> 

1-z 


{') 


1 


(^) 


1-2 


C-) 


1-2 


{') 


1-2 


{') 


1 ■ 


(') 


1-2 


{') 


1 


{') 


1-2 


{') 


1 


(') 


1-2 


(') 


1-2 


{') 


1-2 


{') 


1 


{') 


1-2 


{') 


1 


{') 


1-2 


0-1 


(') 


3 2 


(') 


3 2 


(•) 


3 2 


(') 


3 2 


(■) 


3 2 


(') 


3 2 


0) 



Brief descri|)lion of site and soil 



Moderately well drained soils developed in 
colluvial deposits of cherty limestone material. 
Moderately wet. 

Moderately well drained soils of flood plains, of 
recent alluvium from acid red shale and sand- 
stone material. Moderately wet. 

Moderately well drained soils developed in 
gravelly colluvial deposits of acid shale 
material. Moderately wet. 



Moderately well drained to somewhat poorly 
drained soils of flood plains and upland 
depressions, of recent alluvium from limestone- 
derived soils. Moderately wet; occasionally 
flooded. 

Somewhat excessively drained to excessively 
drained, sluillow upland soils developed in 
residuum from limy shale, or sometimc^s 
limestone. Physical properties given are for 
Litz shaly loam. The channery loams contain 
large, flat fragments of coarse skeletal 
material. Severely eroded soils have lost at 
least half of the original soil material above 
bedrock. 



These areas are mixtures of Litz channery silt 
loam and Teas channery silt loam that could 
not be separated on the maps at the scale 
used. Physical properties given are for Teas 
channery silt loam. The Teas soils are some- 
what excessively drained to excessively 
drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from lim.v shale and sandstone. Severely 
eroded soils have lost at least half of the orig- 
inal soil material above bedrock. 



Poorly drained soils of flood plains, of recent 
alluvium from limestone-derived soils. Very 
wet; occasionally flooded. 

Moderately well drained soils of high terraces, 
of very old alluvium from acid shale and sand- 
stone materials. Physical properties given 
are for the gravelly loam. The silt loam 
contains very little gravel above a depth of 
about 50 inches. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



!i7 



estimated physical properties — Continued 



USDA tcxiuinl class 



Cherty silt loam 

Cheity clay loam to clay 

Silt loam 

Fine sandy loam 

Gravelly silt loam 

Channery silty clay loam. 

Silt loam 

Gravelly loam 

Shaly loam 

Very shaly silt loam 

Shale and some limestone 



l']n"iii('('rin": classificat ion 



Unified 



Channerv silt loam. 



Fragmented shale and 

sandstone. 
Hard shale and sandstone. 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam 

Gravelly loam 

Gravelly silty clay loam 
Very gravelly loam 



ML 

CL or CH. 

ML 

SM 



AASHO 



ML_ 
CL. 



ML, 
GM. 



ML_ 
GM. 



ML 

GM to GP_ 



ML. 

CL. 

ML. 
CL. 
GM 



A-4 

A-6 or A-7. 

A-4 

A-2 



A-4. 
A-6. 



A-4. 
A-2. 



A-4. 
A-2_ 



A-4 

A-2 or A-1. 



A-4 

A-6 

A-4 
A-6 
A-2 



P(TC(;iitage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



Percent 
80 

75 



100 
100 



85 
80 



55 

85 
60 



80 
25 



100 

100 

80 
80 
55 



No. 
10 



Percent 
70 

70 



95 
95 

75 
75 



95 
40 



80 
45 



75 
15 



100 

100 

70 
75 
40 



No. 
200 



Percent 
55 

05 

60 
25 

60 
65 



80 
25 



55 
30 



50 
10 



80 

85 

55 
60 
25 



Sclcclid ( iKir.ii lcrislics f-i((nificaiil in cngifieeriiig 



Range in 
permeability 



Inches per hour 
0. 06-0. 6 

0. 02-0. 2 



0. 2-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 

0. 2-2. 
0. 02-0. 2 



0. 06-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 6 



0. 6-2. 
0. 6-2. 



Reaction 



pll 
4. 5-5. 5 

4. 5-5. 



Dispersion 



5. 


6- 


6. 


5 


5. 


6- 


6. 





4. 


5- 


-5. 


5 


4. 


5- 


-5. 


5 



6. 1-7. 9 

7. 9-8. 4 



4. 5-5. 5 

5. 1-5. 5 



0. 6-2. 



5. 6-6. 5 



0. 2-0. 6 

0. 06-0. 2 

0. 2-0. 6 
0. 02-0. 06 
0. 2-0. 6 



7. 4-8. 4 

7. 4-8. 4 

5. 6-6. 
4. 5-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 



Low to 

moderate. 
Low 



High. 
High. 



Moderate.. - 
Low to 
moderate. 



High. 
High. 



High to 

moderate. 
Moderate 



High to 
moderate. 



Shriiik-swcil 
potent iai 



High to 

moderate. 
Low 

Low to high 

Low 

Moderate 



Low. 

High to 
moderate 

Low. 

Low. 

Low. 

Moderate. 



Low. 
Low. 



Low. 
Low. 



Low. 



Low. 

Moderate. 
liOw. 

Moderate. 
Low. 



98 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



Soil name 



Depth to 
season- 
ally high 
water 
table 



Depth to 
bedrock 



Brief description of site and soil 



MxA 
MxB2 

MxC2 

MyE2 

MyF2 



Pg 
Ph 



Montevalk) shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 

inoderately eroded. 
Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Montevallo shalj' loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 jjercent 

slopes, mod(>rately (M-oded. 
Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 

Murrill frraxclly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Miurill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 [M'rcent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 
Murrill grav(>lly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent 

slopes. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, mod(>rately eroded. 

Muriill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam. 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slo|)es, severely erod(>d. 

Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Murrill silt loam, t) to 8 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Myersville channery loam, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, 30 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Myersville channery silt loam, 10 to 30 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville very stony loam, 30 to 55 percent 

slopes, eroded. 

Philo gravelly sandj- loam 

Philo silt loam 



Feet 

(') 

{') 
{') 
{') 
{') 

6 + 
6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 

6 + 
6 + 

6 + 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 
{') 

(') 

{') 

{') 

1 
1 



Feet 
1-2 

1-2 

1 

1-2 
1 

(*) 

i') 

(') 

(*) 

(*) 

(*) 

{*} 

(*) 

0) 

(*) 

(*)■ 

(*) 
(*) 

0) 

5-7 

5-7 

5-7 

5-7 

5-7 

3-6 

3-6 

5-7 
5-7 

5-7 

3-7 

3-7 

(') 
0) 



Very shallow, excessively drained upland soils, 
developed in residuum from acid shale. Se- 
verely eroded soils have lost at least half of 
the original soil material above bedrock. 



Deep, well-drained soils on coUuvial deposits of 
sandstone material over limestone residuum 
or limestone. Physical projx'rties given are 
for the silt loam. The gravelly loam is es- 
•senlially the same, but contains about 15 to 
25 percent gravel in the solum. The gravelh' 
sandy loam will be a gravelly SM through- 
out. Severely eroded soils have lost mo.st of 
the original surface layer, and there are occa- 
sional gullies. Rarely, there are outcrops of 
limestone. 



Well-drained, deep, upland soils developed in 
residuum from greenstone or metabasalt. 
Physical properties given are for the silt loam. 
The channery loam and the channery silt 
loam are essentially the same as the silt loam, 
except that they contain about 20 percent flat 
stone fragments in the surface layer. The 
very stony loam contains 20 to 40 percent 
stones in the surface layer. Severely eroded 
soils have lost most of the original ML surface 
layer, and have occasional to frequent gullies, 
some verj- deep. 



Somewhat poorly drained soils of flood plains, 
of recent alluvium from acid sandstone and 
shale materials. Wet to moderately wet; 
occasionally flooded. Physical properties 
given are for the silt loam. The gravelly sandy 
loam will be SM throughout. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



99 



estimated physical properties — Continued 



USDA textural class 



Engiiici'iiiig classification 



Unified 



AASIIO 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



No. 4 



No. 
10 



No. 
200 



Selected characteristics signific^aiit in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Reaction 



Dispersion 



Shrink-swell 
potential 



Shaly loam. 
Hard shale. 



GM. 



A-2. 



Percent 
55 



Percent 
45 



Percent 
30 



Inches per hour 
0. 6-6. 3 



pil 
5. 1-5. 5 



Low to 
moderate. 



Low. 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam. 



ML. 
CL. 



A-4. 
A-6. 



95 
98 



90 
95 



65 
85 



0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 6 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam 
Clay loam 



ML 

CL. 
CL. 



A-4 

A-6 

A-6 or A-7. 



95 
98 
100 



90 
95 
100 



75 
85 
80 



0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-0. 6 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam. 



ML 

ML or CL.. 



A-4 

A-4 or A- 



100 
100 



100 
100 



75 
80 



0. 2-0. 6 
0. 06-0. 2 



6. 1-6. 5 
5. 1-6 5 



Moderate 

Low to high. . 



Low. 

Moderate. 



5. 1-6. 

4. 5-5. 5 

5. 1-5. 5 



Moderate 

Low to high _ 
High 



Low. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 



5. 1-6. 
5. 1-5. 5 



High. 
High. 



Low. 

Moderate. 



100 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 

Table 6. — Brief description of soils and their 



Soil iiaiiu' 



Depth to 
season 
ally high 
water 
table 



Dept h to 
bedrock 



Brief (lest'ri])t ion of site and soil 



Pope fine sandy loam 

Pope gravelly loam. 

Pope gravelly sandy loam. 

Pope silt loam 

Pope stony gravelly loam 



Rolirersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent 
slopes, moderately erod(>d. 



gravelly silt loam, thick solum 
to 20 ])ercent slo[)es, moderately 

gravelly silt hiam, thick solum 
10 to 20 i)ei('('nt slopes, severely 

gravelly silt loam, thick solum 
20 to ;U) jiercent slojjes. 

gravelly silt loam, thick solum 
20 to 45 jx'rcent slojx-s, moderately 



Talladega 

variant, 

ei-od(>d. 
Talladega 

\ ariant , 

eroded. 
Talladega 

variant, 
Talladega 

variant , 

eroded. 

Thurmont gravelly loam, W to 8 ])crcent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Trego gravelly silt loam, :? to 15 i)ercent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 



T\ ler silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 



\\'arneis loam, to 8 jjercent slopes. 



Waynesboro gra\elly loam, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravell.v loam. 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 3 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loani, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
AVaynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 per- 
cent slopes. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 

percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 | 
I percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
See footnotes at end of table. 



Feet 

3-4 

3-4 

3-4 

3-4 

3-4 



0-1 



(-) 

{') 
(-) 



Feet 
(') 
(') 
(') 
0) 
(') 



(■) 

4 + 

2-3 

4 + 
4 + 



5 + 


(') 


3 2 


(') 


2 


(') 


0-1 


(') 


1-2 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


3 + 


0) 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


4 + 


(') 


3 + 


0) 


4 + 


(') 



Deep, well-drained soils of flood plains, of recent 
alluvium from acid shale and sandstone 
materials. Infrequently flooded. Physical 
properties given are for the fine sandy loam. 
The gravelly loam and the silt loam are essen- 
tially the same as the fine sandy loam, except 
that they contain gravel. The gravelly 
sandy loam will be SM throughout. Stones 
or boulders cover about 20 percent of the 
stony gravelly loam. 

Poorly drained soils developed in deposits of 
coUuvial fines of metabasaltic materials. Wet 
for considerable periods of time but seldom, 
if ever, flooded. 

Well-drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from mica schist with a surface layer of 
coUuvial sandstone debris. Severely eroded 
soils have lost the original ML surface layer 
and i)art of the MH subsoil. 



Well-drained soils developed in gravelly coUuvial 
deposits of metabasaltic materials, with some 
sandstone and quartzite. 

Moderately well drained soils developed in col- 
luvial deposits of quartzite, metabasalt, and 
sandstone materials. Moderately wet. 



Poorly drained .soils on terraces of very old al- 
luvium from acid sandstone and shale mate- 
rials. Very wet. 

Soils on flood plains, of variable drainage, of 
marl deposits and recent alluvium from lime- 
stone areas. 



Deep, well-drained soils of high terraces, well 
oxidized, of verj' old alluvium from sandstone 
and other sedimentary rocks. Physical prop- 
erties given are for the gravelly loam Grav- 
elly sandy loam has essentially the same prop- 
erties, except that it is SM throughout to GC 
substratum. Severely eroded soils have lost 
the original surface la\'er and part of the sub- 
soil; occasional to frequent gullies, some into 
the substratum. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAUYLAM) 

estimated physical properties — Continued 



Mil 



USDA tcxlural class 



Fine saiuly loam to lislit 

silt loam. 
Gravelly loam 



Siltv clav loam. 



Gravelly silt loam. 



Gravelly or ehannery silt.v 
clay loam. 



Gravelly loam 

Gravelly silt loam 

Gravelh' loam 

Gravelly silt loam 

Gravelly sandy clay loam 

Gravelly sandy clay 

Silt loam 

Silty clay loam 

Clay-./_ 

Loam 

Sandy clav loam 

Silty 'clay ; 

Gravelly loam 

Gravelly silt loam 

Gravelly clay loam 

Very gravelly sandy clay 



iMigineeritig classification 



Unified 



ML_ 
GM. 



CL or ML. 



ML_ 
MH. 



ML or SM 
ML 

GM 

ML 

SO 

SC or CL_. 

ML 

CL 

CH 

SM 

SC 

CH 

SM or ML. 

ML 

CL 

GC 



AASHO 



A-4. 
A-2. 



A-6. 



A-4 

A-5 or A-7. 



A-4. 
A-4. 

A-2_ 



I'ercentage passing 
sieve — • 



No. 4 



A-4 

A-4 

A-6 



A-4. 
A-6. 
A-7. 

A-2. 

A-6. 
A-7_ 

A-4. 
A-4. 
A-6_ 
A-2. 



Percent 
100 

50 



100 

85 

95 



80 

85 

55 

85 
80 

80 

100 
100 
100 

98 

100 
100 

85 
85 
85 
60 



No. 
10 



Percent 
100 

40 



98 

80 
90 



70 
75 

45 

80 
70 

65 

100 
100 
100 

95 

95 
98 

80 
80 
80 
55 



No. 
200 



Percent 
50 

25 



70 

55 
75 



45 
60 

30 

55 
45 

50 

80 
85 
90 

30 

45 
80 

50 
55 
60 
30 



Scli'ctcd cliaracteristicH significant in engineering 



Range in 
permeability 



Inches per hour 
0. 2-2. 

2. 0-fi. 3 



0. 02-0. 6 

0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 



0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 

0. 6-2. 

0. 6-2. 
0. 06-0. 6 

0. 02-0. 06 

0. 2-0. 6 
0. 02-0. 2 
0. 0-0. 02 

0. 2-0. 6 

0. 06-0. 2 
0. 06-0. 2 

0. 6-2. 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 2-2. 



Keaclion 



pll 
5. 1-6. 



5. 1-6. 

4. 5-5. 
4. 5-5. 5 



5. 6-6. 5 
5. 1-6. 

4. 5-5. 

5. 6-6. 5 
4. 5-5. 

4. 0-5. 

4. 0-5. 
4. 0-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 

7. 9-8. 4 

7. 9-9. 
7. 9-9. 

4. 5-5. 
4. 0-4. 5 
4. 0-4. 3 
4. 0-4. 5 



Dispersion 



Sh rink-swell 
potential 



High. 
High. 



Low. 

Very low. 



High to 
moderate. 



High to 

moderate. 
High to 

moderate. 



Moderate. 
Low. 

Moderate. 



Moderate Low 



High to 

moderate. 
High 



Moderate 

Low to 

moderate. 
High 



Low. 
Low. 

Low. 
Low. 

Low. 



Low Low. 

Moderate Moderate. 

High High. 



Low to 

moderate. 
High. 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 



High I High. 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 

Low 

Low 



Low. 
Low. 

Moderate. 
Moderate. 



102 



SOIL SUKVICY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 6. — Brief description oj .soils and (heir 



Map 
symbol 



Soil niune 



Depth to 
season- 
ally high Depth 
water 
table 



to 

bedrock 



Brief rlcscript ion of site and .soil 



Depth 
from 
surface 
(typical 
profile) 



Wh 



WmB2 
WmC2 
WmC3 
WmD2 
WmD3 



Wchadkce silt loam. 



West morcland chaiuicrv silt loam, !{ to 10 

percent slojJes, moderately eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 

percent slo|)es, moderately eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 'A to 20 

percent slojjes, severely eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt k)am, 20 to 30 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 

percent slopes, severely eroded. 



Feet 
0-1 



Feet 
(') 



Poorly drained soils of flood plains, of recent 
allu\ium from areas of crystalline rocks. 
Very wet; frequentlj' flooded. 

Well-drained upland soils developed in residuum 
from acid and lim\' shales, with some sand- 
stone and limestone. Severely eroded soils 
have lost most or all of the original ML hori- 
zon, and have occasional to frequent shallow 
gullies. 



Feet 
0-12 
12-36-t- 



0-14 
14-32 

.32-42 + 



1 Tliesc soils consist of unconsolidated, stratified material that is 
old or new alluvium or coUuvium; depth to bedrock is variable but 
undetermined. 

2 In n)ost residual soils, depth to water table cannot be estimated, 
but, normally, the water table is in the bedrock. 



3 These*soils have a slowly permeable fragipan in the subsoil. 
At times. 'a i)erched water table is directly above the fragii)an and 
is se|)arated from a lower, more permanent water table by a layer 
of drv or nearlv drv soil. 



Tahij: 7. — Sf>il characteristics 



Map symbol 



Soil 



Suitability for 
winter grading 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites 1 



Suitability as material for- 



Road subgrade 



Road fill 



AsB... 
At.... 



BaA, BaB2, 
BaC2, BaC3. 

BcB2, BcC2, 
BcC3, BcD2. 

BeB, BeB2, 
BeC2, BeD2. 

BkB2. BI<C2, 
BkC3, BkD2. 

BoE3, BoF 

BrB2, BrC2, 
BrD. 

BtB 

BuA. BuB2, 

BuC2, BuD2, 
CaB2 

CcB2. CcC2, CcD, 
CcD2, CcE, CcF 



.\shton fine sandj' loam 

Atkins silt loam 

Benevola clay loam 

Berks channery loam, ridges 

Berks shaly silt loam 

Berks silt loam, ridges 

Berks soils, ridges 

Braddock and Thurmont grav- 
elly loams. 

Brinkerton silt loam 

Buchanan gravelly loam 

Calvin channery fine sandy 
loam. 

Calvin channerv loam 



Not suitable.. 
Not suitable.. 

Not suitable. _ 

Not suitable.. 
Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. . 

Not suitable. . 

Not suitable. . 

Fair 

Not suitable.. 



Moderate 

Verj' strong. 

Moderate 



Slight to 

moderate. 
Slight to 

moderate. 
Slight to 

moderate. 
Slight to 

moderate. 
^Moderate 



Very strong. 



Strong. 



Slight to 

moderate. 
Slight to 

moderate. 



Poor (flooding). 
Not suitable 

Fair to good 

Poor to fair 

Poor to fair 

Poor to fair 

Not suitable 

Good 

Not suitable 

Poor 

Fair 

Poor to fair 



Fair 

Very poor 

Poor to fair.- 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Very poor 

Poor ' 

Good 

Good 



Fair to good. . 
Very poor ' 

Poor to fair... 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Very poor 

Poor ' 

Good 

Good 



See footnotes at end oi: table. 



\VASIlIN(il()N COUNTY, MARYLAND 



If);-; 



estimated plinxical p/ajx /lies — Coiil iiiucd 



USDA textunil class 



Silt loam 

Silty clay loam to sandy 
ciay. 

Channery silt loatn 

Shaly silty clay loam 

Very shaly loam 



Engineering classification 



Unified 



ML 

CL. 

ML 
CL. 

GM 



AASHO 



A-4 
A-6 

A-4 
A-6 

A-2 



Percentage passing 
sieve — 



Selected characteristics significant in engineering 



No. 4 



Percent 
100 
100 



80 
85 



60 



No. 
10 



Percent 
100 
100 



75 
80 



45 



No. 
200 



Percent 
75 
80 



60 
05 



25 



Range in 
permeability 



Inches per hour 
0. 2-0. 6 
0. 02-0. 2 



0. 2-0. G 
0. 2-2. 

0. G-2. 



Reaction 



pil 
4. 5-5. 5 
4. 5-5. 5 



5. 6-6. 5 
5. 1-6. 

5. 6-6. 5 



Dispersion 



High 

High to 
moderate. 

Moderate... 
Low to 

moderate. 
High 



Sliri nk-swell 
potfntial 



Low. 

Moderate. 



Low. 

Moderate. 



Low. 



* In the Miirrill soils, d('j)th to bedrock is normally fairly great, areas, hard limestone is within a few feet of the surface; in rare 
but in some places the colluvial material, from whicli at least the instances, there are limestone outcrops. In general, however, the 
uppermost part of the soil has been formed, is thin. In some such depth to bedrock cannot be estimated. 



that ajftct ( lujinceriiKj 



Suitability as source 
of— 



Factors that affect engineering jiractices for- 



Topsoil 



Sand and 
gravel 



Vertical alinement 
of highways 



Material 



Drainage 



Farm ponds 



Reservoir 
areas 



Embank- 
ments 



Agricultural 
drainage 



Irrigation - 



Terraces 

and 
diversions 



Waterways 



Excellent. 

Poor to 
fair. 

Very 
good. 

Poor to 

fair. 
Poor to 

fair. 
Poor to 

fair. 
Poor 



Fair to 
good. 



Poor to 
fair. 



Fair- 
Fair. 



Poor to 
fair. 



Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

P'ine sand 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
aole. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Very poor 
stability. 

Fine clay.. 



Shallow to 

bedrock. 
Shallow to 

bedrock. 
Shallow to 

bedrock. 
Shallow to 

bedrock. 



Fine clay 



Fragipan. . 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 



Occasional 
flooding. 

Flooding; 
high wa- 
ter table, 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



High water 
table. 

High water 

table. 
None 



On low 

terraces. 
Flood plain. 



Sandy sub- 
strata. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 

Shaly, 
steep. 

Gravel sub- 
strata. 



None. 



Fragipan. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 



Very high 

in silt. 
Very poor 

stability. 

Fine clay 



Shaly 

Shaly 

Shaly 

Shaly 

Gravelly 

Fine clay 

Fragipan 

Shaly 

Shaly 



Not needed. 

Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Not needed. 



Not needed. 
Not needed. 
Not needed. 
Not needed. 
Not needed. 



Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Fragipan 

Not needed _ 
Not needed. 



No limita- 
tions. 

Poor drain- 
age. 

Fine clay.. 



Shallow 

Shallow 

Shallow 

Shallow, 
steep. 

No limita- 
tions. 

Poor drain- 
age. 

Fragipan. _ 

Shallow. 

Shallow 



Erodible 

Highly 
erodible. 

Erodible 



Shallow. 
Shallow. 
Shallow- 
Shallow, 

steep. 
Erodible. 



Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 

Shallow 

Shallow 



Erodible. 

Highly 
erodible. 

Erodible. 



Erodible, 

droughtj'. 
Erodible, 

droughty. 
Erodible, 

droughty. 
Erodible, 

droughty. 
Erodible. 



Highly 
erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible, 
droughty. 

Erodible, 
droughty. 



599553- 



!— 62 S 



104 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Tabi.k 7. — Soil characteristics 



Map symbol 



CmB2, CmC2, 

CmC3, CmD, 

CmE. 
CnB2, CnC2, 

CnC3, CnD2, 

CnF2, 
CoB2. CoC2, 

CoD2, CoE3, 

CoF. 
CrB, CrB2, 

CrC2, CrD. 
Cs 



Ct- 



CwA,CwB2,CwC2_ 

CxC 

CyE2 

DeD, DeE, DeF._. 

DkD, DkE 



DuC. 



DmA, DmB2, 
DmC2, DmD2, 
DmDB. 

DvC, DvE2 



DyB2, DyC2_ 
Dz 



EdC, EdD2, 

EdE2, EdF2. 
EgA, EgD. EgF. 

EhB2, EhD2, 
EhE2, EhF. 



Em 
En 



Soil 



Calvin shalv loam. 



Calviii-Bcrks chaiiiu'iN- loams, 
Calviii-]\loiitc\alio slialv loam 



Chandler silt loam and chan 

ncry silt loam. 
Chewacla gravelly sandy loam. 



Chewacla silt loam. 



Chewacla stonv silt loam Not suitable. . 



Suitability for 
winter grading 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable.. 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Congaree silt loam and gravelly 
loam. 



Corvdon elav loam. 



Corydon extremely rocky clay 
loam. 

Corydon very rocky clay loam.. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony 
sandy loams. 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony 
loams. 

Duffield extremeh' rockj- silt 
loam. 

Duffield silt loam 



Duffield very rocky silt loam... 
Dunmore cherty silt loam 



Dunning and jNIelvin silty clay 
loams. 



Edgemont and Laidig channery 
loams. 

Edgemont and Laidig ver}- 
stonj- loams, 
s Elliber cherty loam 



Eroded land, greenstone ma- 
terials. 

Eroded land, limestone ma- 
terials. 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Poor to fair.. 

Poor to fair.. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Slight to 
moderate. 

Slight to 
moderate. 

Slight to 
moderate. 



IModerate. 
Strong 



Strong. 



Strong. 



Aloderate to 
strong. 



Moderate. 
Moderate- 
Moderate. 



Slight to 
moderate. 

Slight to 
moderate. 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 



Moderate 

^loderate 

Very .strong. 



Moderate- 
Moderate. 



Slight to 
moderate. 



Strong- 
Strong. 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites 1 



Poor to fair. . 

Poor to fair_- 

Poor to fair.. 

Poor to fair. 
Not suitable - 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 

Not suitable 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Fair to good 

Fair to good 

Poor to fair 

Good 



Suitability as material for — 



Road subgrade 



Good . 
Good. 
Good. 



Fair to good Fair 



Fair.. 
Poor 3. 

Poor 3. 

Poor 

Fair.. 



Poor.. 
Poor.. 
Poor.. 
Good. 

Good. 



Poor to fair.. 
Fair to good. 



Fair 

Not suitable. 



Good. 
Good- 
Good. 



Not suitable.. 
Not suitable.. 



Poor 

Very poor ' . 



Good. 
Fair. . 
Good. 



Fair. 
Fair. 



Road fill 



Good. 
Good . 
Good- 



Fair__ 
Poor 

Poor 3. 

Poor 

Good. 



Poor.. 
Poor.. 
Poor.. 
Good. 

Good. 



Poor to fair.. 
Fair to good. 

Fair 

Poor to fair.. 
Very poor ' . . 



Good. 
Fair.. 
Good. 

Fair.. 
Fair. . 



See footnotes at onJ of table. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



that affect eiKjInecriiKj ( 'oiil imicd 



Suitability as source 
of— 


Factors that affect engineering practices for — 


Topsoil 


Sand and 
gravel 


Vertical alinement 
of highways 


b arm 


ponds 


Agricultural 
drainage 


Lrigatiori • 


Terraces 

and 
diversions 


Waterways 


Material 


1 )rainage 


Reservoir 
areas 


Embank- 
ments 


Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None , 


Shaly sub- 


Shaly 


Not needed. 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Erodible, 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




strata. 




droughty. 


Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Shalv sub- 


Shaly 


Not needed - 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Erodible, 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




strata. 




droughty. 


Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Shaly sub- 


Shaly 


Not needed - 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Erodible, 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




strata. 




droughty. 


Fair 


Not suit- 


Micaceous,- 


None 


Micaceous.- 


Micaceous. - 


Not needed. 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Erodible, 




able. 




droughty. 


Fair 


Local 


Poor sta- 


High water 


Flood plain. 


Poor sta- 


Slow per- 


Impeded 


Slow per- 


Erodible. 




gravel 


bility. 


table. 


bility. 


meabil- 


"drainage. 


meabil- 






sub- 








ity. 




ity. 






strata. 
















Fair 


Local 


Poor sta- 


High water 


FIuckI j)lain- 


Poor sta- 


Slow per- 


Impeded 


Slow per- 


Erodible. 




gravel 


bility. 


table. 




bihty. 


meabil- 


drainage. 


meabil- 






sub- 








ity. 


ity. 






strata. 














Poor 


Local 


Stones, 


High water 


Flood plain, 


Stones, 


Slow per- 


Impeded 


Stones, 


Stones, 




gravel 


boulders. 


table. 


stones. 


boulders. 


meabil- 


drainage. 


boulders. 


boulders. 




sub- 










ity. 


stones. 








strata. 


















Good 


Local 




Flooding 


Flood plain - 


Variable 


Not needed- 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




sandy 






perme- 


tion. 




gravel 








ability. 












sub- 




















strata. 


















Good 


Not suit- 


Limestone 


None 


Limestone 


Fine clay 


Not needed- 


Shallow; 


Shallow; 


Erodible; 




able. 


ledges. 




ledges. 


ledges. 


ledges. 


ledges. 


Poor 


Not suit- 


Rockiness_ _ 


None 


Rockiness. _ 


Rockiness. - 


Not needed - 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Fair 


Not suit- 


Rockiness- . 


None 


Rockiness- - 


Rockiness - - 


Not needed- 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Permeable 


Stones, 


Not needed. 


Stones, 


Stones, 


Stones, 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




sub- 


boulders. 




boulders. 


boulders. 


boulders. 










strata. 












Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Permeable 


Stones, 


Not needed- 


Stones, 


Stones, 


Stones, 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




sub- 


boulders. 




boulders. 


boulders. 


boulders. 










strata. 












Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness_ _ 


None. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness - - 


Not needed- 


Rockiness - . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Very 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None _ . _ 






Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


efood 


able. 


bedrock. 








tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness- _ 


None 


Rockiness 


Rockiness 


Not needed. 


Rockiness . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Very 


Not suit- 


Fine clay 


None. . 




Fine clay 


Not needed- 


Fine clay 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


efood 


able. 






subsoil 


Good 


Not suit- 


Very poor 


Flooding; 


Flood plain - 


Very pK)or 


Slow per- 


Poor drain- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


stability. 


high wa- 


stability. 


meabil- 


age 












ter table. 






ity; high 




















water 




















table. 








Fair 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None ... 




Channery . . 


Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 






tion. 


Fair 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None. 


Stones, 


Stones, 


Not needed - 


Stones, 


Stones, 


Stones, 




able. 


bedrock. 




boulders. 


boulders. 


boulders. 


boulders. 


boulders. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Permeable 


Chertj'. . 


Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible 




able. 


bedrock. 




sub- 




tion. 










strata. 












Poor, 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Variable 


Variable. . 






Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 










Poor 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None _ 


Variable 


Variable. 






Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 











106 



SOIL SUHVEY SEHIKS 1 959, NO. 17 



Table 7. — Soil characteristics 



Map symbol 



Er. 
Es. 



EtA, EtB2. EtC2, 
EtD2. 

EwA, EwB2, 
EwC2. 

FaB, FaB2, FaC2, 

FaE2. 
FsA, FsB2, FsC2 



FtC2 

FrE 

FuD, FuE, 



FvC2, FvC3, 

FvE2. 
FwA, FwB2, 

FwB3, FwC2, 

FwC3. FwD2. 

FwD3, FwE2, 

FwE3. 
FyB2, FyC2, 

FyC3, FyD2, 

FyD3, FyE2. 
HaA, HaB2, 

HaB3, HaC2, 

HaC3, HaD2, 

HaD3. 
HbD2 



HcD2. 
HdE_. 



HeA, HeB2, 
HeC2, HeD2. 

HfA, HfB2, 
HfC2, HfD2. 

HgC2, HgE2. 



HhC2, HhC3, 

HhE2. 
HkF 



H1A._. 
HmE2_ 



HnB2, HnC2, 

HnC3, HnD2, 

HnD3, HnE. 
HoB, HoB2, 

HoC2, HoE2. 
HpB, HpD, 

HpE. 
HrA, HrB2, 

HrC2, HrD2, 

HrD3, HrE2. 

See footnotes at end of table 



Soil 



Eroded land, sandstone and 

quartzite inatorials. 
Eroded land, ^hale and schist 

materials. 
Etowah gravelly loam 



Etowali silt loam 



Fauquier channer\^ loam 

Fauqui(>r silt loam 

Fauquier silt loam, shallow - 
Fauquier very stony loam__ 



Frankstown extremely rocky 

silt loam. 
Frankstown V(>r\- rocky silt 

loam. 

Frankstown and Duflield chan- 
iierv silt loams. 



Frederick cherty silt loam_ 
Hagerstown clay loam 



Hagerstovvn extremely rock}' 

silt loam. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky 

silty clay loam. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky 

soils. 

Hagerstown silt loam 



Hagerstown silty clay loam 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam_. 

Hagerstown very rocky silty 

clay loam 

Hagerstown very rocky soils 

Hagerstown, Corydon, and Duf- 
field very rocky silt loams. 

Hagerstown and Duffield silt 
loams. 

Hazel channerv silt loam 



Highfield gravelly loam 

Highfield very stony loam. 
Holston gravellv loam 



Suitability for 
wint(>r grading 



Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Strong 

Strong 

Moderate. _. 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 
^Moderate... 
Moderate... 
Moderate... 
Moderate... 
Moderate... 
Moderate... 

Moderate... 
Moderate. -. 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Moderate. .- 

Moderate... 

Moderate.. - 

Moderate.. - 

Moderate... 

Moderate... 

Slight to 
moderate. 

Moderate. 

Moderate 

Moderate... 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites ' 



Not suitable - 
Not suitable. 
(Jood 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Poor 

]''air 

Poor to fair-. 
Fair to good. 
Good 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Fair 

Not suitable. 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Fair 

Not suitable. 

Fair 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Good 

Good 

Good 



Suitability as material for- 



Uoad subgrade 



Fair 

Poor 

Fair to good . _ 

Fair to good . _ 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Poor to fair 

Fair 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Fair to good. . 

Good 

Fair 

Good 



Road fill 



Fair 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Poor to fair. 

Fair 

Good 

Fair to good 
Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor to fair. 
Poor to fair. 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Good 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHYLAM) | ()7 



that affect engineering — Continued 



Siii(;il)ilitv :is sourt'(! 
of— 


Factors that alFct-t ciigiiicci-intf jjiactices for - 


Topsoil 


Sand and 
gravel 


Vertical alincmont 
of highways 


Farm ponds 


Agricultural 
drainage 


Irrigation ^ 


Terraces 

and 
diversions 


Waterways 


Material 


Drainage 


Reservoir 
areas 


Embank- 
ments 


Poor 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


Variable 


Variable 


Variable 






Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 








Poor 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None . . 


Variable 


Variable 






Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 










Good 


Gravelly 




None. 


Gravelly 




Not needed. 


Xo limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




sub- 






sub- 






tion. 




strata. 






strata. 












Good 


Gravelly 




None_ _. 


Gravelly 




Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




sub- 






sub- 




tion. 




strata. 






strata. 












Good 


Not suit- 




None 






Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 










tion. 


Good 


"\^nt. t;i 1 i f,- 




None 






Not nppHpH 


No limita- 


ErorliHlp 


Erorlihlc 




able. 










tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 




None 


Shallow 




Not needed- 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Shallow; 




able. 










erodible. 


Good 


Not. f^m't,- 


Stones 


None 


Stones. 


Stones. 


A 1 v." U 11 C C V.i vT VJ. _ 


Stones 




St.onPQ 




able. 














Good 


Not suit- 


Rocki- 


None 


Rocki- 


Rocki- 


Not needed 


Rocki- 


Rocki- 


Rockiness. 




able. 


ness. 




ness. 


ness. 


ness. 


ness. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Rocki- 


None 


Rocki- 


Rocki- 


Not needed. 


Rocki- 


Rocki- 


Rockiness. 




able. 


ness. 




ness. 


ness. 


ness. 


ness. 


Very 


Not suit- 




None 






Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


good. 


able. 










tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None. ._ - 






Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 








tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Occasional 


None ... 


Occasional 


Fine clay 


Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


ledges. 




ledges. 


tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness_ _ 


None 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Not needed. 


Rockiness. _ 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness. . 


None ... 


Rockiness. _ 


Rockiness. . 


Not needed. 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness- . 


None 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. - 


Not needed. 




Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 








Very 


Not suit- 


Occasional 


None.. . . 


Occasional 


Fine clay 


Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


good. 


able. 


ledges. 




ledges. 




tion. 






Very 


Not suit- 


Occasional 


None 


Occasional 


Fine clay 


Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


good. 


able. 


ledges. 




ledges. 






tion. 






Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness. _ 


None . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Not needed. 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness. _ 


None 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness - . 


Not needed. 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness. . 


None . 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. . 


Not needed 




Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. 




able. 








Good 


Not suit- 


Rockiness. . 


None.. - 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. - 


Not needed. 


Rockiness. . 


Rockiness. _ 


Rockiness. 




able. 




Good 


Not suit- 


Occasional 


None - 


Occasional 


Fine clay 


Not needed 




Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


ledges. 




ledges. 






Poor to 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Very shal- 


Channery, 


Not needed- 


Very shal- 


Very shal- 


Erodible. 


fair. 


able. 


bedrock. 




low. 


mica- 




low. 


low. 














ceous. 










Good 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None. .. 






Not needed- 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




able. 


bedrock. 








tion. 


Good 


Not suit- 


Shallow to 


None 


Stones 


Stones 


Not needed. 


Stones.. 1 


Stones 


Stones. 




able. 


bedrock. 












Fair 


Gravelly 




None. - 


Gravelly 




Not needed. 


No limita- 


Erodible 


Erodible. 




sub- 






sub- 




tion. 




strata. 






strata. 













108 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 7.- — Soil characteristics 



Map symbol 



HsB, HsC2, 
HsC3. 

HtA, HtB2, 
HtC2. 



Hu. 

Hv_ 
Hw. 

Hx_ 



LaA, LaB2, 

LaC2, LaD2. 
LbD, LbE2... 



LcB2, LcD2. 

Le 

LgA, LgB2_. 

Lm 

Ln 



LoB2, LoC2, 
LoC3, 

LsB, LsB2, LsC2. 
LsC3, LsD2, 
LsDB, LsE2, 
LsE3, LsF. 

LtB, LtC2, LtC3, 
LtD2, LtD3, 
LtE2 

Me 



MsB2, MaC2_ 



MhA, MhB2, 
MhC2, MhD2. 



MmB2, MmC2, 

MmC3, MmD2 

MmD3. 
MoA, MoB2, 

MoC2, MoD2, 

MoD3, MoE2. 
MrB, MrC2, 

MrC3, MrD2, 

MrD3. 
MsA, MsB2, 

MsC2. 

See footnotos iit end of tahl 



Soil 



Holstoii gravelly sandy loam 

Holston silt loam 



Ilimtiiislon fiiu; sandy loam 

IluiUinfilon siravelly loam 

Iluntinstoii silt loam 



Iluiitington silt loam, local 

alluvium. 
Laidig gravelly loam 



Laidig very stony loam 

Landisburg chcrty silt loam. 

Largcnt silt loam 

Lead\alt> gravelly silt loam. 
Lindsidc silt k)am 



Lindside silt loam, loeal allu- 
vium. 

Litz channerv loam 



Suit-ability for 
winter grading 



Litz shah- loam. 



Litz-Teas ehannerv silt loams. 



Alt'lvin silt loam_ 



Monoiigahehi gravelly loam 

Monongaliela silt loam 

Monlevallo shaly loam 

Murrill gravelly loam 

Murrill graxflly sandy loam 

Murrill silt loam 



Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 
Not su 



table. 

table. 

table. 

table. 

table. 

table 

table- 

table. 

table. 

table, 

table. 

table 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Slight 

Moderate. 



Moderate. 
Moderate. 
Moderate. _. 
Moderate... 
Moderate. -- 
Moderate. -- 

Strong 

Strong 

Strong 

Strong 

Strong 



Slight to 
moderate. 

Slight to 
moderate. 



Slight to 
moderate. 

Very strong.-. 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites ' 



Strong. 
Strong. 



Poor. 
Poor. 
Poor. 
Good. 
Good. 
Moderate Good. 



Shght to 
moderate. 

Moderate 



Slight to 
moderate. 



Good. 
Good. 



Not suitable. . 
Not suitable . 
Not suitable. 

Fair 

Good 

Good 

Poor 

Not suhable.. 

Poor 

Not suitable- _ 

Poor 

Poor 



Poor. 



Poor. 



Not suitable - . 



Suitability as material for- 



Road subgrade 



Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Fair 

Fair 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

Poor' 

Poor 

Poor ' 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Very poor 

Poor to fair.. 
Poor to fair.. 
Fair to good. 

Good 

Good 



Road fill 



Good 

Good 

Fair to good. 
Fair to good. 
Fair to good. 
Fair to good. 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

Poor ' 

Poor to fair.. 

Poor ' 

Poor 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Very poor 

Fair to good. 
Fair to good. 

Good 

Good 

Good 



Fair i Good. 



WASIIINCTOX COrNTV, .\IAi; Vl.AMJ 

that affect engineering — Continued 



109 



Suitabilitv a.s source 
of— 



Tojisoil 



Sand and 
gravel 



I'"a('t()rs llial .■illVcl ciiniiH'cr inn practices (or 



Vertical alineinent 
of highways 



Material 



Drainage 



Farm ponds 



Reservoir 
areas 



Embank- 
ments 



Agricultural 
drainage 


Irrigation ^ 


Terraces 

and 
diversions 


Waterways 


Not needed. 


No limita- 
tion. 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


Not needed- 


No limita- 
tion. 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


Not needed. 
Not needed _ 
Not needed- 
Not needed- 
Not needed- 
Not needed. 


No limita- 
tion. 

No limita- 
tion. 

No limita- 
tion. 

No limita- 
tion. 

No limita- 
tion. 

Stones - _ . 


Erodible 

Erodible 

Erodible 

Erodible 

Erodible 

Stones 


Erodible. 
Erodible. 
Erodible. 
Erodible. 
Erodible. 
Stones. 


Fragipan 

High water 

table. 
Fragipan 

High water 

table. 
High water 

table. 
Not needed. 


Fragipan 

Impeded 

drainage. 
Fragipan 

Impeded 
drainage. 

Impeded 
drainage. 

Shallow 


Slow perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 

Shallow 


Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erofiible. 

Erodible. 

Shallow ; 
droughty. 


Not needed. 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Shallow ; 
droughtj'. 


Not needed. 


Shallow 


Shallow 


Shallow; 
droughty. 


High water, 
table. 


Poor drain- 
age. 


Slow perme- 
ability. 


Erodible. 


Fragipan 

Fragipan 

Not needed. 


Fragipan 

Fragipan 

Shallow 


Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Very slow 
pel iiie- 
ability. 

Shallow 


Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Shallow; 
droughty. 


Not needed. 


No Hmita- 
tion. 


Erodible 


Erodible. 


Not needed. 


No limita- 
tion. 


Erodible 


Erodii)le. 


Not needed. 


No limita- 
tion. 


Erodible 


Erodible. 



Poor. 
Fair- 



Good 

Good 

Excellent. 
Excellent. 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 

Fair 



Fair to 
good. 
Good... 



Fair. 
Fair. 



Fair.. 
Good. 

Fair.. 
Fair-. 
Poor. 
Good. 
Fair.. 



Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Stones 

Fragipan. . 

Poor sta- 
bility. 
Fragipan. . 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 



Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Very poor 
stability. 



Fragipan _ 
Fragipan _ . 



Shallow to 
bedrock. 



Good Not suit- 

1 able. 



None. 
None. 



Flooding. . 

Flooding 

Flooding 

None 

None 

None 



High water 

table. 
High water 

table 
High water 

table. 
High water 

table. 
High water. 

table. 
None 



None. 



None- 



Flooding; 

high 

water 

table. 
High water 

table. 

High water, 
table. 



None. 
None. 
None. 
None . 



Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Flood plain 

Flood i)lain. 
Flood plain 



Stones 

Fragipan 

Flood plain. 

Fragipan 

Flood plain. 



Channery 
sub- 
strata. 

Shaly sub- 
strata. 



Channery 
sub- 
strata. 

Flood plain 



Fragipan 

Fragipan 



Shaly sub- 
strata. 



Sandy. 



Sandv 



High in 

silt. 
High in 

silt. 
Gravelly. 

Stones 

Fragipan . 

Poor sta- 
bility. 
Fragipan. 

Poor sta- 
ability. 

Poor sta- 
bility. 

Channery 

Shalv 



Cluinnery . _ 

Very poor. . 
sta- 
bility. 

Fragipan 

Fragipan 

Shalv 



Sand^ 



110 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 7. — Soil characterifitics 



Suitability as material for — 


Road subgrade 


Poad fill 


Fair 


Fair to good.. 


Fair 


Fair to good.. 


Fair . . . 


Fair to good.. 


Fair 


Fair to good.. 


Poor . . _ 


Fair 


Poor . . 


Poor 


Fair _ _ 


Fair to good.. 


Fair 


Fair to good__ 


Fair 


Fair to good.. 


Poor to fair 


Fair. ... 


Fair... 


Fair 


Poor 


Poor. - . . 


Poor 


Poor. - 


Fair- . 


Fair 


Poor. 


Poor 


Poor to fair 


Fair 


Variable 


Variable 


Fair to good_ _ 


Good 


Poor to fair 


Poor to fair 


Ver}- poor 


Very poor 


Poor 


Poor to fair 



Map symbol 



MvA, MvB2, 
MvC2, MvD2, 
MvE2. 

MwB3, MwD3.. 

MxA, MxB2, 

MxC2. 
MyE2, MyF2..- 



Pg- 
Ph- 
Pn. 

Po. 

Pp- 

Ps. 



Pt. 



Rk.... 
RoB2. 
Sr.... 
Ss-... 



TaC2, TaC3, 
TaD, TaE2. 



Te 

ThB2, ThC2. 



TrA, TrC2. 

TyB 

Wa 



Soil 



Myersville channery loam. 



Myersvillc channery silt loam. 

Myersville silt loam 

Myersvillc very stony loam 

Pliilo gra\ ('lly sandy loam 

Philo silt loam 

Pope fine sandy loam 



Po])e gravelly loam 

Pope gravelly sandy loam. 

Pope silt loam 

Pope stony gravelly loam. 



Rocky eroded land 

Rohrersville silty clay loam . 

Stony rolling land 

Stony steep land 



Talladega gravelly silt loam, 
thick solum variant. 

Terrace escarpments 

Thurmont gravelly loam 



Suitability for 
winter grading 



Trego gravelly silt loam. 

Tyler silt loam 

Warners loam 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 
Not suitable . 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable. 
Not suitable- 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. . 

Not suitable. . 

Not suitable _ . 

Not suitable. . 

Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. _ 
Not suitable. . 
Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 
Not suitable - 



Not suitable. 



Not suitable. 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Moderate 

Moderate... 

Moderate 

Moderate 

Strong 

Strong 

Moderate to 
s* rong. 

Moderate to 
strong. 

Moderate to 
strong. 

Moderate to 
strong. 

Moderate to 
strong. 

Moderate 

Very strong. 

Slight to 

moderate. 
Slight to 

moderate. 
Moderate 

Variable 

Moderate... 

Strong 

Very strong. 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites ' 



Good 

Good 

Good 

Good 

Not suitable . . 
Not suitable . _ 
Not suitable 

Not suitable. _ 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Not suitable 

Good 

Not suitable 

Good 

Poor 

Not suitable 



Not suitable Moderate to i Not suitable 

strong. 



See footnotes at end of table. 



\VASIIIN(iT().\ COUNTY, MAHVLAXD 



111 



that affect engmeering — ( imicc 



Suitabilitv as source 
of— 



r'actors tliiil iiirci't ciiniiiciTiiig practices for — 



Topsoil 



Saiul and 
gravel 



Vertical aliiieinent 
of highways 



Malerial 



Drainage 



I''ariii p()ii(l> 



Reservoir 
areas 



Embank- 
ments 



Agricultin'al 
drainage 



Trrigat ion - 



Terraces 

and 
diversions 



\Vat<;r\vavs 



Cood_._ 

Good 

Good... 

Good 

Poor . „ . 

Poor 

Good... 

Good... 

Fair 

Good 

Fair 

Fair 

Good... 

Poor 

Poor 

Fair 

Variable 
Good... 

Fair 



Poor to 
fair. 

\'ery 
good. 



Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Variable. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 

Shallow to 
bedrock. 



Poor sta- 
bility. 



Stones - 



Rockiness_ 

Poor sta- 
bility. 

Stones, 
boulders. 

Stones, 
boulders. 

Shallow to 
becirock. 

Variable 



Fragipan . . . 



Very poor 
stability. 

Poor sta- 
bility. 



None. 

None. 
None. 
None . 



High water 

table. 
High water 

table. 
Flooding 



Flooding. 



Flooding. 



Flooding. 



Flooding 



None. 



High water 

table. 
None 



None. 
None. 



Variable. 
None 



High water 
table. 



High water 
table. 

High water 
table. 



Stones 

Flood plain. 
Flood plain. 
Flood plain. 

Flood plain. 

Flood plain. 

Flood plain - 



Stones; 
flood 
plain. 

Rockiness. . 



Stones, 
boulders. 

Stones, 
boulders. 

Channery 
sub- 
strata. 

Variable... 

Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Fragipan. - 



Flood plain. 



Stones. 
Sandy. 



Poor sta- 
bility. 
Sandy 



Sandj'. 



High in silt. 



Stones - 



Rockiness. . 

Poor sta- 
bility. 

Stones, 
boulders. 

Stones, 
boulders. 

Micaceous.. 



Variable 



Fragipan 



Very poor 
stabihty. 

Poor sta- 
bility. 



Not needed. 

Not needed. 
Not needed. 
Not needed. 

High water 

table. 
High water 

table. 
Not needed. 

Not needed. 

Not needed. 

Not needed. 

Not needed. 

Not needed. 



Slow per- 
meability. 
Not needed. 

Not needed. 

Not needed. 



Variable 

Not needed. 



Fragipan.. 



Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Slow perme- 
ability. 



No limita- 
1 ion. 

Severely 
eroded. 

No limita- 
tion. 

Stones 



Impeded 
drainage. 

Impeded 
drain.-inc 

No limita- 
tion. 



No limita- 
tion. 



No limita- 
tion. 



No limita- 
tion. 



Stones. 



Poor 

drainage. 



No limita- 
tion. 

Variable.. 
No limita- 
tion. 



Fragipan. 



Poor drain- 
age. 

Impeded 
drainage. 



Erodible. 

I'^rodibk!. 
Erodible. 
Stones. . 



Slow per- 
meability. 

Slow pcr- 
jiical)ility. 

i'>(j(iil)le 



Erodible 



Erodible.. 



Erodible. 



Stones. 



Rockiness. . 
Erodible 

Stones, 

boulders. 
Stones, 

boulders. 
Erodible 



Erodible 

Erodible.... 



Erodible. 



Very slow 
perme- 
ability. 

Erodible... 



Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Stones. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Erodible. 

Stones. 

Rockiness. 
Erodible. 

Stones, 

boulders. 
Stones, 

boulders. 
Erodible. 



Erodible. 
Erodible. 



Erodible. 

Erodible. 
Erodible. 



112 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



Table 7. — Soil characteristics 



Map symbol 



Soil 



Suitabilitj^ for 
winter grading 



Susceptibility 
to frost action 



Suitability for 
septic tank 
sites ' 



Suitability as material for- 



Koad subgrade 



Road fill 



WbA, WbB2, 

WbC2. WbC3. 

WbD2, WbD3. 

WbE2. 
WgB, WsC2, 

WgC3, WgD2. 

Wh 



WmB2, WmC2, 
WmC3, WmD2, 
WmD3. 



Waynesboro gravelly loam. 



Waynesboro gravelly sandy 
loam. 

Wehadkee silt loam 



Westmor( 
loatn. 



land channerj' silt 



Not suitable. 

Not suitable _ 
Not suitable. 

Not suitable. 



Moderate. Good 



Good. 



Slight. 



Good. 



Good. 



W'rv strong ' Not suitable i Poor. 



-Moderate. 



Good. 



Good. 



Good 

(iood 
Poor. 

Good 



' liatings of fair to good suitability for septic tank sites aj)ply 
only to soils having sloijes no greater than 8 percent. Because of 
lateral movement of liquid and possible seepage, the soils that have 
slopes betweeu 8 and 15 percent are less suitable for septic tank 



sewage disposal, and all soils that have slopes greater than 15 
percent are almost entirely unsuitable. Groupings of soils for 
sewage disposal are discussed in another section of this report. 



The crops in each truck-crop group are: 

Truck sroup 1 (very shallow rooted): 
Lettuce 
Onions 
Spinach 
Strawberries 

Truck group 2 (shallow roctod) : 
Beets 
Broccoli 
( 'abliage 
( 'aulitlower 
Celery 
Cucumbers 
Peas 

Snap beans 

Truck group 3 (moderately deep rooted) : 
Asparagus 
Eggplant 
Lima beans 
Melons 
Peppers 
Pumpkins 
Squash 

]Most of the other crops listed need no explanation. 
'"Grass mixture" may be any of several mixtures of 
grasses, witli or witliout clovers or alfalfa, commonly 
used for pasture or for liay. Orchards include apples, 
peaches, cherries, plums, and prunes. Where orchards 
are indicated with cover, it means that a close-growing 
crop covers the surface of the soil between orchard trees 
at the time of irrigation; where orchards are indicated 
without cover, it means tliat tlie soil between the orchard 
trees is bare, or nearly so, when irrigation water is ap])lied. 

Irrigation, to be successful, nnist meet tlie needs of 
the crops and must suit tlie soils to be irrigated. Different 



crops will need different amounts of water and at dif- 
ferent intervals. Some soils hold much water; some hold 
little. Water penetrates some soils readily, others much 
more slowly. Consequently, different kinds of .soils should 
not be irrigated alike. It is for these reasons that table 8 
has been arranged to place the better agricultural soils 
of Washington County in definite irrigation soil groups. 
Tlie soils within each group can be irrigated alike, and 
the differences within each group depend mostly on the 
type of crop to be irrigated. 

Irrigation soil grotip 1 consists of the sandy soils of 
the county. Because these soils liave a relatively high 
infiltration capacity, water application rates can be 
fairly high, but they retain less moistui'e than most of 
the other soils of the county. On these sandy soils, irriga- 
tion systems should be designed for relatively small 
amounts of water applied frequenth'. 

The soils of irrigation soil group 2 are only moderately 
well drained. They must be improved by artificial drain- 
age before they are suitable for irrigation. The same is 
true for some soils in irrigation soil grouj^s 1 and 3. 
The soils of group 2 have a very slowly permeable, tough 
or dense harclpan, or a clay subsoil, that limits the depth 
of effective root development and, thus, liinits the effective 
depth for irrigation. Therefore, available moisture capa- 
cities within root zones are lower for soils of group 2 
than for better soils. 

Irrigation soil group 3 consists of deep, medium- 
textured soils underlain by sand, silt, and gravel. AVater 
must be applied somewhat slowly here, but the soil can 
retain larger amounts of water than can the soils of 
groups 1 and 2. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



I. '-5 



that affect engineering — Continued 



Suil ability a.s source 
of— 



Factors that alTccl engineering practices for 



Topsoil 



Sand and 
gravel 



Vertical alinenient 
of highways 



Material 



Drainage 



I'^ai in ponds 



Reservoir 
areas 



iMnhank- 
nients 



Agricultural 
drainage 



Irrigation ' 



Terraces 

and 
diversions 



VVaterwavs 



Fair. 



Fair. 



Poor to 
fair. 



Good. 



Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Gravelly 
sub- 
strata. 

Local 
gravel 
sub- 
strata. 

Not suit- 
able. 



Poor sta- 
bility. 



Shallow to 
bedrock. 



None 

None 

Flooding 
high 
water 
taole. 

None 



Gravelly 
substrata. 



Grav-elly 
substrata. 

Flood plain _ 



Shaly to 
channery 
sub- 
strata. 



Sandy. 



Poor sta- 
hilitv. 



Shaly or 
channerv. 



Not needed- 



Not needed. 



High water 
table. 



No limita- 
tion. 



No limita- 
tion. 

Poor drain- 
age. 



Erodible... 



Erodible. 



Slow perme- 
aoility. 



Not needed- No limita- Erodible. 
tion. 



Erodible. 

Erodiblf!. 
Erodible. 

Erodible. 



2 Certain characteristics, most notably slope and degree of ero- ^ gandy or gravelly layers are suitable for subgrade or fill if 
sion, affect irrigation, in addition to those indicated in this table. artificially drained or if the water table is low. 
For all practical purposes, only soils of capability classes I, II, 
and III are considered suitable for irrigation. 



Irrigation soil group 4 consists of fairly shallow soils 
over bedrock of somewhat fragmented shale or schist 
that is generally within about 2 feet of the surface. These 
soils are highly erodible. Therefore, although the soil 
over bedrock will retain fairly large amounts of water 
per unit of depth, the available space for water is limited 
and application rates must be slow enough to prevent 
further erosion. 

In irrigation soil group 5, which includes a greater 
nimiber of soils from widespread parts of the county 
than any other group, the surface layer is medium tex- 
tured, the subsoil is fairly fine, and the profile is at least 
moderately deep. These soils can absorb water only 
rather slowly, but large amounts of water will be retained 
in the soil and in the subsoil. Irrigation soil group 5 
includes the greater part of the better agricultural soils 
of the county. 

Irrigation soil group 6, on the other hand, includes 
only two soils, both of the Dunmore series. These soils 
have a friable, silty surface layer, but a very heavy and 
very fine subsoil. Although this subsoil is not a hardpan, 
it allows only very slow movement of soil moisture; 
however, large amounts of moisture can be stored. Ap- 
plication of water must be slow on these soils. 

Irrigation soil group 7 consists of the soils of the covuity 
that have a fine or very fine surface layer and subsoil, with 
the subsoil almost invariably somewhat finer than the 
surface layer. As far as irrigation management is con- 
cerned, the soils of group 7 are much like those of group 6. 
However, because the surface texture is so fine in the soils 
of irrigation soil group 7, the irrigation of most truck 
crops is not recommended. Generally, truck crops are 
much more easily managed on coarse-textured soils, and 



they are seldom grown on very fine textured soils, except 
in home gardens. 

To summarize, irrigation soil groups 3 and 5 (especially 
the latter) include most of the better agricultural soils of 
the county for most purposes. These soils can store rather 
large amounts of irrigation water, which can be applied 
at moderate rates, and are thus perhaps the most suitable 
soils in the county for irrigation farming. Irrigation soil 
groups 1, 2, 6, and 7 should also give good returns from 
irrigation. 

Irrigation soil group 4 consists of soils that are shallow 
and generally rather low in natural fertility, or otherwise 
limited in usefulness. Irrigation on these soils may not 
be justifiable, except for some special crops or enterprises 
that will yield high returns per dollar invested. Some 
good-quality orchard sites, especially with regard to 
freedom from frost, occur on some of these shallow soils, 
and it may be feasible to irrigate orchai'ds on such sites. 

Soil groups for sewage disposal 

Although Washington County is mostly rural, its 
county seat, Hagerstown, is a growing industrial citj-. 
Along with its industrial growth there is rapid residential 
expansion in some of its suburban areas. There are also 
growing communities in the county; Smithburg is one 
example. 

In any rapid industrial or residential expansion, one 
of the problems is disposal of sewage. Wherever complete 
systems of sewers can be installed, the problems are not 
left to the individual landowner. Unless a sewerage sys- 
tem can be built, however, the indi\adual builder or land- 
owner generally needs to arrange for disposal of sewage, 
and, as a rule, he will install a septic tank. 



114 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 
Tablt, 8. — Irrigdfioii soil (jr(nij>s\ wifli <ulaj>t(>d crop.'-: and ceiUiiii ivafcr irdofionshrps^ 



Irrigation soil grouj) and names of soils in each group 



Alaxiniiini 
rate of 

applica- 
tion on 

flatland ^ 



Crops locally adapted 
for irrigation 



Ascragc 
depth of 
soil to 
be irri- 
gated 



Irrigation soil group 1: Moderately well drained and well drained sandy 
loams — 

Ashton fiiu^ sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes. 

Calvin channei-y fine sandy loam, 3 to 10 jjercent slop<'s, moderately 
eroded. 

Chewacia gravelly sandy loam.^ 
Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 {)ercent shapes. 
Ilolston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Huntington fine sandy loam. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to S ]iercont slopes. 

Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 
Philo gravelly sandy loam.'' 
Poi)e fine sandy loam. 
Pope gravc^Uy sandy loam. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Irrigation soil group 2:' Moderately well drained loams and silt loams 
with a tough, dense, or compact subsoil within about 20 inches of the 
surface — 

Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 ])ercent slopes. 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Landisburg cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Monongahela gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Monongahela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Irrigation soil group 3: Moderately well drained and well drained, deep 
loams and silt loams over unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel sub- 
stratum — 

Chewacia silt loam.* 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam. 

Huntington gravelly loam. 

Huntington silt loam. 

Hinitington silt loam, local alluvium. 

Largent silt loam."" 

Lindside silt loam.* 

Lindside silt loam, local alluvium.'' 

Philo silt loam.* 

Pope gravelly loam. 

Pope silt loam. 

Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes.* 

Irrigation soil group 4: Well-drained to excessively drained, medium- 
textured soils over fragmented bedrock at a depth of 18 to 24 inches — 
Berks channery loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 



per hour 

0. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
. 5 

1. 
1. 
1. 

. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
1. 
. 5 



. 3 
. 3 
. 3 
. 3 
. 3 
. 5 
. 5 
. 3 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Ladino clover 

Grass mi.xturc 

Irish potatoes 

Tomatoes 

Brambles 

Orchards (with cover) 

Orchards (without cover) 



Inches 



Truck group 1 
Truck group 2 
Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Ladino clover- 
Grass mixture. 
Tomatoes 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Ladino clover 

Grass mixture 

Irish potatoes 

Tomatoes 

Brambles 

Orchards (with cover) 

Orchards (without cover) 



Truck group 1 
Truck group 2 
Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Ladino clover. 



12 
13 
18 
24 
18 
27 
18 
18 
18 
24 
24 
27 
27 



12 
15 
18 
20 
20 
18 
18 
20 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
27 
18 
18 
24 
24 
24 
27 
27 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
24 
18 



See footnotes at end of table. 



WASHIXCTON COUNTY, MAI{VL\M) 



11.-) 



'r.Mii.K S. I ii i(i(tlion soil (jioiips, in'l/t dihi />/((/ mips n/id c(itaiii malcr rcldtionship.'i^- ( oiil iiincd 



Ii iifj,:i(ii)ii suil groiij) iiiid naiiu's of soil.s in each group 



Maximum 
rule of 

ajjjjlicii- 
lion on 

flatland ^ 



Crops locally adajjlcd 
for irritjal ion 



Average 
depth of 
soil to 
be irri- 
gated 



Irrigation soil group 4 — Continued 

Ucrks shalv silt loam, 15 to S percent slojM's, moderately eroded. 
Berks sluily silt loam, S to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, nuxlerately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin-Berks channery loams, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 10 to 20 jjercent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes. 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded.^ 
Litz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes. 

Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent slopes. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, to 20 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 

Irrigation soil group 5: Well-drained loams and silt loams with moder- 
ately fine subsoil underlain by bedrock or unconsolidated material — 
Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Dufficld silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, to 12 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 
erately eroded. 

Elliber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Etowah silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent slopes. 

Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Faucjuier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Inches 
per hour 

0. 6 
. 3 
. 3 
. 6 
. 3 



Inchtg 



Grass mixture 

Tomatoes 

Brambles 

Orchards (with cover) 

Orchards (without cover). 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

Alfalfa 

Ladino clover 

Grass mixture 

Irish potatoes 

Tomatoes 

Brambles 

Orchards (with cover) 

Orchards (without cover) 



18 
24 
24 
24 
24 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
27 
18 
18 
24 
24 
24 
27 
27 



110 SOIL SUKVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 

Table 8. — Irrigation soil groups with adapted crops and certain water relationships ' — Continuod 



Irrigation soil group and names of soils in each groiij) 



Maximum 
rate of 
applica- 
tion on 
flalland ^ 



Crops locally adapted 
for irrigation 



Average 
depth of 
soil to 
be irri- 
gated 



Average 
available 
moisture 
capacity 
to dei>th 
indicated ^ 



Irrigation soil group 5 — ('onlinued 

Frankstown and Dullield channery silt loams, S to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent sloi)es. 

Ilagcrstown silt loam, to 8 ])ercent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 
lligiifield gravelly loam, to 5 ])ercent slojjes. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 
llighfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 j^ercent slopes, moderately eroded, 
llolston gravelly loam, to 3 percent slojies. 

Holston gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 
llolston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Holston silt loam, to 3 ])ereent slopes. 

llolston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded, 
llolston silt loam, 8 to 15 ])ercent slopes, moderately eroded. 
I.aidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Tjaidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 ])ercent slo])es, moderately eroded. 
Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 jjcrcent slopes, moderately eroded. 
IMurrill gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Murrill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mnrrill silt loam, to 3 ))ercent slojjes. 

Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slo])es, moderately eroded. 
Alurrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, to 3 pcneent slopes. 

Alyersv-ille channerv loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Mj^ersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Thurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 jjercent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Thvirmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waj-nesboro gravelly loam, 8 to 15 [percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 jjercent slopes, moder- 
ately erod(>d. 

Irrigation soil group 6: Well-drained silt loams with a thick, very fine- 
textured subsoil underlain by bedrock — 

Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, S to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Inches 
per hour 



0. 3 

. 3 

. 3 

. 3 

. 3 

. 5 

. 5 

. 5 

. 3 

. 3 

. 3 

. 5 

. 3 



Inches 



Truck group 1 

Truck group 2 

Truck group 3 

Corn 

Sweet corn 

.Alfalfa 

Ladino clover 

Grass mixture 

Irish potatoes 

Tomatoes 

Brambles , - 

Orchards (with cover) 

Orchards (without cover) 



12 
15 
18 
24 
18 
27 
18 
18 
18 
24 
24 
27 
27 



See footnotes at end of table. 



WASllI.\(i COUNTY, MAHYLA.ND 

TAifiiK S. Iiii(j(tlii>n soil (jroups, vu'/li (nhiphil crojts (iiul ccrtdiii water relatiomhipH^ — Conliiiucd 



I 17 





Maximum 




.\ vorage 


Avcrugf! 




rate of 




depth of 


available 


Irrigation soil ihi'iil's of soils in cacli H'onj) 


api)lica- 


Crojjs locally adapted 


soil to 


moisture 


tion on 


for irrigation 


be irri- 


capacity 




flatland 




gated 


to depth 










indicated ' 




Tncfus 










peT hour 


Corn 


Inches 


Inchts 


Irrigation soil group 7: \\ Cll-draincfl siltv clay loams and clay loams with 


0. 3 


24 


4. 


a tine to \ ('ry line-text iirrd snl)soil nndcrlain by bedrock — 


. 3 


Hweet corn 


18 


3. 


Henevola cla\' loam, to percent slopes 


. 5 


Alfalfa 


27 


4. 5 


Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


. 5 


Ladino clover 


18 


3. 


Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, nioderateh' eroded. 


. 5 


Grass mixture.. - . 


18 


3. 


Corydon clay loam, to '.i i)ercent slopes. 


. 3 


Irish potatoes . 


18 


3. 


Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 jxjrcent slopes, moderately eroded. 


. 3 


Tomatoes 


24 


4. 


Corydon clay loam, 8 to 1 5 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


. 3 


Brambles 


24 


4. 


Hagerstown clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 


. 5 


Orchards (with cover) 


27 


4. 5 


Ilagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


. 3 


Orchards (without cover).. 


27 


4. 5 


Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 1 5 jjcrcent slojies, moderately eroded. 








Hagerstown silty clay loam, (1 to 3 percent slopes. 










Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 










Hagerstown silty clay loam, S to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 











' Only the best croplands of Washington County, moderately 
well drained or better, and suitable for more or less continuous 
cultivation (capability classes I, II, and III) are listed in this 
table. Xo severely eroded soils are listed. 

2 Maximum rates of water application do not apply, except 
under ideal conditions on flatlands. The application must be 
reduced to suit specific site conditions based on soil structure, 
slope, erosion, cropping system, past history of the area to be irri- 
gated, and othe factors. 

^ The figures for available moisture capacities are strictly esti- 
mates, and these are intended to be averages for all soils of the 
group. There are some variations between soils within a group, 
particularly between those of different structure or different slope 
and degrees of erosion. 



* These soils are only moderately well drained at best. Adequate 
artificial drainage practices must be applied, in most instances, 
to make these soils suitable for irrigation. These soils are not 
considered suitable for alfalfa, Irish potatoes, brambles, or orchards. 

* All soils of this group will need adequate artificial drainage to 
make them suitable for irrigation. They are not considered suitable 
for alfalfa, Ii-ish potatoes, brambles, or orchards. 

" The Hazel channery silt loam is seldom much more than 12 
inches deep over bedrock. If irrigation is to be used on this soil, 
no more water should be applied than can be stored within this 
12-inch surface layer. 



Many individual householders, particularly in suburbs 
of great cities, have built septic tank systems that later 
failed. Most of the failures occurred during wet seasons. 
Some of them occurred after an initial period during 
which the system appeared to function properly. In- 
vestigations have disclosed tliat many, if not nearly all, 
of these failures occurred in soils that are not well drained 
or that contain a dense or fine-texttired subsoil. In such 
a soil the movement of effluent liquid from a septic tank 
is slow. In wet weather and for a long time after wet 
weather, the soil is saturated, the water table stands near 
the surface, and there is no available space for the 
effluent. JNIany a householder has discovered, to his dis- 
may, that a septic tank installed during dry weather 
failed to function after any considerable period of rain. 

Other failures have occurred where the soil is steep 
(generally more than 8 percent slope), shallow to bedrock 
or to a dense substratum, or subject to seasonal flooding 
by overflowing streams. Such failures have been fewer, 
however, than those resulting from a water table or a 
slowly permea1)le soil because they have been more readily 
foreseen. 

Soil scientists, health officers, and others have worked 
together to find out the significance of soil characteristics 
that can be observed before a septic tank is installed. 
The factors that limit and tliose that favor the function- 
ing of septic tanks have been used to characterize, at 
least in part, the soils of Washington County. Ex- 



perience has shown that modern soil survey maps, the 
kind published with this report, can be used to predict 
the behavior of a septic tank system with a high degree 
of accuracy. It is always necessary, however, to examine 
the soil at the exact site. A small, included area of an 
unfavorable soil, too small to be shown on the map, might 
be there. 

The general suitabilities of soils for septic tank sites 
are indicated in column 5 of table 7. However, it is 
explained in a footnote to table 7 that ratings of fair 
or good, as given in the table, should apply only to the 
areas of slopes of not more than 8 percent. These ratings 
are recorded alphabetically by soil series in table 7; hence, 
no particular classification or grouping is apparent there. 

The soils of AVashington County have also been grouped 
as to their suitability for sewage disposal. Eight groups 
have been made for this purpose. 

SOIL GROUP 1 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

The soils of group 1 for sewage disposal have few, 
if any, limitations for this use. They are deep, well- 
drained soils over a friable substratum that consists of 
deeply weathered rock or other unconsolidated materials. 
There is no hindrance to the movement of water or of 
effluent, normally, to a depth of at least 6 feet. There 
are few, if any, failures of individual tanks on these soils. 
Some of the soils have a rather fine-textured sitbsoil that 
is somewhat limited in permeability. 



118 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 195 9, NO. 17 



Although there should be no difficulty with an in- 
dividual, family-size septic tank, it is possible that dif- 
ficidty might develop if a number of tanks were con- 
centrated in a small area. This might occur where lots 
are small, as in a closely spaced residential development. 
The soils in this group that might develop dilHculties 
uiuler such conditions are those of the Benevola, Etowah, 
and Ilagerstown series, and perhaps some areas of soils 
of the Duffield, Frankstown, and Murrill series. It 
should also be pointed out that occasional ledges of lime- 
stone may be encountered in some of the soils in group 1. 
Ledges will help determine the exact location of an 
individual septic tank. 

Tlie soils in group 1 for sewage disposal are given in 
the following list. A few of the soils have slopes greater 
than 8 percent, but tlieir characteristics fit better with 
soils of this group than witli any other. 

Benevola clay loam, to 8 percent slopes. 

Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent sloi)es, moderately eroded. 

Braddock and Tliurnkont sraveliy loams, 3 to S percent slopes, 

miideiately eroded. 
Unttield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Duffield silt loam. 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Edgemont and Laidis channery loams, to 12 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and I^aidis very stony loams, to 5 percent slopes. 
Etowab gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Etowah gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Etowah silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Fauquier channery loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Faucpiier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 3 percent 
slopes. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 3 to 8 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, to 8 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Hagerstowu clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Hagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown, Corydou, and Duffield very rocky silt loams, to 3 

percent slopes. 
Highfleld gravelly loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Highfield gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Highfleld very stony loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Holston gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Holston gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes. 
Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 1.5 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Holston silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Holston silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Laidig gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Laidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Murrill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes. 
Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Myersville channery loam, to 3 percent .slopes. 
Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 



Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, .sevei-ely 
eroded. 

Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent .slopes, moderately eroded. 
Tliurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, nuMlerately 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 peix-ent slopes. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, to 10 jierccnt slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

SOIL GROUP 2 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
The soils of grouj) 2 for sewage dis[)()sal have the same 
general characteristics as those of group 1, except that 
the slopes of nearly all of them are between 8 and 15 per- 
cent. The steeper soils are less desirable for sewage dis- 
posal fields than those of group 1. There is greater 
danger of downslope pollution, and the slope increases 
the costs of excavating and grading. Tlie soils of the 
Benevola, Duffield, Etowah, Frankstown, Hagerstown, 
and ^furrill series are somewhat less favorable than the 
other soils of the group. In spite of these limitations, the 
soils of group 2 for sewage disposal are rated as fairly 
suitable for this purpose. 

Some of the soils in group 2 have a range of slope 
less than 8 percent or greater than 15 percent, but their 
characteristics fit better with soils of this group than 
with any other. 

Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Benevola clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, .severely eroded. 
Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Duffield extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 percent slopes. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Duffield silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes. 
Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 20 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
EUiber cherty loam, 5 to 12 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Etowah silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Fauquier channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 8 to 15 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 1.5 percent slopes, 

severely eroded. 

Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Holston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Holston gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



IIolsloii silt loiiin, 8 to 15 porcoiit slopes, inodcrjiloly eroded, 
liiiidi}; Ki'avelly loiiin, 8 to 15 i)erceiit sloiics, iiioderalely eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 iiereeut sloj)e8, moderately eroded. 
]M\irrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 i)ereeiit sIoik's, severely 
eroded. 

.Mm-rill sill luaiii, 8 to 15 jierceiit slopes, iiiodoi'ately eroded. 
-Myersville chaiiiiery Iciam. Id l<i lid jxTceiit slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville silt loam. Id to 20 percent slojies, moderately eroded. 
'I'alladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Tluirmout gravelly loam, S to 15 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Waynesboro gi-avelly loam. S to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

A\'a.\ nesboro gravelly loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Westmoreland cliannery silt loam. 10 to 20 percent slopes, 

modi'rati'ly eroded. 
Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 percent sloi)es, severely 

eroded. 

SOIL GROUP 3 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

Tlie soils of jjroup 3 for sewage disposal are of poor to 
very poor suitability for this purpose because they are too 
steep. In some selected spots, if a very large area is 
available for dispersal, some successful disposal units 
miglit be established. In general, however, the soils of 
this group should be avoided in selecting sites for septic 
tanks. 

Most of the soils in group 3 have slopes greater than 
15 percent. Several of the mapi^ing units include some 
soils having gentler slopes, but they are so stony or sev- 
erely eroded that they fit with the steeper soils in their 
suitability for sewage disposal. 

Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, to 25 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 45 to 60 percent 
slopes. 

Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, to 25 percent slopes. 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 
Dufiield silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 35 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 35 to GO percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 percent slopes. 

Frankstown extremely rocky silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 

Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent 

slopes, severely eroded. 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Frederick cherty silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam, to 25 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 



Hagerstown extremely rocky .soils, 25 to 45 percent slojies. 
Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slojies, moderately <'rode:l. 
Hagerstown silty day loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slopes, modrTately 
eroded. 

Hagerstown \ery rocky silt loam, 15 to 15 jiercent slojies, moder- 
atel.v eroded. 

Hagerstown vei'.v rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 15 jiercent slojies, 

mo(leralel.v eroded. 
Hagerstown ver.v rock.v soils, 45 to 55 jiercent slopes. 
Hagerstown and Dullield silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slojies, 

moderately erode(l. 
Higlilii'ld gravelly l<iani. 2d to jiei-i-eiit sbijies, iijoderatel.v 

eroded. 

Higlitield very stony loam, 5 to 30 jiercent slojies. 
Iliglilield very stony loam, 30 to 45 jiercent slojies. 
Hoist on gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slojies, .severely eroded. 
Holston gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
er<ide(l. 

Holston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slojies, moderately eroded. 
Laidig gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slojies, moderately eroded. 
I..il(lig very stony loam, 8 to 25 jiercent slojies. 
I.aidig very stony loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slojies, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravell.v loam, 25 to 45 percent slojies, moderately eroded. 
Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slopes, moderately 
er<i(led. 

!Miu-rill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

^Myersville channery loam. 2d to 30 jiercent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville channery loam, 3d to 45 percent slojies, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville channery silt loam. 10 to .30 jiei-cent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Myersville ver.v stony loam, 30 to 55 percent slopes, eroded. 
Rocky eroded land. 
Stony rolling land. 
Stony steep land. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 10 to 20 

Jiercent slopes, severely eroded. 
Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 20 to 30 percent 

slopes. 

Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 20 to 45 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Westmoreland channery silt loam. 20 to 30 jiercent slopes, severe- 
ly eroded. 

SOIL GROUP 4 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
Soil group 4 for sewage disposal consists of shallow 
to moderately deep soils of the uplands; slopes are no 
greater than 8 to 10 percent. The soils are underlain by 
bedrock or by slowly permeable clay, generally within 
3 feet of the surface. They are not subject to flooding. 

Soils of group 4 are intermediate in their suitability 
for sewage disposal ; they can be rated as fair, although 
some spots are poor. These soils are well drained, and 
most of them are readily permeable, but they are under- 
lain by bedrock or by heavy clay at a shallow or moder- 
ate depth. There is not enough space between the surface 
and the bedi'ock or other dense substratum for a large 
amount of effluent. Some successful disposal units can be 
established on these soils, but the fields, in general, have to 



SOIL SUKXKV SKKIKS 1 !».")!>, JVO. 17 



be nuK'li larg-er tlian on the luoie suitable soils of sewage 
disposal soil group 1. Exaniiuation of the particular 
site is especially needed. There is danger of oversatura- 
tion of (he soil with sewage, and thus considerable danger 
of pollution of other soil areas and of water supplies. 
The CorvdoM and Dunniore soils are somewhat less per- 
nieabl(> tliau the other soils of this group. 

Rerks chaniuM-y loam, ridfjcs, to 10 percent .slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

P>i'rl<s slialy sill loam, to 8 i)erceiit slo])es. 

]!erl<s slialy silt loam, ;{ to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
I?erks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calvin channery line sandy loam, 'A to 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 i)ercent slopes, moderately erofled. 
Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent .slopes, moderately eroded. 
Calviii-Iierks cliannery loams, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo slialy loams, lo 10 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Chandler silt loam and cli.niiiery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes. 
Chandlei- silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 

moderately eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Corydon clay loam, 3 to S percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Litz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, to 10 percent slojjes. 

I;itz shaly loam. 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
l.itz-Teas ch.inni'i-y silt loams, to S percent slopes. 
Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent sloi)es, moderately eroded. 

SOIL GROUP 5 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

Soil gioup 5 for sewage disposal consists of soils that 
are like those of group 4, except in slope. Their slopes 
generally range from 8 to 20 percent. 

Soils of group 5 are very ))oor for sewage disposal. 
Lateral movement of eOluent is likely to be rapid. Thus, 
active organisms of the sewage can easily reach the sur- 
face by see])age and cause serious risk of pollution. 

Berks ( h.innery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 jjercont sloi)es, severely 
eroded. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks .silt loam, ridges. 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mocterately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent sl()i)es, moderately eroded. 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Calvin-Berks channery loams, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Berks thannery loams, 3 to 20 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Calvin-^Iontevallo shaly loams, 10 to 20 percent .slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Corydon extremely rocky clay loam. to 15 percent slopes. 
Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to lo percent slopes, moderately 

eroded. 

Faufiuier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 



Jjitz-Teas channery silt loams, 8 to i:> percent slojies, severely 
eroded. 

Montovallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 i)ercent slopes, moderately 
eroiled. 

SOIL GROUP G FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
Soil group 6 for sewage disposal consists of soils sim- 
ilar to those in groups 4 and 5, but the soils are so steep or 
so shallow as a result of erosion that they are almost 
entirely unsuitable for sewage disposal. Most of the 
slopes are greater than 15 percent. 

Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Berks shaly silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately erorle;!. 

Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

Berks soils, ridges, 30 to GO percent slopes. 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 i)ercent slopes. 

Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 

Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 

Calvin channery loam, 45 to GO percent slopes. 

Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 i)ercent slopes. 

Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 jiercent slojies. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 20 to .■'><) i>erceiit slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Berks channery loams, 30 to GO percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moder- 
ately eroded. 

Calvin-.Montevallo shaly loams. 20 to 45 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 30 tr) (iO percent slopes. 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 
Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Eroded land, shale and schist materials. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hazel channery silt loam. 10 to 20 i)ercent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 i>ercent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, 
liitz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent .slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 i)ercent sloiies, severely eroded, 
liitz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Litz shaly loam. 30 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Litz shaly loam, 45 to GO percent slopes. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams. 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely 
eroded. 

Litz-Teas channery silt loams. 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded. 
Montevallo shaly loam. 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded. 

SOIL GROUP 7 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 
Soil group 7 for sewage disposal contains soils that 
are very poor or unsuitable for this use. The soils have 
impeded drainage and a seasonally high water table, but 
they are not subject to flooding. 

The percentage of septic tanks that failed to function 
properly, as reported in Maryland, is greater on the soils 
of group 7 than on those of any other group. It can be 
predicted that, with few exceptions, septic tanks on these 
soils will fail. The soils have very slowly permeable 
subsoil of fine clay or dense, compact silt, or both. Water 
moves too slowly in these soils for the effluent to be ab- 
sorbed. Little movement can be observed except in the 
surface layer. It has been observed, for example, that 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAIO'LANI) 



121 



the surface layer can be saturated with water wliile the 
lower subsoil appears to be only moist. Apparoully, hllle 
water can iKMietrate into the subsoil or llir()u<i-]i it. 

'I'hc appearance of some of the soils of <»i'<)up 7 foi' sew- 
aiiv disposal can be extremely misleadinj^" to a casual or 
untrained observer. The soils are on u[)lands, ai e <>ent ly 
or moderately sloping, and ai)i)ear to be ideal homesites. 
No matter liow pleasant the landscape, liovvever, the soils 
are not suitable for disposal of sewage from septic tanks. 

The soils of group 7, fortunately, are not extensive. 
There are many small spots of them, however, in all parts 
of the county. Tlie spots are scattered in nearly all sec- 
tions, except in the great limestone valley. 

Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 perceut slopes. 
Kucluuiau liravelly loam, to 3 iXTcciit slopes. 
Bucluuiau iiravoUy loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Biieluuiaii gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Bueliaiian jiravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Landisburg cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Landisburg cherty silt k)am. 8 to 25 percent .slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Leadvale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongahela gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Alonongahela gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
Rohrersville silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately 
eroded. 

Tyler silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 

SOIL GROUP 8 FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

Soil group 8 for sewage disposal contains the soils that 
are subject to flooding and, hence, are unsuitable for this 
purpose regardless of their other characteristics. 

The Ashton soil of this group is well drained and lies 
above many minor floods, but it is likely to be flooded 
at high-water stages. The Congaree, Huntington, and 
Pope soils are less easily and less frequently flooded than 
the rest of the group, but the hazards on them are so 
great that septic tanks should not be installed, even 
though they might work satisfactorily for most of the 
year. 

Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes. 

Atkins silt loam. 

Chewacla gravelly sandy loam. 

Chewacla silt loam. 

Chewacla stony silt loam. 

Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam. 

Dunning and Mclvin silty clay loams. 

Huntington fine sandy loam. 

Huntington gravelly loam. 

Huntington silt loam. 

Huntington silt loam, local alluvium. 

Largent silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam. 

Lindside silt loam, local alluvium. 

Melvin silt loam. 

Philo gravelly sandy loam. 

Philo silt loam. 



Pope line sandy loam. 

Pope gravelly loam. 

Pope gravelly sandy loaitj. 

Pope silt loam. 

Pope stony gravelly lu.-mi. 

Terrace escarpments. 

Warnci's loam, to S iiercciit slopes. 

W'cliadkee silt loam. 

This grou[)ing of soils is a guide to Die po.ssibilities 
of sewage disposal in ^Vashington ("oimty. For any site 
that is doubtful, actual testing of the soil is essential before 
a disposal field is ])lanned. 

Use of the Soil Survey in 
Community Planning 

In planning and zoning activities, a county generally 
will benefit if a considerable part of the soils suitable 
for farming can be reserved for that purpose. However, 
as a rule, the soils that are best for farming are also good 
for l)uilding sites. An orderly plan for land use, made 
by the local people and their representatives, is desirable 
to prevent intensive competition for the best soils for 
different kinds of use. 

In the section preceding this one, the soils have been 
grouped according to their suitability for disposal of 
sewage, with special reference to the outflow from septic 
tanks. The same groups of soils can serve other purposes 
in planning uses of suburban land. 

Soil groups 1, 2, and 4 for sewage disposal include 
most of the soils that make the best farmland. The soils 
of these groups should be considered for permanent 
farming use as cropland or pasture. Some of the soils 
of group 8 also are valuable for farming, even though 
they are sometimes flooded. The Asht:on, Congaree, 
Huntington, and Pope soils of group 8 are in capability 
class I because they have few limitations of any kind 
for the production of crops. 

In suburban communities land is needed for public 
recreational uses. Within practical limits some of the 
soils, least valuable for farming, should be reserved for 
parks and other public areas. Soils of groups 3, 6, and 
7. and .some of those in group 8, can be used to good 
advantage for parks and recreation. 

The sloping and steep soils of groups 3 and 6 are 
almost ideal for parks and other recreational areas. Some 
of the steep soils have been eroded, and many areas are 
in woods. Steep hillsides and the adjoining narrow bot- 
tom lands are not well suited to use as farms or as build- 
ing lots. 

Parks should be kept in forests, insofar as possible. 
A few areas need to be cleared, and many could be re- 
forested. Reforestation increases esthetic values and also 
helps retard runoff, control erosion, and reduce the dan- 
ger of flooding. Protective vegetation is especially val- 
uable on the highly erodible soils of groups 3 and 6 for 
sewage disposal. 

Soils of group 7 for sewage disposal have a very slowly 
permeable subsoil and tend to be wet at times, some of 
them for a large part of the year. With good surface 
drainage and careful disposal of surface water, these 
soils can be used as residential sites, provided a com- 
plete sewage disposal system is installed so that owners 
will not have to depend on septic tanks. The soils of 



122 



SOIL SHUVKY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



group 7, particularly those that are in scattered, small 
areas, can also be used for small community parks. 

The soils of groups f, 5, and (> are rather shallow over 
hard rock. Tliese soils furnish excellent footings for 
industrial })lants or other heavy buildings. 

In any area the cost of revegetating or otherwise sta- 
bilizing cuts, fills, roadbanks and shoulders, and other 
disturbed areas can be an important item. One of the 
colnnms of table 7 indicates the general suitability of 
topsoil that can be obtained from each of the soils of 
the county. Use of good to])soil for facing disturbed 
areas helps in the diflicult task of establishing protec- 
tive vegetation on them. 

Formation and Classification of Soils 

Soils are the products of soil-forming processes acting 
on materials deposited or accumulated by geologic forces. 
The important factors in soil formation are ])arent ma- 
terial, cHmate, living organisms, topography, and time. 

Factors of Soil Formation 

Climate and living organisms, particularly vegetation, 
are the active forces in soil formation. Their effect on 
the parent material is modified by topography and by 
the length of time the parent material has been in place. 
The relative importance of each factor differs from ]>lace 
to })lace. Occasionally, one factor dominates and fixes 
most of the properties of the soil, but normally the in- 
teraction of all five factors determines what kind of soil 
develo])S in any given place. 

Parent material 

The soils of Washington County developed fi'om two 
general kinds of parent materials. The more extensiA e is 
residuum formed by the weathering of rocks in place. 
The other consists of sand, silt, clay, and rock fragments 
that were transported by water, wind, or gravity, or 
by a combination of these agents. 

The residual material was derived from many dif- 
ferent kinds of rocks. About one-twentieth of the county 
is underlain by rocks of igneous origin. But, at some time 
since their origin, they have been metamorphosed by 
heat, pressure, and movement into what are now the 
metabasalts, or so-called greenstones. Upon these rocks 
have been developed the soils of the Fauquier, Myers- 
ville, and Highfield series. The soils occur chiefly in 
Pleasant Valley and in the extreme northeastern part of 
the county along the Frederick County line. 

Most of the county is occupied by rocks originally of 
sedimentary origin. These rocks ai'e made up of fine- 
to coarse-grained materials that were deposited in bodies 
of water and subsequently transformed into rock by com- 
paction, cementation, and chemical and other consolida- 
tion processes over long periods of time. 

The unaltered sedimentary rocks are of various kinds. 
Limestone of various degrees of purity has produced 
parent materials of the Ilagerstown, Frankstown, Duf- 
field, Frederick, Dunmore, Elliber, Benevola, and Cory- 
don soils. The Litz soils are from slightly calcareous, 
gray shales. The INIontevallo soils are from acid, gray 
shales, the Berks soils from acid, yellow to brown shales, 



the Calvin soils from acid, red shales and sandstones, and 
the Teas soils from slightly calcareous, red shales and 
sandstones. Interbedded shales, sandstones, and lime- 
stones have produced tlie Westmoreland soils. Gray to 
yellow sandstones, in some places quartzitic, are the parent 
materials of the Dekalb and I^^etonia soils, and red sand- 
stones, the parent materials of the Lehew .soils. 

Other rocks of sedimentary origin have, in early geo- 
logic periods, been metamorphosed. Micaceous schists 
and phyllites have produced the Hazel and Chandler 
soils, and quartzites and (|uartzitic .sandstones are the 
parent materials of the Kdgemont soils. The Talladega 
.soils are also residual from micaceous schists, but they 
have been influenced by admixtures of sandstones and 
(juartzite. 

The second group of parent materials, as has already 
been noted, consists of those which have been transported. 
The areas of such deposits are along present or former 
watercourses, oi- in foot-slope accumulations of colluvial 
debris. 

On the most recent alluvial deposits are the flood-))hun 
soils of the Atkins, Chewacla, Congaree, l)unning, Hunt- 
ington, Largent, Lindside, Melvin, Philo, Po[)e, Warners, 
and Wehadkee series. On older alluvial deposits, which 
are now in terrace positions above present flood plains, 
are the soils of the Ashton, Etowah. Holston, Monon- 
gahela, Tyler, and Waynesboro series. 

Tlie soils occurring on deposits of colluvial debris of 
various kinds include those of the Braddock, Brinkerton, 
Buchanan, Landisburg, Leadvale, Laidig, Murrill, Roh- 
rersville, Thurmont, and Trego series. There is also some 
evidence that the Edgeniont soils of Washington County 
may be at least influenced by, if not partially derived 
from, colluvial materials. 

In age the parent materials of the soils of Washington 
County range from very young to very old. The alluvium 
deposited on the flood plains during Recent geologic time 
is the youngest parent material. New material is added 
to these deposits yearly by flooding or overwashing. 
Slightly older is the material on the terraces along major 
streams; it was deposited during the Pleistocene epoch. 
Shales and sandstones on Sideling Hill in the western 
part of the county are of Carboniferous age. Most of 
the shales and sandstones, and some of the limestones 
from Fairview Mountain westward, are Devonian, but 
some of them are even older, of the Silurian period. 
Most of the rocks of the Great Valley are Ordovician, 
but some are Cambrian, as are also the sedimentary rocks 
of South Mountain and Elk Ridge (4). Even older, 
probably Precambrian, are the metabasalts (5). 

Climate 

Washington County has a temperate, rather humid 
climate that is typical of the Middle Atlantic States. 
The average temperatures and the distribution of rain- 
fall are given in table 9. Throughout the county, climate 
has been a rather uniform factor in soil development. 
South Mountain and the other mountains and hills cause 
some obstruction to the movement of winds, clouds, and 
rainstorms. Thus, there is the possibility that some local 
areas might be in a rain-shadow position and might re- 
ceive less rainfall than is normal for the county as a 
whole. 



WASIIlNCroX COUNTY, MAIH I.A.NI) 



Tabi.e 9. — ■Temperature and precipitation at (Jhewsville 
Bri(l<i<port, Washington County, Md. 

ll'Mcx nlion, r)tiO fiTl I 



.Month 


Temperature ' 


Precipitation - 


Aver- 
age 


Abso- 
lute 
maxi- 
nmm 


Abso- 
lute 
mini- 
mum 


Aver- 
age 


Driest 
year 
(1930) 


Wet- 
test 
year 
(1952) 


Aver- 
age 

snow- 
fall 


December 

January. 
February 

Winter 

IMarch 

April 

May 

Spring 

June- 

Til 1 

July 

August _ - 

Summer 

September 

October 
November 

Fall 

Year 


"F. 
32. 9 

30. 8 

31. 2 


"F. 

72 
78 
76 


-13 
-27 
-20 


Inches 
2. 61 
2. 70 
2. 17 


Inches 

3. 46 
1. 45 
1. 25 


Inches 

2. 76 

3. 69 
1. 31 


Inches 

5. 3 
8. 3 
7. 6 


31. 6 


78 


-27 


7. 48 


6. 16 


7. 76 


21. 2 


41. 2 
50. 5 
61. 


88 
94 
96 


-7 
9 
23 


3. 01 

2. 97 

3. 52 


3. 45 
2. 49 
1. 92 


3. 29 
7. 80 
5. 53 


5. 2 
1. 


50. 9 


96 


-7 


9. 50 


7. 86 


16. 62 


6. 2 


69. 4 
74. 
71. 9 


100 
103 
104 


30 
42 
39 


4. 00 

3. 66 
3. 87 


5. 60 
. 69 
. 73 


3. 88 
2. 80 
2. 94 







71. 8 


104 


30 


11. 53 


7. 02 


9. 62 




65. 9 
54. 4 
43. 2 


99 
95 
83 


25 
19 
-4 


3. 07 
2. 97 
2. 26 


2. 81 
. 24 
. 48 


5. 58 
1. 27 

6. 07 


(?) 

. 1 
1. 


54. 5 


99 


-4 


8. 30 


3. 53 


12. 92 


1. 1 


52. 2 


104 


-27 


36. 81 


24. 57 


46. 92 


28. 5 



' Average temperature based on a 58-year record, tlirough 1935; 
highest and lowest temperatures on a 55-year record, through 1952. 

2 Average precipitation leased on a 58-year record, through 1955; 
wettest and driest years based on a 58-year record, in the period 
1889-1955; snowfall based on a 55-year record, through 1952. 

^ Trace. 

In a temperate climate tliere are generally leached, 
acid soils, and this is true in Washington County. INIany 
of the rocks have been weathered to a rather great depth. 
Some of the rocks not deeply weathered are highly re- 
sistant to the Aveathering processes, and, in some places, 
geologic erosion has kept pace with formation of the 
regolith. Althottgh large areas of soils in Washington 
County have l)een developed from limestone, in only a 
few minor places are there any free carbonates remain- 
ing in the soils. Most of the soils of the coimty are 
acid, whether they developed from acid rocks or from 
limestone, and many of them are strongly acid. Fertility 
levels range from very low to very high. Many of the 
less fertile soils can "be made productive with "^suitable 
management. 

Living organisms 

Before settlement of the county, the native vegetation 
made up most of the important living organisms that 
affected soil development. The activity of larger ani- 
mals was apparently of little importance, with soil ani- 
mals, such as earthworms, having a greater effect. The 
first settlers in the county found a dense cover of hard- 
wood forest. The oaks have been, at least in historic 



time, the domiiianl I ices in all sections of flie couiMy. 
Oilier imporlant (rccs included iiickory, cheslnnt, maple, 
dogwood, and a smaller number of other liardwoods. 'J'lie 
chestnut is no longei' pi-esent, e.xcept !is I'ccurring spi-outs 
from the bases of trees that were destroye*! by chestnut 
blight e;ii-lier in this century. It is doubtful if there 
were many conifers before the county was settled. 

Jfardwood trees are heavy feeders on calcium and other 
basic elements, liases are returned to the surfaf;e of the 
soil each year with leaf fall; when the leaves are decom- 
])osed, bases reenter the soil and are reutilized by plants. 
Thus, we have a never-ending base cycle, and soils in 
which the subsoil and pai-ent material furnish a gf)od 
supply of basic elements do not easily become highly 
leached under forest vegetation. After enough time, liow- 
ever, in a climate such as that of Washington County, 
all the soils will become leached. 

With the development of agriculture in Washington 
County, man has affected the character and composition 
of the soils. Primary effects have been altering of the 
surface by plowing and exposure of the surface to ac- 
celerated erosion. The clearing of forests, deep plowing, 
introduction of new crops, use of lime and fertilizer, and 
some artificial improvement of drainage will be reflected 
in the direction and rates of soil formation and in the 
fixture morphology of the soil. 

Topography 

There are three major physiographic divisions in 
Washington County. In the east there is the Blue Kidge 
(South Mountain) and the associated Elk Ridge, on and 
close to the county line. Then, there is the broad, shallow 
Great Valley with its gently rolling floor, extending west- 
ward to Fairview' Mountain. From the latter mountain 
westward to the encl of the county is a succession of low, 
but rather sharp, ridges with intervening small valleys 
or, in some places, merely ravines; this part is known as 
the Appalachian ridge and valley section. Each of these 
three great divisions is more or less sharply differentiated 
from the adjoining ones. 

Within each of the major physiographic areas, there 
are soils in three positions : Uplands, colluvial slopes and 
old stream terraces, and present flood plains. 

Among soils of the 24 series that developed in residuum 
from the upland rocks, differences as a rule are more 
closely related to the kind of rock than to topography. 
Within a soil series, however, the soils on steep slopes 
tend to be thinner over the rock than those on gentle 
slopes. 

In colluvial areas and on stream terraces, there is 
generally a relationship betw-een topography and soils. 
The ratlier highly oxidized Braddock soils and the less 
well-oxidized Thurmont soils occupy sloping to rolling 
topography where probably there has always been ade- 
quate runoff. In depressions, on similar materials, there 
have been developed the poorly drained Eohrersville 
soils, where not only fine materials, but also much seepage 
and runoff water, have accumulated. All of the soils 
of the Braddock, Thurmont, and Eohrersville series are 
on essentially the same kind of parent materials, so the 
differences cannot be attributed to parent material. The 
most obvious explanation is that of differences in topog- 
raphy. 



124 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



The samo relatioiisliip is essentially true on some of 
(lie old alhn ial (erraces. llolston soils, wliicli are niod- 
erately oxidized, and (he Waynesboro soils, which are 
highly oxidized, occupy the better drained positions; 
IMonongahela soils have developed where topography en- 
couraged the formation of a dense layer called a fragi- 
pan, aixl 'J\ler soils have developed on the finest grained 
ma(erials in de[)ressions and other low places. All of 
these soils have been formed in alluvium from acid 
sandstones and shales. The dillerences in drainage have 
resuKed from dillerences in prolile development as in- 
liueiiced by topograi)hy. 

Time 

The lengtli of time the parent material has been in 
[)lace and exposed to the active forces of climate and 
vegetation is an important, factor in soil formation. The 
age of a soil, however, refers to its degree of profile 
development and is influenced by other factors as well 
as by time. A mature soil is one that has well-defined, 
genetically related horizons; an immature soil is one that 
shows little or no horizonat ion. Hecause of diffei'ences 
in topography and parent material, soils that have been 
developing for about the same length of time will not 
necessarily have reached the same stage of profile devel- 
opment. If the parent rock is resistant and weathers 
slowly, profile development is slow. If the slope is steep, 
some soil is gradually removed, and manj^ of the soils 
lack well-defined horizons. On flood plains, frequent de- 
position of fresh alluvium prevents the development of a 
mature profile. 

In Washington County the Fau([uier soils and the 
ITagerstown soils of the uplands are examples of mature 
soils; in them, the rate of weathering and soil formation 
exceeds the rate of geologic erosion. The Hazel soils of 
tlie upland slopes are very immature; in them, the rate 
of weathering of the resistant material is slow and is 
exceeded by the rate of geologic erosion. The Pope soils 
of the flood plains are immature because their parent 
material is continually renewed. 

Morphology of Soils 

Some soils of Washington County liave moderate to 
strong horizonation, but the younger soils, in both allu- 
vial and residual materials, show very little horizonation. 

The dift'erentiation of horizons in soils of the county 
is the result of one or more of the following major proc- 
esses: (1) Accumulation of organic matter, (2) leaching 
of carbonates and salts, (3) chemical weathering of the 
primary minerals of rocks and parent materials into 
silicate clay minerals, (4) translocation of sihcate clay 
minerals, and probably of some silt-size particles, from 
one hoi-izon to another, and (5) chemical reduction and 
transfer of iron. 

In most soils of the county, several of these processes 
have operated in the development of horizons. For exam- 
ple, the first four processes are reflected in the strong 
horizons of such deep, well-drained soils as those of the 
Fauquier, HagerstoAvn, and Dunmore series, and all five 
processes have had effects on soils of the Monongahela. 
Leadvale, and Trego series. On the other hand, only 
processes 1 and 5 have had much effect on the Melvin, 



Wehadkee, and Atkins soils, and some oi-ganic accumula- 
tion (process 1) is the only ob\ious process in the Pope. 
Huntington, and (>)ngaree soils. On these soils, however, 
any of the processes mentioned above may have taken 
place in the soil materials before they were moved and 
deposited as new alluvium. 

Some organic matter accumulated in all of the soils of 
Washington County to form an A, lioriztju. The Aj hori- 
zon is thin in most soils, and in the plowed soils it has 
lost its identity to become an Ap or part of the Ap 
horizon. In a few soils, such as the Dumiing, the Ai 
horizon is thicker than the plowed layer. Tlie amount of 
organic matter ranges from very low to moderately high. 
The soils of the Montevallo series contain so little or- 
ganic matter that even in the unidowed soils it is scarcely 
apparent. The Dumiing soils lia\ e a thick, prominent Ai 
horizon that contains perhaps as much as 5 percent or- 
ganic matter. 

Leaching has translocated minerals in most of the soils 
in the county. The carbonates have been completely 
leached out of the A and B horizons of all the soils, except 
those of two series. The Warnei-s soils and some areas of 
the Melvin soils contain lime. There are some free car- 
bonates in the Afelx in, and the Warners soils are marly and 
calcareous tliroughout. P>o(h consist of very recently de- 
posi(ed material, and there has l^een some rei)leiiisliment 
of carl)onates to ofl'set removal of carbonates by leach- 
ing. Some other soils of the county, particularly those 
of the Lindside series, contain a large amoimt of ex- 
changeable calcium, but have no free carbonates. All of 
these soils are young, and they would become leached 
if they did not receive neutral or lime-bearing sediments 
from time to time. 

The result of complete weathering in this environment 
would be the production of clay that is dominantly 
kaolinite (3). Actually, although kaolinite is probably 
the most characteristic clay mineral in mature soils of 
this area, other clay minerals, such as halloysite, illite, 
vermiculite, and montmorillonite, are also present in 
many of the soils. Their presence shows that in spite of 
the long exposure of minerals during geologic time, 
the weathering processes have not yet reached their end 
point. The processes may have reached a point where 
the soils and their accompanying chemical processes are 
in at least temporary equililn-ium with the environment. 

Translocation of silicate clay minerals has contributed 
strongly to the development of horizons in most of the 
soils oif the comity. Silicates have been removed, in 
part, from the A horizon of the soils and have become 
partly immobilized in the B horizon. This is true in all 
the soils that have a textural B horizon, and is probably 
true to some slight degree in soils that do not ha^-e a 
distinct textural B horizon. The effects of translocation 
are illustrated most strongly in the soils that have a 
fine-textured B horizon, such as those of the Fauquier, 
Waynesboro, Hagerstown, and particularly of the Brin- 
kerton and Dunmore series. 

The solution and transfer of iron have occurred to 
some degree in all the soils, and particularly in the wet 
soils. The formation of reduced iron compounds that 
give the soil a neutral gray color is known as gleying. 
In soils of the Dunning, Brinkerton. Atkins, Melvin, 
Tyler, and Wehadkee series, there has been considei-able 



WASHINGTON' COUNTY, MARYLAND 



12.') 



cincnl dl' ii'oii. In llu' dv'wv soils, iiiov I'inciil of iron 

has been loss inarkiHl, <iviu'i':illy llirrc Ims liccii \ c 

jiuMit J'roni Ihe A to tlx' H liorizon. 

In some of the «ivntly slopino- and sli«ililiy (U'pivssed 
soils, there has been arcunmlation of flay niinerals and 
of silt in the subsoil. This accumulation briniis about Ihe 
formation of a horizon, generally a part of the 15 horizon, 
that is very dense and compact. This horizon can be 
either a claypan or a fragipan. A claypan is a dense 
subsoil horizon that has a high content of clay, such as 
the subsoil in Tyler soils. A fragipan is a firm, dense, 
brittle horizon that, as a rule, contains more silt and sand 
thau clay. The Jiuchanan, Landisburg, Leadvale, ^lonon- 
gahela, Kohrersville, and Trego soils are examples of 
those containing a fragipan. Either claypan or fragipan 
causes impeded drainage, which in turn brings about the 
reduction and transfer of iron or the gleying that was 
mentioned in the preceding pai-agra])h. 

Iron that is reduced under conditions of poor aeration 
usually is made soluble. It may be removed from the soil 
entirely. Counnonly, however, in the soils of Washing- 
ton County, it has moved only a short distance and may 
have stopped either in the same horizon where it origi- 
nated or in another nearby horizon. Part of this iron 
may become reoxidized and segregated to form the yel- 
lowish-red. strong-brown, or yellowish-brown mottlings 
that are connnon in the gleyed horizons of soils and indi- 
cate impeded drainage. 

When })rimarv minerals are changed to silicate clay, 
there is usually some iron set free as a hydrated oxide. 
Depending upon the degree of hydration, these oxides 
are more or less red in color. A small amoiuit of these 
oxides is sufficient to color a soil strongly, particulai-ly 
where silicate clay minerals are not in great abundance 
and where the parent materials ai*e fairly coarse in tex- 
ture. Under these conditions, a strongly colored subsoil, 
or "color B'' horizon, is formed, even though there may 
not have been enough accumulation of clay minerals to 
form a textural B horizon. 

In Washington County a B horizon that has strong- 
red colors, which indicate the presence of free iron oxides, 
is generally also a strong textural B horizon that contains 
a definite accumulation of silicate clay minerals. The 
most strongly developed B horizons in the county are 
those in the Etowali, Fauquier, Hagerstown, Waynes- 
boro, and Benevola soils. 

A detailed description of one representative profile of 
each soil series of the county is given in this repor-t in 
the section "Descriptions of the Soils."' 

Classification of Soils by 
Great Soil Groups 

Soils are placed in narrow classes to facilitate the 
organization and application of knowledge about their 
use and management on individual farms. They are 
placed in broad, inclusive classes to facilitate study and 
comparison of large areas, such as countries or continents. 
In the comprehensive system of soil classification that has 
been followed in the United States (2), the soils have 
been placed in six categories. Beginning with the most 
inclusi^-e category, these are the order, suborder, gi-eat 
soil group, family, series, and type. 



There arc ihrcc soil orders and thousands of soil types. 
'I1ie concepts of subordei' and family liave never been 
fully developed. The tyju' and the series are llie cate- 
gories most conunonly usetl in discussing the soils of a 
county or other small area. Series that are alike in sev- 
eral chai-acterist ics are classified as one great soil gi-r)U|). 

The great soil groups that are presently recognized 
in Washington County are Sols liiains Acides, Podzols, 
Gray-Brown Podzolic soils, Ked- Yellow Podzolic soils, 
Eeddish-Brown Lateritic soils, Planosols, Humic Gley 
soils, Ijow-Ilumic (xley soils, TJthosols, and Alluvial soils. 
Many of the soils do not fit the modal or central concept 
of any one great soil group. These soils, wliich are called 
intergrades, have enough characteristics of a gi\en great 
soil group to be included in that group, but they have 
one or more characteristics of another group. One great 
soil group toward which some of the soils of the county 
iutergrade is the group of Terra Rossa soils. 

Sols Bruns Acides 

Sols Bruns Acides liave a weak Ai horizon and a M-ry 
weak A2 horizon, or none at all. The B horizon is dif- 
ferentiated almost entirely by color, and its clay content 
is the same or only slightly higher or lower than that of 
the horizons above and below. By definition, the B hori- 
zon is redder or higher in chroma than the A and C' 
liorizons. Also, there is little structural development or 
differentiation. These soils have a low degree of base 
saturation and are generally verj' strongly acid. 

Sols Bruns Acides are represented in Washington 
County by two series that are typical of this group. 
These are the Dekalb and Lehew series. 

Podzols 

Podzols have a thin, dark-colored Ai horizon, a liglit- 
gray An horizon a few inches thick, and a brown or 
dai'k-brown Bo horizon over lighter colored parent mate- 
rial. The A2 horizon is strongly leached, and the B^ 
horizon is a zone of accumulation of iron, organic matter, 
or both. The degree of base saturation is extremeh' low, 
and the soils are very strongly acid to extremely acid. 

There is only one Podzol in Washington County. This 
is the Leetonia series, found only at higher elevations on 
South Mountain. 

Gray-Brown Podzolic soils 

Of the 52 soil series of Washington County, 14 are 
dominated by characteristics of the great soil group 
known as Gray-Brown Podzolic soils. These soils are 
typical of forested, cool-temperate, humid regions. In 
the natural state, a Gray-Brown Podzolic soil has a fairly 
thin leaf litter and a rather thin humus layer over a 
dark-colored mineral surface layer. There is a grayish- 
brown leached subsurface horizon over a moderately 
heavy, blocky B horizon. The B horizon may be brown, 
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, or reddish bi-own. 
The profile is moderately thick to thick. Reaction is most 
commonly slightly acid, but may range from medium 
acid to neutral. 

Ordy one series of soils in Washington Coiuity is rep- 
resentative of the central concept of Gray-Brown Podzolic 
soils. This is the Duffield series, which consists of soils 
that developed from materials high in lime. The soils 
of 12 other series are classified as Gray-Brown Podzolic 



126 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 19 59, NO. 17 



soils, but tliey luive sonic cliurarteristics of other <>-rou[)s. 

The Edgemont, EUiher, Fiankstown, Frederick, 
Ilrtgerstown, Highlield, IMurrill, Myersville, and West- 
moreland series consist of Gray-Brown Podzolic soils 
that have some of the characteristics of Red-Yellow 
Podzolic soils. They are somewliat more strongly leached 
than typical (Iray-Brown Podzolic soils. The Ao horizon 
is more strongly bleached, and the B horizon is more 
red or yellow and less brown. These intergrades are 
characteristically more acid throughout lhan the modal 
Gray-Brown l*odzolic soils. 

The Berks soils are Gray-Brown Podzolic soils that 
have some of the characteristics of Lithosols. Lithosols 
are very immature soils being developed from hard rock 
material, and they do not have complete horizonation. 
The Berks soils are shallow over bedrock of shale and 
contain nuich skeletal shale material, but they do have 
a faint, though not distinct, B horizon of clay accumula- 
tion characteristic of the Gray-Brown Podzolic group. 

The Ashton series consists of young or immature Gray- 
Brown Podzolic soils being developed from fairly recent, 
though not contemporary, alluvium. Horizonation is 
w(>ak. The Ashton soils are said to be Gray-Brown Pod- 
zolic soils intergrading toward Alluvial soils. 

Red-Yellow Podzolic soils 

The central concept of this group is that of well- 
developed, well-drained, acid soils that have a thin, 
organic-mineral Ai horizon, a light-colored, bleached, 
and leaclied Ao horizon, and a I'ed, yellowish-red, reddish- 
yellow, or yellow, mucli liner textured B horizon. The 
pai'ent material is commonly, though not invariably, more 
or less siliceous: where it is thick, it is commonly marbled 
or otherwise variegated in color. The chroma of the B 
horizon is high, G or above. The reaction is normally 
sti'ongly acid or very strongly acid. 

Representative of the central concept of the Red-Yellow 
Podzolic soils are the Braddock, Dumnore, Ilolston, 
Thurmont, and Waynesboro series. Perhaps the morpho- 
logy of the Waynesboro series most nearly represents 
modal Red-Yellow Podzolic soils. 

Other soils of the Red- Yellow Podzolic great soil 
group are characterized by a fragipan horizon below the 
normal B horizon. These fragipans are dense, compact, 
platy in structure, normally highly silty, and slowlj^ or 
very slowly permeable to water. They obstruct the pene- 
tration and development of roots. INIost of them are only 
moderately well drained. Morphologically, the soils are 
typical Red- Yellow Podzolic soils, but they have also 
tlie fragipan horizon. In spite of drainage that is usually 
impeded, they are not said to be intergrades toward any 
other great soil group, but are simply known as Red- 
Yellow Podzolic soils with fragipans. 

The soils of Washington County that fall into this 
class are those of the Buchanan, Laidig, Landisburg, 
Leadvale, Monongahela, and Trego series. 

The soils of the Etowah and Fauquier series are inter- 
grades to the Reddish-Brown Lateritic group. The B 
horizon of these soils closely resembles that of Reddish- 
Brown Lateritic soils, which are normally found in sub- 
tropical or very warm-temperate climatic zones. These B 
horizons are red to dark red, fine textured, and pre- 
sumably contain free oxides of iron and aluminum. The 
subsoils are porous, and the soils are well drained. 



Reddish-Iirown Lateritic soils 

Reddish-Brown J^ateritic soils are closely related to, 
and have nuich the same geographic distribution as, the 
Red-Yellow I'odzolic soils. They have been formed from 
less siliceous parent matei-ial ; for example, from material 
weathered from basic rocks, such as basalt or limestone. 
Thus, the parent materials are commonly lower in quartz 
or its etjuivalent and higher in alkaline earth elements, 
such as calcium, than those giving rise to Retl- Yellow 
Podzolic soils. Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils have a 
thick, dark Ai horizon, lack Ao horizon, and are dark in 
color in the B horizon. Tlie degree of weathering of 
minerals in the soil profile is much the same as for Red- 
Yellow Podzolic soils. 

The Benevola series is tentatively classified as a 
Reddish-Brown Lateritic soil intergrading to the Terra 
Rossa group. Benevola soils are comparable to typical 
members of the group in features su(;h as color, texture, 
structure, and consistence of horizons in the solum. On 
the other hand, these horizons are less acid in reaction 
than those of typical Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils. 
Benevola soils have reddish-brown clay loam surface 
layers over dark-red clay subsoils that have conqjound 
blocky and granular stnicture. The subsoils are poi'ous, 
which is uncommon for clays that are firm when 
moist and sticky and plastic when wet. Overlying hard, 
sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone, Benevola soils 
are neutral to mildly alkaline in reaction throughout the 
solum. This is the reason for considering them inter- 
gi'ades to the Terra Rossa group, soils found in the 
credit erranean region of Europe and Africa, where cli- 
mates are much less humid and many soils are calcareous 
to the surface. 

Planosols 

The great soil group known as Planosols is defined as 
a group of soils having one or more horizons abruptly 
separated from, and sharply contrasting to, an adjacent 
liorizon because of cementation, compaction, or high clay 
content (8). 

There are two such soil series in Washington County, 
the Rohrersville and the Tyler. Each has a dense B 
horizon that causes the soil to be poorly drained. The 
Tyler soils have a clay B horizon, and the Rohrersville 
soils have a B horizon of compact, platy, silty clay loam 
to sand}' clay loam. 

Humic Gley soils 

Humic Gley soils are poorly drained or very poorly 
drained. They have a thick, prominent A horizon that 
has a high content of organic matter and a strongly 
reduced or mottled B horizon or subsoil. The mottling 
or gleying in some places extends upward into the lower 
part of the A horizon. 

Only one soil in Washington County is classified in the 
Humic Gley great soil group. This is the Dunning series, 
which contains the most poorly drained soils in the county. 
It occupies recent flood plains, but the soil materials have 
been in place long enough to have developed a character- 
istic Humic Gley profile. 

Low-Humic Gley soils 

This great soil group consists of poorly drained soils 
that normally have a thin surface horizon that is moder- 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MAHVLAM) 



127 



;i(('l_v lii<^h ill ()ri;;nnc iimltcr, and a molt led or "rlcycd 
mineral subsoil. 'Jlicre is <^i'iu'rally sonic Icxiiiral dif- 
IVriMil ia( ion bclwoon (he various horizons. Besides alluvia- 
tioii, (here is, in many places, .some surface :iccumula( ion 
of line ma(erial (hat washed in from adjacent hi<^lier 
areas. The Ijow-Iluniic Gley soils differ from the Ilumic 
Gley soils in that the hitter have a prominent A horizon 
that has a high content of organic matter, and a more 
strongly gleyed B horizon. 

Only one soil series in (he coun(y is in (lie Low-IIumic 
Gley great soil group. This is (he Brinker(()n series. The 
soils are wet much of the (ime; (lie high water table is 
a result of seepage. 

There are three poorly drained soils (hat have char- 
acteristics of the Low-Hvmiic Gley group but that grade 
toward Alluvial soils. These soils, of the Atkins, Melvin, 
and "Wehadkee series, consist of recently deposited flood- 
plain sediinen(s and are subject to frequent flooding or 
overwasli and (o deposition of new material on the surface. 

Lithosols 

A Lithosol has an incomplete solum or no clearly ex- 
pressed soil morphology. It consists of an imperfectly 
weathered mass of rock fragments, and normally has an 
incii)ient A horizon but no B horizon. Lithosols are 
generally confined to steeply sloping areas, or to areas 
of very resistant rock where geologic erosion has removed 
soil as fast as it was formed. 

Eight soil series in AVasliington County belong to this 
group, but onh^ three of them fit the central concept of 
Lithosols. These are the Chandler, Hazel, and Monte- 
vallo series. 

The Corydon series is a Lithosol with some additional 
characteristics of Gray-Brown Podzolic soils. It consists 
of sliallow clay loam underlain by and developing from 
limestone, and has a few to many rock outcro])s. It has 
a very weakly developed B horizon, somewhat like that 
in the Gray-Brown Podzolic soils. 

The Calvin, Litz, and Teas soils are Lithosols that inter- 
grade toward Sols Bruns Acides. They have a very 
weakly developed B horizon that resembles tliat of the 
Sols Bruns Acides. The normal or modal Talladega soil 
would be a true Lithosol, but only a thick variant is 
mapped in Washington County, and this variant is an 
intergrade toward Red- Yellow' Podzolic soils. 

Alluvial soils 

Alluvial soils consist of deposits of recent alluvium on 
flood plains. They have little, if any, horizonation or 
other significant observable effects of true soil-forming 
processes. Although they are composed of soil in the 
general agricultural sense, they are little more than parent 
materials in the genetic sense", even though the soil par- 
ticles may once have been parts of genetic soils at other 
locations. 

The Chewacla, Congaree, Huntington, Largent, Lind- 
side, Philo, Pope, and Warners series consist of Alluvial 
soils. The Congaree, Huntington, and Pope soils are 
deep and well di-ained. They have no horizonation, ex- 
cept for some slight accumulation of organic matter near 
the surface. They have no impediment to internal drain- 
age, although they may be in positions that are flooded. 

Soils of the Chewacla, Largent, Lindside, and Philo 
series are moderately well drained or somewhat poorly 

599553—62 9 



di'aiiied. I'x'caiise (he wa(er (al)l(' is high for a fairly 
large pari of each yeai', (here is some e\ ideiic(! of slight 
gleiza(ioii in (he lower ])ar( of (lie subsoil. TIk^v are, 
however, wi(hin (he ceiUral concept of Alluvial soils. 

The Warners soils have variable drainage; (hey are 
poorly drained in many places and modera(ely well drain- 
ed in others. They consist of marly alluvium tha( has 
been somewhat darkened in (he surface layer by organic 
ma((er, but (liey have little oilier e\ideiice of genetic 
horizonation. 



Literature Cited 

(1) Amehican Association of State Highway Officials. 

1955. standard specifications for highway materiai,s 

AND methods of SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 7, 

2 v., illus. 

(2) Baldwin, Mari^, Kellogg, Charles E., and Thorp, .Tames. 

1938. soil classification. In U.S. Dept. Agr. Ybk., 
Soils and Men, pp. 979-1001. 

(3) Brancato, G. N. 

1951. THE climate' of WASHINGTON COl'NTY. In The 

Physical Features of \\'ashington Count}-, pub- 
lished by the Maryland Board of Natural Re- 
sources, Dept. of GeoL, Mines and ^^'ater 
Resources, pp. 254-2(56. Waverly Press, Balti- 
more. 

(4) Cloos, Ernst. 

1951. stratigraphy of sedimentary rocks. In The 
Physical Features of Washington County, pub- 
lished by the Maryland Board of Natural Re- 
sources, Dept. of (ieol., Mines and Water 
Resources, pp. 17-94. Waverly Press, Balti- 
more. 

(5) 

1951. igneous rocks. In The Physical Features of 
Washington County, published by the Maryland 
Board of Natural Resources, Dept. of GeoL, 
Mines and Water Resources, pp. 95-97. Wav- 
erly Press, Baltimore. 

(6) Hamilton, A. B. 

1956. comparative census of Maryland agriculture 

BY counties. Univ. of Md. Ext. Serv., Misc. 
Ext. Pub. No. 32f, 52 pp. 

(7) Matthews, Earle D. 

1960. SOIL survey, FREDERICK COUNTY, MARYLAND. U.S. 

Dept. of Agr., Soil Conserv. Serv., in coop, with 
Maryland Agr. Expt. Sta., Soil Survev Ser. 1956, 
No. 15, 144 pp., illus. 

(8) Thorp, James, and Smith, Guy D. 

1949. HIGHER categories OF SOIL classification: order, 

SUBORDER, AND GREAT SOIL GROUPS. Soil Sci. 

67(2): 117-126. 

(9) U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

1951. soil survey manual. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handb. 18, 
503 pp., illus. [Replaces U.S. Dept. Agr. Misc. 
Pub. 274, the Soil Survey Manual Pub. 1937.] 
(10) Waterway's Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers. 

1953. UNIFIED SOIL classification system. Tech. Memo. 
No. 3-357, v. 1. 



Glossary 

AASHO classification (engineering). The system of soil classifi- 
( atidu (if the American Association of State Highway Officials. 

Alluvial soil. A soil ou a flood plain, consisting of essentially 
unaltered allnviniii. 

Alluvium. Fine material, as sand, silt, or clay, deposited on laud 
by streams or rivers. 

Bases. The positive, generally metallic elements or combination 
of elements that make up the nonacidic plant nutrients. The 
most important of these in plant nutrition include calcium 
(Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and ammonium 
(NHO. 



12.S 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



California bearing ratio (onKineering). Tlic rat io of I lie al)ilit.v 
ol' a soil lo support wciulii, lo ilial of a standard cnislicd 
liiiu'sloiH', lirst standardized in (.'alifornia : aljlircviatod CVAi. 
Thus, a soil with a ("HU of l(i would support 1C> lu'rcont 
of the load that would he suijported hy the crushed limestone, 
per unit area and with the same degree of distortion. 

Channery. Containing hetween 15 and 50 percent Hat fragments 
of sandstone, limestone, or schist uji to (i inches along the 
tlie longer axis. 

Clay. SnuiU mineral soil grains, less than ().()()2 millimeter 

( ().(i()(H)7!> ini-h) in diameter; individual grains generally in- 

\isilile ev(>n under an oi'dinary microst-op(>. 
Claypan. .V soil horizon or layer rich in clay and separale(l 

abruptly from the overlying layers; normally rather comi)act 

or massive. 

Cobbly. Containing hetween 1.") and SO jiercent rounded or par- 
tially rounded fragments of rock ranging from ;{ to 10 
inches in (liainet<>r. 

Colluvial fans and cones. Formations at the foot of a slope made 
up of ( (illinium. 

Colluvial .soil. A soil at a foot slope or in a depression, consisting 
of colhnium. 

Colluvium. Deposits of soil nuiterial and rock fragments accumu- 
lated at the bases of slopes through the influence of gravity, 
in s )me cases assisted by the How of water. Such dei)osits in 
some places are very small and local ; in other places, 
they are very hirge and extend for great distances out 
over \alley tloors. 

Complex, soil. An intimate mi.xture of areas of different soils, 
that cann.)t be indicated separately on a nuip of the scale 
used, and are therefore mapped together as a unit. 

Dispersion, soil. The breaking d(»wn of aggregated clumps of soil 
particles into individual grains of clay, silt, or sand. 

Diversion, or diversion terrace. Any ridge of earth, generally a 
terrace, that is built to divert runoff water from its natural 
course and. thus, lo pi-otect downslop(> areas from the effects 
of such runoff. 

Fragipan. A very compact soil horizon, rich in silt and generally 
relatively low in clay; normally, strongly platy in structure 
and interfering with the penetration of roots and water. 

Gleization or gleying. The reduction, translocation, and segrega- 
tion of soil compounds, notably of iron, normally in subsoils 
or substrata : a result of poor aeration and drainage, ex- 
liressed in the soil by mottled colors dominated by gray. 

Gravelly, (^)ntaining between 15 and 50 percent rounded or 
angular fragments of rock, not prominently flattened, up 
to 3 inches in diam(>ter. 

Great soil group. A broad group of soils having internal soil 
characltuistics in common. It includes one or more soil fam- 
ilies, and generally a great number of soil series. 

Hydrologic soil groups. Groups of soils having similar rates of 
inrtltration by water, even when wetter, and similar rates 
of water transmission within the soil. There ai-e four such 
groups of soils currently recognized by the Soil Conservation 
Service. 

Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate even when 
thoroughly wetted, consisting chiefly of deep, well- 
drained to excessively drained sand and/or gravel. 
These soils have a high rate of water transmission 
and will have a low runotf potential. 

Group B. Soils having a moderate inflltration rate when 
thoroughly wetted, consisting chiefly of moderately 
deep to deep, moderately well drained to well drained 
soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse tex- 
tures. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans- 
mission, and will have a moderate runoff potential. 

Group C. Soils having a slow inflltration rate when 
thoroughly wetted, consisting chiefly of (1) soils with 
a layer that impedes the downward movement of 
water, or (2) soils with moderately fine to fine tex- 
ture and slow infiltration rate. These soils have a slow 
rate of water transmission, and will have a high 
runoff potential. 

Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate when 
thoroughly wetted, consisting chiefly of (1) clay soils 
with a high swelling potential. (2) soils with a high 
permanent water table, (3) soils with a claypan or 
a clay layer at or near the surface, and (4) shallow 
soils over nearly impervious materials. These soils 



have a very .slow rate of water transmission, and will 
have a very high runoff potential. 

Igneous rock. A rock formed l>y the .solidilicat ion of molten jiri- 
m.iry rock material or magma. 

Internal drainage. That quality of .soil that jH-rmits the down- 
wai-d flow of excess water through it. 

Liquid limit. The moisture content at which a soil material 
passes from a jilastic to a liquid (free-flowing) state. 

Low-Humic (Jley soils. A great soil group in which the soils are 
characterized by a weak Ai horizon over a mottled or 
partially gleyed mineral B horizon that is normally some- 
what finer in texture than the A horizon. 

Maximum density. The greatest amount of soil that can be 
compacted into any unit of volume; oxi)res.sed as jxiunds 
of dry soil per cubic foot. 

Mechanical analysis of soil. The determination of the percentage 
of the soil particles of all sizes — gravels, sands, silts, clays, 
and all their standard subdivisions; based on the mineral soil 
only, free of wiiter and organic matter, drain .size refers to 
the size limits of any particular fraction of the si)il, and 
grain size dixtributio)! refers to the proportions of the 
various-sized fractions in tlie whole mineral soil. 

Metamorphic rocks. Rocks of any origin that have been so 
altered by heat, pressure, and movement that their j)hysical 
nature lias become completely changed. Such rocks are 
nearly always crystalline. 

Morphology, soil. The ])hysical constitution of the soil, expressed 
in the kinds of siil horizons, their thickness and arrange- 
ment in the itrolile, ami the texture, sti-ucture, consistence, 
porosit.v, and color of each horizon. 

Poorly graded (engineering). A soil consisting of particles chiefly 
of the same or very nearly the same size or diameter; having 
a narrow range of particle size and, thus, poor grain-size 
distribution. Such a soil can be increased in density only 
slightly hy compaction. 

Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity of the soil expressed in i)II 
\alues, or in words, as follows: 



/>// pH 

Kxtremely acid below 4..'5 Mildly alkaline 7.4 to 7.8 

Very strongly acid 4.5 to 5.0 Moderately alkaline 7.9 to 8.4 

Strongly acitl 5.1 to 5.5 Strongly .alkaline 8.5 to 9.0 

-Medium acid 5. G to 6.0 Very strongly alkaline 9.1 and 

Slightly acid 6.1 to 6.5 higher 

.Neutral G.6 to 7.3 



Ked-Yellow Podzolic soils. A great soil group in which the soils 
are characterized by a thin, organic-mineral Ai horizon, a light- 
colored, bleached, leached Aj horizrin, and a flner textured, I'ed 
to yellow B horizon ; acid ; base saturation in the B horizon 
is normally less than 35 percent and decreases with depth. 
Rocks. The principal kinds of rocks in this county are — 

Chert. A flintlike rock, generally found as an impurity in 

limestone or other sedimentary rocks. 
Limestone. A rock made up principally of calcium carbonate, 

or, in some cases, magnesium carbonate. 
Metaandesite. A metamorphosed igneous rock moterately 

rich in iron and other metallic elements ; chemically similar 

to andesite. 

Metabasalt. A metamorphosed igneous rock very rich in iron 
and other metallic elements; chemically .similar to basalt. 

Metarhyolite. A rock similar to metaandesite but lower in 
ircm and other metallic elements ; chemically similar to 
granite. 

Phyllite. Refers to the appearance or shape of a rock, mean- 
ing leaflike ; thin, flattened, and generally .slightly wavy 
or crinkled. 

Quartz. A mineral that consists of silica, Si02. 

Quartzite. A sandstone or other quartz-bearing rock that has 

been altered by heat and pressure mitil it is definitely 

fused. 

Sandstone. A rock made up chiefly of grains of silica sand 
cemented together. 

Schist. A rock, originally either sedimentary or igneous, that 
has been altered by heat and pressure until it is crystalline 
and has a foliated structure, and is more or less easily split 
into slabs or sheets. 

Shale. A rock made up of grains of silt or clay, or both, 
sometimes with a little sand, that have been cemented 
together ; normally occurs in masses of flattened fragments. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



120 



Sand. Ilock or ininoral fragineuts, visible to the normal naked 
vyo, l)(M\v(<(Mi 0.05 nnllinicter (0.002 inch) and 2.0 niiliuieter.s 
(O.OTl* iiirli) in (liuiiictor. As a textural class, a soil that is 
!)(> iiorcoiit or niori> .siuul. 

Sedimentary rock. Uock formed by the consolidation of any of 
many kinds of sedimenl. Sandstone, shale, and limestone are 
common sedimentary rocks. 

Shaly. Refers to .soil material of wliicli l.'j to 50 in'rccnt consists 
of flattened fra.uineiUs of sliale less than (! inches alons; the 
lons'er axis. A sin>;le i)iece is a shale fragment. I^arger frag- 
ments are fhn/s av fldt/stoHcs. 

Shrink-swell potential. Tli(> ability of a soil to lo.se Vdhinic willi 
a loss in water content and to gain volume with an increase 
in water content. 

Silt. Small naneral soil grains ranging from 0.002 nullimeter 
(O.OOOOTi) inch) to 0.05 millimeter (0.002 inch) in diameter; 
not visible to the naked eye but readily vi.sil)le under a 
microscope. 

Soil consistence. The characteristics of soil material that are 
expressed by the degree and kind of cohesion and adliesion, 
or by the resistance of the soil material to deformation or 
rupture. When dry, a sail is said to be loo.sc, soft, slightly 
hani, liiinl, rcnj hard, or c.rtrcinel ii hard. When moist, a soil 
is said to be loose, very friable, friable, firm, very firm, or 
extremely firm. When wet, a soil is said to be nonplustic, 
slifjhtJy i)lastic, plastic, or very plastic, and also nonsticky, 
slifihtlii sticky, sticky, or very sticky. 
Soil erosion. The removal of soil material by geologic agencies, 
principally wind and running water. Accelerated erosion refers 
to loss of soil material brought about by the activities of man. 
Soil erosion in Washington County is most commonly caused 
by water and can be classified as sheet erosion (the removal 
of soil material without the development of conspicuous 
channels), rill erosion (which produces small channels), and 
yiilly erosion (which produces large channels). 
Soil horizon. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the sur- 
face, having characteristics produced by soil-forming proc- 
esses and differing in one or more ways from adjacent horizons 
in the same soil profile. 
A horizon. The master horizon, consisting of (1) one or more 
mineral horizons of maximum organic accumulation; or (2) 
surface or subsurface horizons that are lighter in color than 
the underlying horizon and have lost clay minerals, iron, 
and aluminum, with resultant concentration of the more 
resistant minerals; or (3) hoi'izons belonging to both of 
these categories. 
B horizon. The master horizon of altered material characterized 
by (1) an accumulation of clay, iron, or aluminum, with 
accessory organic matter; or (2) blocky or prismatic struc- 
ture together with other characteristics, such as stronger 
colors, unlike those of the A horizon or the underlying 
horizons of nearly unchanged material; or (3) character- 
istics of both these categories. Commonly, the lower limit of 
the B horizon corresponds with the lower limit of the solum. 
C horizon. A layer of unconsolidated material, relatively little 
affected by organisms and presumed to be similar in 
chemical, physical, and mineralogical composition to the 
material from which at least a portion of the .solum has 
developed. 

D horizon. Any stratum underlying the C horizon, or the B if 
no C is present, which is unlike the C or unlike the material 
from which the solum has been formed. 

Any major horizon (A, B, C, or D) may or may not consist of 
two or more subdivisions or subhorizons, and each sub- 
horizon in turn may or may not have subdivisions. For the 
kinds of subdivisions that may exist, along with their 
designations and definitions, the reader is referred to the 
Soil Surve.v Mainial. 
Soil permeability. That quality of a soil that enables it to trans- 
mit water or air. 



Soil profile. A vcrlical section of IIji- miII lliioii;;b mII liorizons 
and extending into tiu! jiarent material. (See also I'arent 
material ; Soil horizon.) 

Soil series. A group of soils having the same profile character- 
istics, and the same general range in color, structure, con- 
sistence, and sequence of horizi>ns ; tin; same? general conditions 
of relief and drainage; and generally a common or similar 
origin ami mode of formation. 

Soil structure. The arrangement of the indi\i(lual soil particles 
into aggregates that ha\e definite sliape and pattern. Common 
kinds of structure in Washington (jounty are sini/lc f/rain, 
cnunh. (/raniilar, blocky, si< liinif/nlar hlockii, platy, and massive. 

Soil texture. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay jtar- 
ricles in the soil. A coarse-textured soil is one high in sand; 
a tine-textured soil coidains a large proportion of clay. (See 
Saiul; Silt; Clay.) 

Soil type. A subdivision of the soil series based on the texture 
of the surface soil; for example, in the Huntington .series in 
Wa.shington County there are 3 types — Huntington fine sandy 
loam, Huntington gravelly loam, and Huntington silt loam. 

Sols Bruns Acides. A great soil group in which the soils are 
characterized by a weak Ai horizon, a very weak A2 horizon or 
none, and a B horizon that is differentiated almost entirely 
by color ; no significant increase in clay minerals in the B 
horiz(ni as compared to the A horizon ; little structural 
development; low degree of base saturation and very strong 
acidity. 

Solum. The genetic soil developed by soil-fornuug processes ; the 
A and B horizons; does not include the parent material (C 
horizon) . 

Stony. Containing enough stones more than 10 inches in diameter 
to interfere with, but not prevent, cultivation of inlertilletl 
cro])s. A very stony soil contains enough stones to make 
tillage impractical and to bar the use of farm machinery. 

Subgrade (engineering). The substratmn, either in-place or fill 
material, prepared for highway construction : does not include 
stalnlized base course or actual paving materials. 

Subgrade modulus (engineering). The resistance of the soil to 
UTiit areas displacement under load, expressed in pounds per 
square inch. Hence, if a load of 1,000 pounds on 100 square 
inches of surface penetrates 1 inch, the modulus is 10. 

Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon of a soil ; in more general 
terms, that part of the soil profile below plow depth. 

Substratum. Any layer beneath the B horizon ; may be a con- 
forming (C) horizon or an unconforming (D) horizon. 

Surface soil. That part of the upper profile, to a depth of about 
8 inches, normally disturbed by plowing ; more technically, the 
A horizon. 

Terrace (geological). An old alluvial plain, commonly flat or 
smooth but in some places sloping and dissected, bordering a 
stream, a lake, or the sea ; frequently called a second bot- 
tom, as contrasted to the present flood plain ; seldom subject 
to overflow. 

Undifferentiated mapping unit. A soil mapping unit that consists 
of two or more soils or land tyijes that are not ordinarily 
geographically associated. 

Unified soil classification system (engineering). The system 
of mechanical soil classification of the Corps of Engineers, 
Department of the Army. Used by the Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice, The Bureau of Reclamation, and other agencies and 
organizations in works dealing with soils engineering. 

Upland (geological). Land consisting of materials unworked by 
water in recent geological time and ordinarily lying at higher 
elevations than the alluvial plains and the terraces. 

Well graded (engineering). A soil consisting of particles well 
distributed over a wide range hi size or diameter. Such a 
soil normally can be easily increased in density and bearing 
properties by compaction. 



130 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



CUIDK TO MAPPING UNITS 

[See table 4, p. 9, for the approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils, and table 5, p. 54, for estimated average acre yields. 
To learn about use of the soils for woodland, see the section beginning on p. 81 ; for information about the engineering uses of the soils, 
including us(> for irrigation and for sewage disposal, see the section beginning on p. 84. Dashes indicate soil not suitable for irrigation] 



Map 

symbol Mapping unit Page 

AsB Ashton fine sandy loam, to 5 percent slopes 13 

At .\tkins silt loam 14 

BaA Benevola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 15 

BaB2 Benevola clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 15 
ately eroded. 

BaC2 Benevola chiy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 15 
erately eroded. 

BaC3 Benevola clay loam, 8 to 1 5 jjercenl slopes, sev- 15 
erely eroded. 

BcB2 Berks channery loam, ridges, to 10 percent 15 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
BcC2 Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent 15 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
BcC3 Berks channery loam, ridges, 10 to 20 p(>rcent 15 

sloj)es, severely eroded. 
BcD2 Berks channery loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent 15 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

BeB Berks shaly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 15 

BeB2 Berks shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 16 

erately eroded. 

BeC2 Berks shaly silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 16 
erately eroded. 

BeD2 Berks slialy silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 16 

moderately eroded. 
BkB2 Berks silt loam, ridges, to 10 percent slopes, 16 

moderatelv eroded. 
BkC2 Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 16 

moderately eroded. 
BkC3 Berks silt loam, ridges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 16 

severely eroded. 

BkD2 Berks silt loam, ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 16 

moderately eroded. 
BoE3 Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percent slopes, sev- 16 

erely eroded. 

BoF Berks soils, ridges, 30 to 60 percent slopes 16 

BrB2 Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 3 to 8 17 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
BrC2 Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 8 to 15 17 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
BrD Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loams, 15 to 17 

25 percent slopes. 

BtB Brinkerton silt loam, to 8 percent slopes 17 

BuA Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes. _ 18 

BuB2 Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 18 

moderately eroded. 
BuC2 Buchanan gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 18 

moderately eroded. 
BuD2 Buchanan gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 18 

moderately eroded. 
CaB2 Calvin channery fine sandy loam. 3 to 10 percent 18 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
CcB2 Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 19 

moderately eroded. 
CcC2 Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 19 

moderately eroded. 
CcD Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes.. 19 

CcD2 Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, 19 

moderatel.v eroded. 
CcE Calvin channery loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes.. 19 

CcF Calvin channery loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes. . 19 

CmB2 Calvin shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, mod- 19 

erately eroded. 

CmC2 Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 19 
erately eroded. 

CmC3 Calvin shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, se- 19 
verely eroded. 

CmD Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes 19 

CmE Calvin shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes 19 

CnB2 Calvin-Berks channery loams, to 10 percent 19 
slopes, moderately eroded. 











Woodlnnd 




Seivage 




Capabilitij 




Irrigation 




suitubililjj 




disposal 




unit 


Page 


■soil group 


Page 


group 


Page 


group 


Page 


16 


65 


1 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


IIIw-l 


74 






FI 


82 




121 


IIs-1 


69 




1 17 


I'l 


82 


1 


1 17 


IIe-19 


68 




] 1 7 


11 


82 


1 


1 1 7 


IlIe-30 


73 


7 


1 17 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


I\'e-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 


IIs-7 


70 


4 


1 11 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IIIe-32 


73 


4 


1 14 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe-32 


77 








F2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe-32 


77 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


III.s-2 


74 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IIIs-2 


74 


4 


1 1 4 


F2 


83 


4 


1 19 


T\'e 32 




4 


1 1 4 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


Me-3 


78 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


IIs-7 


70 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


ITIe-32 


73 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe-32 


77 






r2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe~32 


77 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


Vne-3 


80 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


Vne-3 


80 






F3 


83 


6 


120 


IIe-4 




!; 
o 




Fl 


82 


1 


1 17 


Iire-4 


70 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


1 * e o 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


IIIw-1 


74 






Fl 


82 


7 


120 


IIw-1 


68 


2 


"ii4 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


JIe-13 


67 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


II]e-13 


72 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


IVe-9 


76 








F2 


83 


7 


120 


IIe-10 


67 


1 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IIe-10 


67 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IIIe-10 


71 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe-10 


76 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


IVe-10 


76 






F2 


83 


6 


120 


^Te-3 


78 






F2 


83 


6 


120 


Vne-3 


80 


. 




F2 


83 


6 


120 


IIIs-2 


74 




"114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IVe-32 


77 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


VIe-3 


78 






F2 


83 


5 


120 


VIe-3 


78 






F2 


83 


6 


120 


VIIe-3 


80 






F2 


83 


6 


120 


IIs-7 


70 


4 


'ii4 


F2 


83 


4 


119 



WASHINGTON rOTINTY, MAHYLANI) 



131 



GUIDK TO 



Map 

symbol Mtipiniiij iiiiil l'<i!l' 

CnC2 Ciilvin-R(M-ks phiuuu'ry loams, 10 to 20 pcrccnl 19 

slopes, inod(>rately eroded. 
CnC3 Calvin- Herks ehaiiiierv loams, 3 to 20 perccnl, Id 

slo])es, severely eroded. 
CnD2 Calviii-Herks ehainierv loams, 20 lo 30 pereeiil 19 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
CnF2 Calvin-Perks elia]ui(>rv loams. 30 to (iO percent, 10 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
CoB2 Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, to 10 |)ercent 10 

slopes, moderatelv eroded. 
CoC2 Calvin-Montnvallo shaly loams, 10 to 20 pereent 10 

slopes. moderat<>lv eroded. 
CoD2 Calvin-MoiHi-vallo shaly loams, 20 to 30 percent 10 

sk>pes, moderately eroded. 
CoE3 Calvin-Mont ewallo shaly loams, 20 to 45 percent 20 

slopes, severely eroded. 
CoF Calvin-.Montevallo shaly loams, 30 to 60 percent 20 

slo])es. 

CrB Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, to 20 

1(1 I ercenl sloja'S. 
CrB2 Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 3 to 20 

10 percent slo];es, moderatel\ eioded. 
CrC2 Cliandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 10 to 20 

20 percent slopes, nioderately eroded. 
CrD Chandler silt loam and channery silt loam, 20 to 20 

30 percent slopes. 

Cs Chewacla ijravellv sandy loam 21 

Ct Chewacla silt loain 21 

Cu Chewacla stony silt loam 21 

Cv Con'iaree silt loam and gravell}' loam 21 

CwA Corydon clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 22 

CwB2 Corydon clay loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 22 

ately eroded. 

CwC2 Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mod- 22 
erately eroded. 

CxC Corydon extremely rocky clay loam_, to 15 per- 22 

cent sl()])es. 

CyE2 Corydon ^(•ry rocky clay loam, 3 to 45 pereent 22 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
DeD Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 22 

to 25 percent slo]5es. 
DeE Dckall) and Leetonia ^•ery stony sandy loams, 22 

25 to 45 i)ercent slopes. 
DeF Dekalb and Leetonia very stony sandy loams, 23 

45 to 60 percent slopes. 
DkD Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, to 25 23 

percent slopes. 

DkE Dekalb and Lehew very stony loam.s, 25 to 45 23 

percent slopes. 

DmA Duffield silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 23 

DmB2 Duffield silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 23 
ately eroded. 

DmC2 Duffieid silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 23 
ately eroded. 

DmD2 DufReid silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moder- 24 
ately eroded. 

DmD3 DufReid silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, severely 23 
eroded. 

DuC Duffield extremely rocky silt loam, to 15 per- 23 

cent slopes. 

DvC Duffield very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 24 

slopes. 

DvE2 Duffield very rocky silt loam, 8 to 45 percent 24 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
DyB2 Dunmore cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 24 

moderately eroded. 
DyC2 Dunmore cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 24 

moderately eroded. 

Dz Diuming and Melvin silty clay loams 25 

EdC Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, to 12 25 

percent slopes. 

EdD2 Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 5 to 20 25 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
EdE2 Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 20 to 35 26 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 
EdF2 Edgemont and Laidig channery loams, 35 to 60 26 

percent slopes, moderately eroded. 



UNITS Continued 











\V iioilldiiil 




Sfwugn 




( '(I paliililii 




/ rritjill ion 




auilahililij 




flixpo/ifil 




II ri it 




xoil (/roii/i 


/ i/t' 


(/roup 


Paf/r, 


group 




I lie 32 


73 


4 


1 1 1 


I'2 


83 


5 


120 


IVe 32 


77 






J'2 


83 


5 


120 


l\ e 32 


77 








1'2 


83 


6 


120 


Vile 3 


80 








F2 


83 


G 


120 


Ills 2 


74 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


4 


] 19 


n'e 32 


77 


4 


1 14 


F3 


83 


5 


120 


Vie 3 


78 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


VIIe-3 


80 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


Vlle-S 


80 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


lie- 10 


67 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


lie- 10 


67 


4 


114 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IVe- 10 


76 







F2 


83 


5 


120 


Vie- 3 


78 






F2 


83 




120 


IIw— 7 


69 


1 


1 1 4 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


IIw-7 


69 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Vs-2 


77 






Fl 




8 


121 


1-6 


65 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Ills 2 


74 




117 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IIIe-30 


73 


7 


117 


F2 


83 


4 


119 


IVe-1 


75 


7 


117 


F2 


83 


5 


120 


VIIs-l 


80 








F2 


83 


5 


120 


VIs-1 


79 








F2 


83 


6 


120 


VI Is -2 


80 








F4 


83 


3 


119 


VIIs-2 


80 






F4 


83 


3 


119 


VIIs-2 


80 






F4 


83 


3 


119 


VIIs-2 


80 






F3 


83 


3 


119 


VIIs-2 


80 






F3 


83 


3 


119 


I-l 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


I 


117 


IIe-1 


65 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIIe-1 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


IVe-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


IVe-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 


VIIs-1 


80 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


IIe-1 


65 


a 


1 1 Pi 

1 i o 






4 


119 


IIIe-1 


70 


R 
u 


116 








120 


VIw-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


8 


121 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


'lis 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


IVe-3 


75 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIe-2 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 



132 



SOIL SURVKY SKKIES 19.5 9, MO. 17 



GUIDE TO MAPPFNG UNITS— Coiil iiiucd 

















Woodland 




Sewage 




Map 






Iai pdhilitji 




1 rrigatioii 




suitabilily 




disposal 




si/inhol 


Afapping unit 


PtKje, 


unit 


Page 


soil group 


I 'age 


group 


Page 


group 


Page, 


EgA 


T'jfl*' cniont iiiul Ijiiicli^' very stony loutus, to /) 


2() 


Vs-2 


77 






Fl 


82 


I 


1 1 7 




])d'c*('nt slo])os. 




















EgD 


l^^diioniont und Luidi^ \'<'ry stoiiv loiims, 5 to )i5 


20 


\'I.s-2 


79 






Fl 


82 








percent slopes. 




















EoF 


Kdjicinont uiid I^iiidiii \'er\' stoiiN' loixniSj 35 to (iO 


2(> 


VI Is 2 


80 






Fl 


82 








percent- slopt^s. 




















EhB2 


I^lliber chert-y loiini^ 5 to 1*2 i.erceiit slopes, niod- 


2G 


IIe-2() 


()8 


,5 


1 i.'j 


Fl 


82 


2 


1 1 8 
























EhD2 


ICllil)er chei't \' loiunj 12 to 25 ]M'rc(Mit sloj)eSj mod- 


2() 


IIIe-2() 


72 


5 


1 1 5 


Fl 


82 








(*r;itely eroded. 




















EhE2 


iLllibcr cliert s' loiin^j 25 to -15 ])ei'('ent slop(*s, mod- 


2() 


^'Ie-l 


78 






Fl 


82 








(M'utel\' eroded. 




















EhF 


I'Uilif'!* flicrtv lojiiii 4.5 to .5.5 i"if*reent, slmif^s 


2() 


\IIe 1 


79 






Fl 


82 






Em 


1 \ !'( > ( 1 i ' ( i hind pr(HMistone nuit(*ri;ds 


27 


VIIe-2 


80 






F4 


83 






En 


l^roded l*uul lin^estone nititeriids 


27 


Vile 1 


79 






F4 


83 






Er 


I'jroded hind, sandstone ;ind (luartzite materials- 


27 


VIIe-2 


80 






F4 


83 






Es 


l^roded land shale and schist n'aterials 


27 


Vile- 3 


80 






F4 


83 


(; 


120 


EtA 


I'.towah ji,ra\'ell\' loam, to 3 ])ercent slo[)CS 


27 


I-l 


64 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


1 17 


EtB2 


ICtowidi ^ra\'ell\' loam, 3 to 8 jjercent slopes. 


27 


He- 1 


05 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


1 17 




nioderal(*lv erodc^d. 




















EtC2 


ijtowah ^rtiA'ellv loanij 8 to 15 ])ercent slopes, 


27 


I He 1 


70 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




Tnoderatel\' eroded. 




















EtD2 


Ktowah f.'Tavellv loam, 15 to 25 percent slo])es. 


28 


I\'e 1 


75 






Fl 


82 








moderatelv eroded. 




















E w A 


Pitowah silt loam to 3 pt^rcent slopes 


28 


I-l 


64 




1 15 


Fl 


82 


I 


1 17 


EwB2 


Ktowah silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moder- 


28 


He 1 


05 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




atelv (*ro(ied. 




















EwC2 


Ktowah silt loani, 8 to 15 percent sloj)es, moder- 


28 


IIIe-1 


70 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




'1 1 f '1 V* f 'Vr >f 1 r »f i 




















FaB 


Pauquior cliaiuiorv loam, to 5 porccnt slopes 


28 


1-4 


04 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


1 17 


FaB2 


Faiicjuicr chaniuu'v loani, 5 to 10 pcrcoiit slop<^s, 


28 


IIe-4 


()0 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




ni()fl('rat(*lv (M'odod. 




















FaC2 


Faucjiiit'i* ('haiiiu*rv loaiii, 10 to 20 percent slop(*Sj 


28 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


1 1 5 


Fl 


82 


2 


1 18 




iTiocicrat elv ci'odecL 




















FaE2 


FuiiQuitT ('haiiiu*rv loam, 20 to 35 percent slopes, 


28 


IVe-3 


75 






Fl 


82 








iiio(i(*rut el\' eroded. 




















FrE 


FaiKiiii*'!' \'('rv stony loam, o to 35 percent slopes 


29 


VIs-2 


79 






Fl 


82 






FsA 


FaiKiuicr silt loani to 3 perct^nt slopes 


29 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


FsB2 


PaiKiuier silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 


29 


IIe-4 


00 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




erat(*lv ei'oded. 




















FsC2 


Fauquier silt loam, 10 to 20 jx'rccnt slopes, mod- 


29 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


2 


1 18 




erat el v (^roded. 




















FtC2 


Fauquier silt loam, shallow, 3 to 20 percent slojx's. 


29 


I Ve-3 


75 






F2 


83 


5 


120 
























FuD 


FrjinU'st owii evtT'enielv rfiekv sill lo*ini t(i 2n 


29 


VIIs-1 


80 






Fl 


82 


3 


1 19 




T'iPT'Pf^ll f sl nt"if^S 




















Fu E 


Fran kst own ext re mel v roc k\' siji W)am 2o to -lo 


29 


VIIs-1 


80 






Fl 


82 


3 


1 19 




percent slopes. 




















FvC2 


Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 


29 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 




ctlones nioderjii f 1 v ei'oded 




















FvC3 


Frankstown y^'ry rocky silt loam, 8 to 15 percent 


29 


VIIs-1 


80 






Fl 


82 


2 


1 18 




slopes, seyerel y eroded. 




















FvE2 


Frankstown yery rocky silt loam, 15 to 45 perct'nt 


29 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




slopes, mode I' at el \* eroded. 




















Fw A 


Frankstown and Duftield channery silt loams 


30 


I-l 


04 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




to ^ npT*f*P7it sloTies 




















FwB2 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 3 


30 


IIe-1 


65 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




to 8 percent slo])es, moderately eroded. 




















FwBB 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 


30 


IIIe-30 


73 






Fl 


82 


1 


117 




to 8 percent slopes, seyerely eroded. 




















FwC2 


Frankstown and Duffield channc'ry silt loams 8 


30 


IIIe-1 


70 


- 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















FwC3 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loanis 8 


30 


IVe-1 


7.5 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 




to 15 percent slopes, se\'erelv eroded. 




















FwD2 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 15 


30 


IVe-1 


75 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




to 25 j)ercent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















FwD3 


T^^rfi n k"«^t n WTT n ti fl T^i i ffiel H nliitmerv Qilt ^c^^ tit s 1 


30 


VIe-1 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded. 




















FwE2 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 


30 


VIe-1 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















FwE3 


Frankstown and Duffield channery silt loams, 25 


30 


VIIe-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




to 45 percent slopes, severely erodc^d. 


















117 


FyB2 


Frederick cherty silt loam, to 8 percent slopes. 


31 


IIe-26 


68 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


moderately eroded. 




















FyC2 


Frederick cherty silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 


31 


IIIe-26 


72 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 



moderately eroded. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



133 



GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS— ( ontimud 

















Woodland 




Sewage 




Map 






CapabiliUj 




Irriyalion 




suilahilily 




disposal 




symbol 


MapiiiiKj unit 


Pane 


unit 


Page 


soil group 


Page 


group 


I 'age 


group 


Page 


FyC3 


Frederick chert y silt loam, 8 to 15 percciiit slopes, 


31 


IVe-26 


76 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 


severely eroded. 




















FyD2 


Frederick chert y sill loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 


31 


IVe-2f) 


7G 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


moderately eiodcfl. 




















FyD3 


Frederick chert y silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes. 


31 


VIe-1 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




severely eroded. 




















FyE2 


Frederick chert y silt loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes. 


31 


VIe-1 


78 







Fl 


82 


3 


1 19 




moderately eroded. 




















HaA 


riagerstowa clay loam, to 8 percent slopes 


31 


IIs-1 


69 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


HaB2 


Hagerstown clay loam, to 8 ])ercent slopes mod- 


32 


He- 19 


68 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




erately erodeti. 




















HaB3 


Hagerstown clay loam, 3 to S percent slopes, se- 


32 


IIIe-30 


73 








Fl 


82 


1 


117 




verely eroded. 




















HaC2 


Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 


32 


HIe-30 


73 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




moderately eroded. 




















HaC3 


Hagerstown clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. 


32 


IVe-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


2 


1 18 




severely eroded. 




















HaD2 


Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 


32 


IVe-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




moderately eroded. 




















HaD3 


Hagerstown clay loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 


32 


VIe-1 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




severely eroded. 




















HbD2 


Hagerstown extremely rocky silt loam, to 25 


32 


VIIs-1 


80 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HcD2 


Hagerstown extremely rocky silty clay loam, to 


32 


VIIs-1 


80 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




25 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




VIIs-1 














119 


HdE 


Hagerstown extremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 per- 


32 


80 








F2 


83 


3 




cent slopes. 




















HeA 


Hagerstown silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 


32 


I-l 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


HeB2 


Hagerstown silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, mod- 


32 


IIe-1 


65 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




erately eroded. 




















HeC2 


Hagerstown silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. 


32 


IIIe-1 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




moderately eroded. 




















HeD2 


Hagerstown silt loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes. 


32 


IVe-1 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




moderately eroded. 




















HfA 


Hagerstown siltj' clay loam, to 3 percent 


32 


I-l 


64 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




slopes. 




















HfB2 


Hagerstown silty clay loam, to 8 percent slopes, 


32 


IIe-1 


65 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




moderately eroded. 




















HfC2 


Hagerstown silty clay loam, 8 to 15 percent 


32 


IIIe-1 


70 


7 


117 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HfD2 


Hagerstown silty clay loam, 15 to 25 percent 


32 


IVe-1 


75 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HgC2 


Hagerstown very rocky silt loam, 3 to 15 percent 


32 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 




slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HgE2 


Hagerstown very rockj^ silt loam, 15 to 45 per- 


32 


VIs-1 


79 







Fl 


82 


3 


119 




cent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HhC2 


Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 3 to 15 


33 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 




percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HhC3 


Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 8 to 15 


33 


VIIs-1 


80 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 




percent slopes, severely eroded. 




















HhE2 


Hagerstown very rocky silty clay loam, 15 to 45 


33 


VIs-1 


79 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




percent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HkF 


Hagerstown very rocky soils, 45 to 55 percent 


33 


VIIs-1 


80 






F2 


83 


3 


119 




slopes. 




















HIA 


Hagerstown, Corydon, and Duffield very rocky 


33 


Vs-1 


77 






Fl 


82 


1 


117 




silt loams, to 3 percent slopes. 




















HmE2 


Hagerstown and Duffield silt loams, 25 to 45 per- 


33 


VIe-1 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 




cent slopes, modcratel.y eroded. 




















HnB2 


Hazel channery silt loam, to 10 percent slopes. 


33 


IIIs-2 


74 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


5 


120 




moderately eroded. 




















HnC2 


Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes. 


33 


IVe-32 


77 






F3 


83 


6 


120 




moderately eroded. 




















HnC3 


Hazel channery silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes. 


33 


VIe-3 


78 






F3 


83 


6 


120 




severely eroded. 




















HnD2 


Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 


33 


VIe-3 


78 






F3 


83 


6 


120 




moderately eroded. 




















HnD3 


Hazel channery silt loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes. 


33 


VIIe-3 


80 








F3 


83 


6 


120 




severely eroded. 




















HnE 


Hazel channery silt loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes. 


34 


VIIe-3 


80 






F3 


83 


6 


120 


HoB 


Highfield gravelly loam, to 5 percent slopes 


34 


1-4 


64 


5 


"lis 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


HoB2 


Highfield gravelly loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes. 


34 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




moderately eroded. 




















HoC2 


Highfield gravelly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 


34 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




moderately eroded. 




















HoE2 


Highfield gravelly loam, 20 to 35 percent slopes. 


34 


IVe-3 


75 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 



moderately eroded. 



134 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS— (ontiiuiod 

















11 oodld 








Map 






i^(ip(il)il uy 




irvtgdiion 




HUlt(l})llltlj 




disposal 




symbol 


I\J Oppifl^ lifl'tt 




unit 


r(l(J€ 


soil (jroup 


iClQC 


yroup 


fagc: 


(/roup 


/ a(j& 


HdB 


llighficld very slony loam, to 5 percent slopes, _ 


34 


Vs-2 


77 








Fl 


82 


1 


117 


HpD 


llighfield very stony loam, 5 to 30 percent 


34 


VIs-2 


79 








Fl 


82 


3 


] 19 




slopes. 




















HpE 


Highfield very stonj' loam, 30 to 4,5 i)ercent 


34 


VILs-2 


80 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




slopes. 


















1 17 


HrA 


1 lolston gravelly loam, to 3 percent slopes 


35 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


HrB2 


llolston gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 


35 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




moderately eroded. 




















HrC2 


llolston gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. 


35 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


lis 




moderately eroded. 




















HrD2 


llolston gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes. 


35 


IVe-3 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


1 1 9 




moderately eroded. 




















HrD3 


llolston gravelly loam, 8 to 25 i)erceiit slopes, 


35 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




s(-verely eroded. 




















HrE2 


llolston gravelly loam, 25 to 45 i)ercent .slopes. 


35 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




moderately eroded. 




















HsB 


Holston gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 8 percent 


35 


IIs-2 


69 


1 


1 14 


Fl 


82 


1 


] 1 7 




slopes. 




















HsC2 


llolston gravelly sand.y loam, 3 to 15 i)ercent 


35 


IIIe-5 


71 


1 


114 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




slopes, moderately eroded. 




















HsC3 


llolston gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 


35 


IVe-5 


76 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 




sloix's, severely eroded. 




















HtA 




35 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


HtB2 


llolston silt loam, 3 to 8 i)ercent slopes, mod- 


35 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


1 15 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 




erately eroded. 




















HtC2 


llolston silt loam, 8 to 15 i)ercent slopes, mod- 


35 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




erately eroded. 




















Hu 


Huntington fine sandv loam . 


36 


1-6 


65 


1 


1 14 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Hv 


JIuiitington gravellv loam . 


36 


1-6 


65 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Hw 


Huntington silt loam . . _ 


36 


1-6 


65 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Hx 


Huntington silt loam, local alluvium 


36 


1-6 


65 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


La A 


Laidig gravellv loam, to 3 percent slopes 


37 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


LaB2 


I^aidig gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, mod- 


37 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


P'l 


82 


1 


1 1 7 




erately eroded. 


















118 


LaC2 


Laidig gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes. 


37 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 




moderately eroded. 




















LaD2 


Laidig gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 


37 


IVe-3 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


1 1 9 




moderately eroded. 




















LbD 


Laidig very stony loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes. _ 


37 


VIs-2 


79 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


LbE2 


Laidig very ston\' loam, 15 to 45 percent slopes, 


37 


VII.s-2 


80 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 




moderately eroded. 


















120 


LcB2 


Landisburg cherty silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes. 


37 


He- 13 


67 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 




moderately eroded. 


















120 


LcD2 


Landisburg cherty silt loam, 8 to 25 percent 


37 


IIIe-13 


72 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 




slopes, moderately eroded. 














82 




121 


Le 


Largent silt loam . _ _ - 


38 


II\v-7 


69 


3 


114 


Fl 


8 


LgA 


Lead vale gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 


38 


IIw-l 


68 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


LgB2 


Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 


38 


lie- 13 


67 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 




moderately eroded. 




















Lm 


Lindside silt loam . . _ 


40 


II\v-7 


69 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Ln 


Lindside silt loam, local alluvium 


40 


II\v-7 


69 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


LoB2 


Litz channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, mod- 


40 


IIe-11 


67 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


4 


119 




erately eroded. 


















120 


LoC2 


Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, mod- 


40 


IlIe-31 


73 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


5 




erately eroded. 


















120 


LoC3 


Litz channery loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, se- 


40 


IVe-31 


77 








F3 


83 


5 




verely eroded. 


















119 


LsB 


Litz shalv loam, to 10 percent slopes 


40 


IIIe-31 


73 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


4 


LsB2 


Litz shaly loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moder- 


40 


IIIe-31 


73 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


4 


119 




ately eroded. 


















120 


LsC2 


Litz siialy loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moder- 


40 


IVe-31 


77 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


5 




ately eroded. 


















120 


LsC3 


Litz shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely 


40 


VIe-3 


78 








F3 


83 


5 




eroded. 


















120 


LsD2 


Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moder- 


40 


VIe-3 


78 








F3 


83 


6 




ately eroded. 


















120 


LsD3 


Litz shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely 


40 


VIIe-3 


80 








F3 


83 


6 




eroded. 


















1 90 


LsLz 


Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, moder- 


40 


\ ^ T T ,^ O 

V lie— 3 


80 






r 6 


QQ 
OO 


D 




ately eroded. 


















120 


LsE3 


Litz shaly loam, 30 to 45 percent slopes, severely 


40 


VIIe-3 


80 






F3 


83 


6 




eroded. 




















LsF 


Litz shaly loam, 45 to 60 percent slopes . . . 


41 


VIIe-3 


80 






F3 


83 


6 


120 


LtB 


Litz-Teas channery silt loams, to 8 percent 


41 


IIe-11 


67 


4 


'114 


F3 


83 


4 


119 




slopes. 


















120 


LtC2 


Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 3 to 15 percent 


41 


IIIe-31 


73 






F3 


83 


5 



slopes, moderately eroded. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 



135 



GlIIDK TO MAP 



Map 

.■ii/nibol MujijiiiKj unit I'lii/c 

LtC3 Litz-Tciis chainu'ry silt loams, S lo I') pciccnl 41 

sl()])('s, severely eroded. 
LtD2 Lit /.-Tens chamiery silt loams, 15 to 25 percent -II 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
LtD3 Lit /.-Teas chaiinery silt loams, 15 to 25 pereeiil H 

slopes, severely eroded. 
LtE2 Litz-Teas channery silt loams, 25 to 15 pereeni II 

slop(^s, moderately eroded. 

Me Mel\ ill silt loam II 

MgB2 Mononsahela K' avc^lly loam, 8 to 8 percent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MgC2 Moiioiigahela Rra\-elly loam, 8 to 15 percent 42 

slopes, moderately eroded. 

MhA Monongahela silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 42 

MhB2 Monongahela silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MhC2 Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MhD2 Monongahela silt loam, 15 to 25 jiercent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MmB2 Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MmC2 Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 42 

moderately eroded. 
MmC3 Montevallo "shaly loam. 10 to 20 percent slopes, 43 

severely eroded. 

MtnD2 Montevailo shaly loam. 20 to 30 i^ercent slopes, 43 

moderately eroded. 
MmD3 Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 jiercent slopes, 43 

severely eroded. 

MoA Murrill gravelly loam. to 3 percent slopes 43 

MoB2 Mtn-rill gravelly loam, to 8 percent slopes, 43 

moderately eroded. 
MoC2 Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 43 

moderately eroded. 
MoD2 Murrill gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent slopes, 44 

moderately eroded. 
MoD3 Murrill gravelly loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes, 43 

severely eroded. 

MoE2 Murrill gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent slopes, 44 

moderately eroded. 
M rB Murrill gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent slopes 44 

MrC2 Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 44 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MrC3 Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 44 

slopes, severely eroded. 
MrD2 Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 44 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MrD3 Murrill gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 percent 44 

slopes, severely eroded. 

MsA Murrill silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 44 

MsB2 Murrill silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately 44 

eroded. 

MsC2 Murrill silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moder- 44 
ately eroded. 

M vA Myersville channery loam, to 3 percent slopes. . 45 
MvB2 Myersville channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 45 

moderately eroded. 
MvC2 Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 percent 45 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MvD2 Myersville channery loam, 20 to 30 percent 45 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MvE2 Myersville channery loam, 30 to 45 percent 45 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MwB3 Myersville channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent 45 

slopes, severely eroded. 
MwD3 Myersville channery silt loam, 10 to 30 percent 45 

slopes, severely eroded. 

MxA Myersville silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 45 

MxB2 Myersville silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, 45 

moderately eroded. 
MxC2 Myersville silt loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, 45 

moderately eroded. 
MyE2 Myersville very stony loam, 3 to 30 percent 45 

slopes, moderately eroded. 
MyF2 Myersville very stony loam, 30 to 55 percent 45 

slopes, eroded. 



M(; UNITS Continued 

Wooillan'l Sewage 
('cipahilitii Irrif/alion xiiitiiliilili/ dinpoHul 



unit 




■soil group 


Page 


group 


Huge 


group 


I'age 


IVe-31 


77 


4 


114 


F3 


83 


5 


120 


IVe-3I 


77 







I>'3 


83 


fi 


120 


VIe-3 


78 






I'3 


83 


6 


1 20 


VI(-3 


78 






F3 


83 


6 


r.M) 


1 1 1 \v-2 


74 






Fl 


82 


8 


121 


lie- 13 


67 


2 


' 1 i 1 


I'2 


83 


7 


120 


I He- 13 


72 


2 


1 14 


F2 


83 


( 


120 


IIw-l 


68 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


lie- 13 


67 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


IIIe-13 


72 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


IVe-9 


76 






F2 


83 


7 


120 


1 1 if-.— Z 


7 1 


A 


1 1 1 

i 1 -1 


r o 






1 1 u 


IVe-32 


77 








F3 


83 


5 


120 


Vle-3 


78 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


VIe-3 


78 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


VIIe-3 


80 








F3 


83 


6 


120 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


1 17 


T J ^ A 

lie— 'I 


DO 





i i 


r i 


oZ 


1 
i 


1 1 7 
1 1 i 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


IVe-3 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


IIs-2 


69 


1 


114 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIIe-5 


71 


1 


114 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IVe-5 


76 








Fl 


82 


2 


118 


IVe-5 


76 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIe-2 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


1 18 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


T T T,, 4 







IIP; 
1 lo 


r i 


oZ 


O 

Z 


1 1 Q 
1 1 O 


IVe-3 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


IIIe-44 


73 








Fl 


82 


1 


117 


VIe-2 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


1-4 


64 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


VIs-2 


79 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


VIIs-2 


80 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 



136 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1959, NO. 17 



GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS— Continued 

















11''" fi/ifil/l tif} 




wnifr/ 




Map 






1 // Ti/i f >'/ / u 

^—'IC fJ\.l'\/ I'll I L If 




J v T ) nnt } rti) 

J 1 1 HIULL Li/ 1 L 




Vi/ll/llllllfll 
• ^ 11- 1 L' 1 < ' 1 I 1 I ' f 




if 1 vTifi vfi I 
fJUoUL 




Q IS )i) hnl 

O (/ It I L/l/t 


]\ fnTtTt7 ti n iiii'it. 




(.1 IV 11/ 


1 uyv 


oVlfc If 1 U U. ff 




if 1 U III IJ 


Paqc 


(JTO }( J) 


Pai/e 


Pg 


Philo gravelly sandy loam.. . . . 


45 


IIw-7 


69 


1 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Ph 


I'hilo silt loam. _ . . 


40 


T T — r 

1 lw-7 


09 


3 


114 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


Pn 


Pope fine sandv loam.. . ... 


40 


1-0 


Oo 


1 


1 14 


1 

b 1 




8 


1 2 1 


Po 


Po])e sravellv loam . . . 


4() 


T /* 

1-0 


05 


3 


1 14 


Fl 


82 


8 


1 2 1 


Pp 


Pope gravelly sandy loam . . . 


40 


IIs-2 


69 


1 


111 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


rs 


Pope silt loam . . . 


A t\. 

4() 


T O 
1-0 


DO 


3 


114 


r 1 


OO 


8 


i 21 


Pt 


Pojje stony gravelly loam 


40 


Vs-z 


IT 








b 1 


oo 

82 


8 


121 


Hk 


lloclcy eroded land _ . 


40 


V lis-1 


80 






T?A 


oo 

so 


3 


1 19 


RoB2 


Kolirer.sville silty elay loam, to 8 jiercent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


47 


IIIw-1 


74 





:::: 


Fl 


82 


7 


120 


Sr 


Stony rolling land . . . 


•17 


VIIs-2 


80 





— 


F4 


83 


3 


119 


OS 




1 T 
4 / 


\ ' T T T ^- 1 








r t 


OO 


•» 

o 


1 ly 


T ^0 

1 aLZ 


Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 
to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


1 7 
■i / 


TIT-, in 
1 1 Ic— lU 


1 1 

/ 1 


4 


114 


r 1 


oZ 


2 


1 1 8 


TaC3 


Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 


48 


I\ e-10 


1 




.... 


b 1 


82 


3 


1 1 !) 




10 to 20 percent slo|)es, severely eroded. 
Talladega gravelly silt loam, thick solum variant, 
20 to 30 {)ercent slo[)es. 




















TdD 


4:8 


I\^e-10 


76 








Jf 1 


OO 

82 


3 


1 1 9 


TaE2 


Talladega gravelly silt loam, tliick solum variant, 
20 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded. 


48 


VIe-3 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


Te 


Terrace escarpments . 


A Q 

4o 


TTT„ a 


/ 1 






F 1 


aZ 


8 


1 O 1 

1 zl 


TU DO 


Thurmont gravelly loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, 
moderately erodt^d. 


1 

4.) 


1 le— 4 


00 


r 



110 


"Pi 

r 1 


oo 
oZ 


1 


11/ 






















ThC2 


Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


I'J 


llle-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


TrA 


Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 })ercent slopes 


I'.l 


lIw-1 


68 


2 


114 


F2 


83 


7 


120 


TrC2 


Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


■10 


llle-lo 


TO 


Z 


1 14 


IT**! 

r 2 


83 


7 


1 Zu 


TyB 


Tyler silt loam, to 8 ])ercent slopes.. _ 




lllw-1 


/ 4 


. 




T?0 

r z 


o3 


7 


1 on 


Wa 


Warners loam, to 8 percent slopes.. 


50 


IIw-7 


69 




'il4 


Fl 


82 


8 


121 


WbA 


Waynesboro gra\ elly loam, to 3 percent slopes. 


1 

f) I 


T 1 

1-4 


04 


5 


1 1 


r 1 


oo 
oZ 


1 


117 

117 


WbB2 


Waynesboro gravelly loani, to 8 i)ercent slo])es, 
moderately (M'oded. 


51 


IIe-4 


66 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


WbC2 


Waynesboro gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
moderately eroded. 


51 


IIIe-4 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 




Waynesboro gravell}' loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes, 
severely eroded. 


O 1 




/ O 








Jf i 


OZ 




TIC 
1 lo 


WbD2 


Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, moderatel\' eroded. 


51 


IVe-3 


75 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


WbD3 


Waynesboro gravelly loam, 15 to 25 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 


51 


VIe-2 


78 








Fl 


82 


3 


119 


WbE2 


Waynesboro gravelly loam, 25 to 45 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 


Ol 


V le— z 


7ft 








r I 


oZ 


O 
O 


1 1.7 


WgB 


Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, to 8 percent 


51 


ils-z 


69 


1 


1 1 4 


X? 1 

r 1 


QO 

oZ 


1 
1 


117 
11/ 




slopes. 




TTT„ r 

llle— 










CO 
oZ 








Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent 
slopes, moderately eroded. 


oi 


/ 1 


1 


1 1 1 

114 


r 1 


1 


117 
1 1 t 


WgC3 


Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent 
slopes, severely eroded. 


51 


1\ e— 5 


/ 






r 1 


oo 
oZ 


o 


1 1 O 
1 lo 


WgD2 


Waynesboro gravelly sandy loam, 15 to 25 per- 


51 


1 V e-5 


/6 






r 1 


oo 
oZ 


Q 
O 


1 1 n 

1 ly 


cent slopes, moderately eroded. 




















Wn 


Wehadkee silt loam ... ..... 


oz 


TTTxir 1 

lllW— 1 


/ 4 


- 




Ti"1 
r 1 


oZ 


Q 

O 


1 91 


WmB2 


Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 


52 


IIe-1 


65 




115 


Fl 


82 


1 


117 


WmC2 


Westmoreland channery silt loam, 10 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 


52 


IIIe-1 


70 


5 


115 


Fl 


82 


2 


118 


WmC3 


Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 20 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded. 


52 


IVe-1 


75 






Fl 


82 


2 


118 


WmD2 


Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 per- 
cent slopes, moderately eroded. 


52 


IVe-1 


75 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 


WmD3 


Westmoreland channery silt loam, 20 to 30 per- 
cent slopes, severely eroded. 


52 


VIe-1 

o 


78 






Fl 


82 


3 


119 



WORKS AND STRUCTURES 

Highways and roads 



Dua' . . 

Good motor 
Poor motor 
Trail 

Highway markers 

National Interstate 

U.S 

Stale 
Railroads 

Single track 

Multiple track 

Abandoned 
Bridges and crossings 

Road 

Trail, foot 

Railroad 

Ferries 

Ford 

Grade 

R, R, over 

R. R. under 

Tunnel 
Buildings 

School 

Church 

Station 
Mines and Quarnes 
Mine dump 
Pits, gravel or other 
Power lines 
Pipe lines 
Cemeteries 
Dams 

Levees 

Tanks 

Oil wells 

Canal locks {pomt upstream) 



o 

o 

o 





WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND 
CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 



BOUNDARIES 



National or state 
County 

Township, U. S. 
Section line, corner 
Reservation 
Land grant 



Streams 
Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass. 
Canals and ditches 
Lakes and ponds 

Perennial 

Intermittent 
Wells 
Springs 
Mafsh 
Wet spot 
Canal Aqueduct 




^ f 



Escarpments 

Bedrock 

Other 
Prominent peaks 

Depressions 

Crossabie with tillage 
implements 

Not crossabie with tillage 
implements 

Contains water most of 
the time 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil boundary 
and symbol 
Gravel 
Stones 

Rock outcrops 
Chert fragments 
Clay spot 
Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 
Made land 

Severely eroded spot 
Blowout, wind erosion 
Gullies 



WELL DRAINED, STONY AND VERY STONY SOILS 

Dekalb-Leetonia Edgemont-Laidig association: 
Very stony, mountainous soils 




Dekalb-Highfield association 
Vety steep, stony soils 



Highfield-Fauquier association: 
Deep, stony soils 

WELL TO EXCESSIVELY DRAINED, SHALLOW, 
MEDIUM TEXTURED SOILS 

Herks-Montevallo association: 
Soils on shale 

Hazel-Chandler association: 
Shallow soils on schist 



T.illadega association: 
Moderately deep soils on schist 



itz Teas association: 
Shallow, steep soils on shale 



Calvin- Berks- Litz-Montevallo association: 
Shallow soils on shale, limestone, or sandstone 



^ VIRGINIA 



U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL E:XPERIMENT STATION 



SOIL LEGEND 



The hrst caDital teller is the mit.at one ot the soil name. A second 
caoital letlef, A, B. C, D. E. Of F. shows the slope. Symbols wilfiout a 
siooe lelle' afe those of nearly level sols, sucti as Huni.ngton silt loam, 
or of land types, such as Rocky eroded land, that have a considerable range 
o' slope. A frnal number, 2 0' 3, shows that the soil is eroded. 



BbA 

e>B2 

B»C? 
B^C3 
BcB2 
BcC2 
BCC3 
BcD2 
BflB 
BeB2 
BcC? 
BfD2 
BhB2 
BhC? 
BkC3 
BkD2 
BoE3 
BoF 



BuD? 

C»82 

CeB2 

CcC2 

CcO 

CeD2 

CcE 

CcF 

CmB2 

CmC2 

CmC3 

CmD 

CmE 

CnB2 

CnC2 

CnC3 

Cn02 

CnF2 

CoB? 

CoC2 

CoD2 

CoE3 

CoF 

CfB ' 



CwA 

CwB2 

CwC2 

C.C 

CvE2 

OoD 

DeE 

DeF 

DkO 

DhE 

DmA 

OmB2 

DmC2 

Drt>02 

Dm03 



Ashton fine sandy loam. lo S percent slopes 
Atkins silt loam 

Benevola clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 
Benevoli clay loam, 3 to 8 prrceni slopes, moderately eroded 
Benevola clay loam, 8 to lb percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Benevola Cay loam, 6 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Berks channery loai 
Berks channery loai 
Berks channery loai 
Berks channery loai 
Berks shsly sill loai 
Berks shaly Sill loai 
Berk-i shaly sitl loar 



dgei, 10 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ridges. 10 to 20 pefcenl slopes, moderately eroded 
fidgei, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 
ridges, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
10 8 percent slopes 
3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
15 lo 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Berks sill loam, ridges. to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Berks sill loam, r.dges, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Berks sill loam, ndges. 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Berks silt loam, ndges. 20 to 30 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Berks soils, ridges, 20 to 45 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
Berks soils, ridgei. 30 to 60 percent slopes 



Braddock and Thurmoni 
Braddock and Thormont 
Breddock and Thurmont 
Brinkerton sill loam, 

Buchanan gravelly loam, 
Buct^anan gravelly loam 
Bucnanan gravelly loam 



gravelly loams. 3 lo S percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
gravelly loams, 8 to 15 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
gravelly loams, 15 to 2b percent slopes 
o 8 percent slopes 
lo 3 percenl slopes 
3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
8 lo 15 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Celvin channery loam 
Calvin channery loam 
Calvin channery loam 
Calvin shaly loam, t 



Celvin channery fine sandy loam, 3 lo 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin channery loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin channery loam, 10 to 20 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin channery loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes 

, 20 to 30 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
, 30 lo 45 percent slopes 
, 45 to 60 percent slopes 

10 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin shaly loam. 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderalefy eroded 
Celvin shaly loam, 10 lo 20 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
Calvin shaly loam, 20 to 30 percenl slopes 
Calvtn shaly loam. 30 lo 45 percent slopes 

Cfllvin-Berks channery loams, lo 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Celvin-Btrks channery loams, 10 to 20 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Calwln-Berks channery loams, 3 to 20 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
Calvin-Berks channery loams, 20 lo 30 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Cslvln-Berks channery loams, 30 to 60 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Celvin-Monlevallo shaly loams, to 10 percent Hopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin-Montevallo shaly loams, 10 lo 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin Montevallo shaly loams, 20 lo 30 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin Montevallo shaly loams, 20 lo 45 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Calvin-Monlevallo shaly loams. 30 to 60 perc 



lery sill loam, lo 10 



slopes 

3 to 10 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
10 to 20 peicent slopes, moderately eroded 
20 10 30 percenl slopes 



Chandler sill 

Chandler sill loam and channery sill loai 
Chandler silt loam and channery sill loai 
Chandler silt loam and channery silt loai 
Chewads gravelly sandy loam 
Chewacia silt loam 
Chewacia stony silt loam 
Congaree silt loam and gravelly loam 
Corydon clay loam, lo 3 percenl slopes 
Corydon clay loam, 3 lo 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Corydon clay loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Corydon extremely rocky clay loam. lo 15 percent slopes 
Corydon very rocky clay loam, 3 lo 45 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Dekalb and Leelonia very stony sandy loams. to 25 percent slopes 
Dekalb and Leotoma very stony sandy loami;, 2b to 45 percent slopes 
Otkalb and Leelonia very siony sandy loams, 45 to 60 percent slopes 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, lo 25 prrceni slopes 
Dekalb and Lehew very stony loams, 25 lo 45 percent slopes 
Duffield sill loam, lo 3 percent slopes 
Dulfield sill loam, 3 lo 8 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Duffield sill loam. 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Outfield silt loam, 15 to 25 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Dulfield silt loam. 8 lo 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 



OuC 
DvC 
OvE2 
Oy82 
OyC2 
Dz 

EdC 

EdD2 

EdE? 

EdF2 

EgA 

EfiD 

EgF 

EnB2 

EhD2 

EhE2 

EhF 

Em 



Dulfield extremely rocky sift loam, lo 15 percenl slopes 
Duffield very rocky sill loam, 3 to 15 percent slopes 

Dulfield very rocky sill loam, 8 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Ounmore che'ty Silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Dunmore cherty siH loam, 8 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Dunning and Melvm silty clay loams 



Edgemont and Laidig channery l 

Edgemoni and Laidig channery i 

Edgemont and Laidig channery l 

Edgemoni and Laidig channery 1 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony 

Edgemont and Laidig very stony 
jm. 5 10 12 perc 



Eiiiber 



land. 



ElA 

EIB2 

EIC2 

EI02 

EwA 

Ev^B2 

EwC2 

FaB 

FaB2 

FaC2 

FaE2 

FrE 

FsA 

FsB2 

FsC2 

FIC2 

FuD 

FuE 

FvC2 

FvC3 

FvE2 

FwA 

FwB2 

FwB3 

Fv-C2 

FwC3 

Fw02 

FwD3 

FwE2 

FwE3 

FyB2 

FvC2 

FyC3 

Fy02 

FyD3 

FyE2 

HaA 

HaB2 

HaB3 

HaC2 

HaC3 

HaD2 

MaD3 

HbD2 

HcD2 

HdE 

HeA 

HeB2 

HeC2 

HeD2 

HfA 

HfB2 



Eroded I 
Etowah 1 
Etowah graveli' 
Etowah graven 
Etowah gti 



ms, to 12 perce 
ms, 5 to 20 oerce 
ms, 20 to 35 perc 
ms, 35 10 60 perc 
ams, lo 5 oerce 
ams. 5 lo 35 perc 
ams. 35 to 60 pei 
It slopes, moderali 
ent slopes, modera 
?ni slopes, modera 
ent slopes 



slopes, moderately eroded 
1 slopes, moderately eroded 
I slopes, moderately eroded 



ly eroded 
ely eroded 
ely eroded 



<elly loa 



. I 



. 3 to 1 



'nt slopes 

nl slopes, moderately eroded 
^elly loam. 8 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ifelly loam. 15 lo 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Etowah sill loam, to 3 percent slopes 
Etowah silt loam. 3 to 8 percent slopes, modera 
Etowah Silt loam, 8 to 15 percenl slopes, mode 



itely eroded 
rately eroded 



Faugui 



t loam. to 5 percent slopes 
t loam. 5 to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
y loam. 10 to 20 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
f loam, 20 lo 35 percerM slopes, moderately eroded 
ly loam, 5 to 35 percenl slopes 



) 10 perc 



Frankstown 
Frankstown 
Frankstown 



Frank' 



>cky sill I 
)cky s-II I 



and Dulfield char 

and Duffield chai 

and Duffield char 

and Ouff-eld char 

and OuMield char 



I loams, to 3 percent 



■oded 



!ly eroded 
moderately 



ded 



Frankstown 
Frankstown 
Frankstown 
Frankstown 
Frederick cl 
Frederick cl 
Frederick cl 
Frederick d 
Frederick d 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 25 



and Dutlield c 
and Duflield < 
and Duffield < 
lerty silt loam, 
lerly silt loam, 
leriy Sill loam 
lerty sill loam 



slopes, n* 
slopes, SE 
1 slopes, ( 

nt slopes, 
nt slopes. 



to 8 perce 
8 to 15 perc 



I 45 [ 



»ms. 25 10 45 pert 
>ms, 25 to 45 pert 
1 slopes, moderatel 



;ent 



slopes, 
slopes, 
slopes. 



I slopes, 
I slopes, 
iroded 
derately eroded 
erely eroded 
oderaiely eroded 
'verely eroded 
oderately eroded 



nod. 



ately eroded 
ly eroded 
irately eroded 
ely eroded 

'erely eroded 
derately eroded 
'erely eroded 



to 3 percent slopes 
lo 8 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
ay loam, 3 to 8 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
ay loam, 8 lo 15 Percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ay loam, 8 lo 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
ay loam. 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ay loam, 15 lo 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 
tiremely rocky silt loam, lo 25 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
(tremely rock/ silty clay loam, lo 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ilremely rocky soils, 25 to 45 percent slopes 
11 loam, to 3 percent slopes 
It loam, to 8 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagetstown sill loarT>. 8 to 15 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagerslown silt loam, 15 to 25 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagerslown silly clay loam. to 3 percent slopes 
Hagerslown silty clay loam, to 6 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Hagerslown clay 
Hagerslown clay 
Hagerslown day 
Hagerslown day 
Hagerslown clay 



Hagerslown 
Hagerslown 



HIC2 

HfD2 

HbC2 

Hg£2 

HhC2 

HhC3 

HhE2 

HkF 

HIA 

HmE2 

HnB2 

HnC2 

HnC3 



HpD 
HpE 
HfA 



•cky Sill 



Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown very 
Hagerslown, Corydon. and Ouffi 
Hagerslown and Duffield silt loi 



8 to 15 .iiercent slopes, moderately eroded 
15 lo 23 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

:ni slopes, moderately eroded 



15 ■ 



Hy clay loarr . 3 
illy clay loarr . 3 
lily clay loarr. r 
.. 45 to 5m 01 



) 45 



Haj 



Highlie 
Highlie 
Highlie 



silt loai 



, 10 



10 perc 
20 J.e. 
20 ( ei 
30 re, 
30 cei 



I loam. 30 to 45 : 



15 percent slopes, modetaiely eroded 
15 percent slopes, se«e'ely eroded 
I 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
nl slopes 

*y silt loams. lo 3 percent slopes 
ent slopes, moderately eroded 
moderately eroded 



1 slopes, severely eroded 
t slopes, moderately eroded 
; slopes, severely eroded 



rately eroded 
eralely eroded 
erately eroded 



eily loam, 8 lo 15 perc 



tely eroded 
ately eroded 
irately eroded 



lrD3 Holslon gravelly loarr 

lrE2 Holslon gravelly loan 

IsB Holslon gravelly sane 

lsC2 Hotston gravelly sane 

lsC3 Holslon gravelly sane 

llA Holslon silt loam. 

ltB2 Holslon stit loam. 3 

ltC2 Holston silt loam. 8 

Iv Huntington gravelly I 

Iw Huntington silt loam 

U Huntington sill loam. 



LaA 

LaB2 

LaC2 

La02 

LbO 

LbE2 

Lc82 

LcD2 

Le 



LoB? 

LoC2 

LoC3 

LsB 

Ls82 

LsC2 

LsC3 

LsD2 

L5D3 

LsE2 

LsE3 

LsF 

LIB 

L1C2 

L1C3 

LlD2 

LID 3 

LIE2 



Mg82 
MgC2 
MhA 



Laidig gravelly I 
Laidig gravelly I 
Laidig gravelly I 



Laidie very ston' 
Landisburg cher 
Landisburg cher 
Largent sill loar 
Leadvale gravell 
Leadvale gravell 
Lmdside sill loa 
Lindside silt loa 
Litz channery lo 



, local alluvium 
, to 3 percent slopes 
, 3 to 8 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
. 8 to IS percen' slopes, moderately eroded 
, 15 to 25 perceil slopes, moderately eroded 



, 8 lo 25 percei 
, 15 to 45 peic 
loam, 3 to 8 |<e 
loam, 8 to 25 c 



ilopes, moderately eroded 
I slopes, moderately eroded 
nt slopes, moderately eroded 



silt loam, to 3 p.'rcent slopes 

Silt loam, 3 to 8 pi-rcenl slopes, moderately eroded 



z cha 



Litz channery I 
Litz shaly loam 
Litz shaly loam 
Lilz shaly loam 
Lilz shaly loam 
Lilz sfialy loarr 



n, 3 lo 10 perce 
n. 10 10 20 perc 



10 I 



20 c 



10 10 perce 
3 to 10 perce 
10 to 20 perc 
10 to 20 perc 



Lilz • 
LitZ : 



Litz-Teas 
Litz-Teas 
Litz-Teas 
Lilz-Teas 
Litz-Teas 
Litz-Teas 



20 I 



30 c 



m. 20 to 30 c 
m. 30 to 45 c 
m, 30 to 45 [ 



slopes, moderately eroded 
1 slopes, moderately eroded 
t slopes, severely eroded 

ips. moderately eroded 
ipes, moderately eroded 
ipes, severely eroded 
oes, moderately eroded 
ipes, severely eroded 
JOes, moderately eroded 
)Des. severely eroded 



;ent s 



to a percent slopes 
3 to 15 percent slopes, r 
, 8 to 15 percent slopes, i 
15 to 25 percent slopes. 
15 to 25 percent slopes. 



derately eroded 
erely eroded 
oderately eroded 
iverely eroded 



annery silt loams, 25 lo 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

) gravelly foam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
1 gravelly loam, 8 lo IS percent slopes, moderately eroded 
) silt loam, lo 3 percenl slopes 



l^mD2 

MmD3 

MoA 

MoB2 

MoC2 

MqD2 

Mo03 

Moe2 

l^rB 

MrC2 

M(C3 

l^rD2 

Ivir03 

l^sA 

MsB2 

M5C2 



l^vC2 
MvD2 
MvE2 
MwB3 
|v1w03 

M»82 
MkC2 
l^yE2 
I^vF2 



f-lonongahela sill loam, 3 to 8 oercent slopes, moderately eroded 
Monongahela silt loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Monongahela sill loam, 15 lo 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Montevallo shaly loam, to 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Montevallo shaly loam, 10 lo 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Montevallo shaly loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Montevallo shaly loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Montevallo shaly loam. 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 
I 3 percent slopes 

I 8 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
• 15 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
I 25 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
to 45 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 

T\, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
n, 8 lo 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Ti, 15 to 25 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
lo 25 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
slopes 

noderately eroded 
moderately eroded 
Myersville channery loam, lo 3 percent slopes 
Myersville channery loam, 3 tO 10 pe 
Myersville channery loam, 10 to 20 e 



Ss 

TbC2 
TaCS 
TaD 
TaE2 



TrC2 

TyB 

Wa 

WbA 

W6B2 

WbC2 

WbC3 

Wb02 

WbD3 

WbE2 

WbS 

WgC2 

WgC3 

WgD2 

Wm82 
WmC2 
WmC3 
WmD2 
WmD3 



I gravelly loam 

I gravelly loam 

I gravelly loam 

I gravelly loam 

I gravelly loarr 



I gravelly 5 



silt loai 



dy loam, 1 
I 10 3 perc 

I lo 8 percent slopes, r 
loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, 
channery loam 
rhannery loam 



Myeisv 

Myersv 
Myersv 
Myersv 
Myerss 
Myersv 
Myersv 
Myersv 



opes, moderately eroded 
ilopes. moderately eroded 
hannery loam. 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
hannery loam, 30 lo 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
hannery sill loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, severely eroded 
hannery stIt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 
•It loam, lo 3 percent slopes 
lit loam, 3 to 10 oercent slopes, moderately eroded 
lit loam, 10 lo 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ery stony loam, 3 lo 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ery stony loam, 30 to 55 percent slopes, eroded 



Philo gravelly < 



ndy I 



Pope fine sandy loam 
Pope gravelly loam 
Pope gravelly sandy loam 
Pope silt loam 
Pope stony gravelly loam 



Stony rolling land 
Stony steep land 

Talladega gravelly sil 
Talladega gravelly sil 
Talladega gravelly sil 
Talladega gravelly sii 
Terrace escarpments 

Thurmoni gravelly loam. 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Thurmont gravelly loam, 8 lo IS percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Trego gravelly silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 
Trego gravelly silt loam, 3 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Tyler silt loam, lo 8 percent slopes 



hick solui 



slopes, moderately eroded 



. lo 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
, 10 lo 20 percenl slopes, severely eroded 
, 20 to 30 percenl slopes 
, 20 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



, to 8 percent slopes 
ravelly loam, to 3 perc 
ravelly loam, lo 8 perc 



Warners loj 

Waynesboro gravelly loam, 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 8 
Waynesboro gravelly loam. 3 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 1^ 
Waynesboro g'^velly loam, 1? 
Waynesboro gravelly loam, 2f 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy lo 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy lo 
Waynesboro g'^velly sandy lo 
Waynesboro gravelly sandy lo 
Wehadkee silt loam 
Westmoreland channery silt I 
Westmoreland channery silt I 
Westmoreland channery silt I 
Westmoreland channery sill I 
Westmoreland channery silt I 



I sloi 



slopes, moderately eroded 
3 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
3 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 
to 45 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
m, to 8 percent slopes 
m, 3 to 15 percenl slopes, moderately eroded 
m, 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
m, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



m, 3 lo 10 percent slopes, 
m. 10 lo 20 percent slopes, 
m, 3 to 20 percent slopes. 



loderalely eroded 
noderately eroded 
topes, severely eroded 
slopes, moderately eroded 
slopes, severely eroded 



Soil map constructed 1961 by Cartographic Division, 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1957 serial 
photographs. Controlled mosaic based on Maryland 
plane coordinate syst«m, Lambert conlormal 
conic projection. 1927 North Amtncan datum. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND-SHEET NUMBER 2 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 3 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 4 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND - SH EET NUMBER 5 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND-SHEET NUMBER 6 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 9 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 10 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND-SHEET NUMBER 11 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND - SHEET NUMBER 12 




WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND- SHEET NUMBER 13 




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5 000 reel 



U S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYUND 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



SOIL LEGEND 



The '"»t csDital ielte» a Ihe mitiai one ol the soi' name. * second 
ciDiUi retier. A. 6. C. D. E. or F. shows the slope. Syinbols without i 
slop* letter are (hose of nearly leve' soils, such as Huni>ngion s<it >oar 
or ol land noes, such as Rocky eroded 'and. that hue a cor^S'derable 
ol slop* A Imal numl>er. 2 or 3. snows that the soil ts eioded. 



RfO? 



BkCJ 



CaB? 

CcB2 

CcC? 

CcD 

CcD? 

CcE 

CcF 

CmB? 

CmC2 

CmC3 

CmD 

CmE 

CnS? 

CrtC? 

CnC3 

Cn02 

CnF? 

CdB2 

CoC? 

CoD? 

CoE3 

Cor 

CfB 

CrBi> 

CfC2 

CfO 



Cu 

Cv 

CwA 

CwB2 

CwC? 

c«c 

C»E2 



DkO 

OkE 

DmA 

DmB? 

DmC2 

OnrtD3 



Bentvola clay loam, to 3 cwrcani tlope* 

Banavota clay loam, 3 lo 8 parcani ilopat, moderately eroded 

Bancvota clay loam, 8 lo IS parcent itopei, moda'alaly erodtd 



Banevola clay loai 
Barks channary loa 
Btrhs channary loai 
Berht channary loa 
Barht channary loai 
Barks ihaly sill loa 
Berks ihaly lilt toai 
Barks shaly Hit loai 
Barks Shaly nil loam, \i lo 2b parci 
Berks slK loam, ndfas, lo 10 parci 



lb parcani slopes, laoeraly eroded 
ridgas, lo 10 percent Slopes, moderately eroded 
ridgai, 10 Id 20 parcani slopes, modaralaiy eroded 
'idge*. 10 to 20 parcani ilopas, severely eroded 
ridges, 20 lo 30 percent ilopes, moderately eroded 

to B parcani slopes 

1 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
8 lo \b percent slopes, moderately erodiid 

slopes, moderalely eroded 
slopes, moderalely eroded 



rant slopes, moderalely eroded 
slopes, severely eroded 
tlopei 

It, 3 lo 8 percent slopes, modtrataiv trodad 
It. B lo 15 parcani slopes, modarattly eroded 
It. 16 to 2!> percent slope* 



Barks till loam, ndget. 20 to 10 D«r 
Berks soils, ridges, 20 lo pnrcent 
Berks toils, ridgei. 30 lo 60 percent 
Braddock and Thurmont gravelly loar 
Braddorh and ThurmonI gravelly loan 
Braddork and ThurmonI gravelly loan 
Brinkorlon sill loam, to 8 percent ilopas 
Buchanan gravelly loam, to 3 percent Hopes 
Buchanan gravelly loam, 3 lo B percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Buchenan gravelly loam, 8 to lb percent ilopes, moderalely eroded 
Buchanan gravelly toam, 15 lo 2% pa'cani slopes, modaralaly eroded 
Calvin chennery line sandy loam, 3 to 10 percont slopes, moderalely eroded 
Calvin channery loam, 3 lo 10 percont slopes, moderately eroded 
Calvin channary loam, 10 lo 20 percent tlopet. moderately eroded 
Calvin rhennary loam, 20 lo 30 parceni tlopet 
Calvin channeiy loam, 20 lo 30 perienl slopes, modaralely eroded 
Calvin channary loam, 30 lo 4^ percent tlopet 
Calvin channary loam, 4% lo 60 parrnnt tlopet 
Calvin Ihaly loam. lo 10 peicani ilopat, moderelely eroded 
Cetvin shaly loam, 10 lo 20 perceni tlopet, moderalely eroded 
Calvin shaly loam, 10 lo 20 percent tlopet, leverely eroded 
Calvin shaly loam, 20 lo 30 percent tlopei 
Calvin shaly loam, 30 lo M parcani slopes 

Calvln-Berkt channary loams, to 10 percent tlopei, moderalely erodld 

Calvin Berht channeiy loamt, 10 lo 20 parcani ilopei. moderalely eroded 

Calvln Berhi chennery toamt, 3 lo 20 paiceni etopet. severely eroded 

Calvin Barhi channary loami, 20 lo 30 perceni slopes, moderalely eroded 

Calvln'Barki channary loams. 30 lo 60 perceni tlopet. moderately eroded 

Calvln Monlovallo ihaly loams, to 10 perceni slopei, moderalely eroded 

Calvln Monlevallo ihaly loami, 10 lo 20 parceni slopes, modaralaly eroded 

Calvin-Monlavallo shaly loams, 20 lo 30 percent ilooei. moderately eroded 

Celvin Monlevallo ihaly loamt, 20 lo 4*i percent slopes, severely eroded 

Calvln Monlevallo thaly loamt, 30 lo 60 perceni tlopet 

Chandler sill loam and chennery sill loam, lo 10 percent slopei 

Chandler sill loam and channary nil loam, 3 lo 10 percent ilopai, moderalely eroded 

Chandler silt loam and channary sill loam. 10 lo 20 percent slopes, moderalely arodad 

Chandler sill loam and chennery silt loam, 20 lo 30 percent tlopet 

Chewacia gravelly sandy loam 

Chawacia lilt loam 

Chawaria stony nil loam 

Congaroo silt loam and gravelly loam 

Corydon clay loam, lo 3 percent slopes 

Corydon ciny loam, 3 to B percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

Corydon clay loam, 8 lo lb percent slopei, moderelely eroded 

Corydon oilremply rorky rley loam, lo \b perceni slopes 

Corvdon very rocky clay loam, 3 lo 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Dekalb and l eatonii 
Dekalb and leelonii 
Dekalb and Leetomi 
Dekalb and Lehew t 



slony sandy loamt. lo 2b percent slopes 
slony sandy looms, 2b to 4b percent slopes 
slony sandy loams, Ab lo 60 perceni slopes 
pry ilony loams, to 2b percent i 



Dehelb and Lehew very stony Ipems, 25 lo 45 percent Hop** 
Dulliold nil loam, to 3 peiceni slopes 
Dufdald iill loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
Dullleld silt loam, 8 lo 15 parcani slopes, moderately eroded 
Oullitid slit loam, 15 lo 25 parcani slopes, moderately eioded 
Dutlield nil loam, 8 to ?S percent siopei, severely eroded 



DuC 
OvC 
DvE? 
OyB2 
OyC2 
Ot 

CdC 
Ed02 
EdE? 
EdF2 



EhB2 
Eh02 
EhE2 



EiA 

El62 

EIC2 

EID2 

EmA 

E«B2 

E<vC2 

FaB 

FeB2 

FaC? 

FaE2 

FrE 

FlA 

FtB2 

FiC2 

FIC2 

FuD 

FuE 

FvC2 

FvC3 

FvE? 

FwA 

FwB2 

Fw63 

FwC2 

FwC3 

FwD2 

Fv>D3 

Fv>E2 

FwE3 

FyB2 

FyC2 

FyC3 

FyD2 

FvD3 

FyE2 



HaB3 

H8C2 

HaC3 

Ha02 

H8D3 

HbD? 

HcO? 

HdE 

HeA 

HeB? 

NeC2 

H*D2 

HfA 

M(B2 



Ouff-eld eilremely rocky nil loam, to 15 percent slopes 

DuKieid very focky nit loam, 3 lo 15 percent tlooei 

Du»-eid very rocky sill loam, 8 to 45 oerceni slopes, moderalely eroded 

Ounmore cherty Silt loam, 3 10 8 percent slopes, moderelely eroded 

Donmpra cheMy nit '0«m, 8 to 15 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 

Dunning and Malvin silly day loams 



EdgemonI and La-dig channary lo. 
Edgamont and La<dig channary lo. 
EdgemonI and La.d>g channary lo. 
Edgemonl and Laidig cnannery lo. 
EdgemonI and Laidig very Slony i' 
Edgamont and Laidig very slony l< 
EdgemonI and Laidig very slony li 
EHiber cherty loam, 5 lo 12 c 



t, to 12 percent stooet 

(. 5 to 20 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

I. 20 10 35 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 

I. 35 to 60 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

IS, lo 5 perceni slopes 

«. 5 lo 35 percent slopes 

IS, 35 10 60 percent Hopes 

slopes, moderately eroded 



Elliber cherty loam, 12 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

EHiber cherty loam, 25 10 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Elliber cherly loam, 45 lo 55 percent slopes 

Eroded land, greentione maienali 

Eroded land, limeslonc maienals 

Eroded land, sandtione and quartiite materials 

Eroded land, shale and sch.tl maienali 

Etowah gravelly loam. to 3 percent slopes 

Elowah gravelly loam, 3 lo 8 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 

Elowoh gravelly loam, 8 lo 15 percent slooes. moderalely eroded 

Eiowah gravelly loam. 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

Elowah till loam, 10 3 percent slopes 

Etowah Sill loam. 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

Elowah silt loam. 8 lo 15 perceni slopes, moderalely eroded 

Fauquier channary loam. lo 5 percent slopes 

Fauquier chennery loam, 5 to 10 percent slooes. moderately eroded 

Fauqu<er chennery loam, 10 lo 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

Fauquier channery loam. 20 to 35 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

Fauquier very stony loam, 5 lo 35 percent slopes 

Fauquier nil loam, lo 3 percent slopes 

Fauquier S'U loam, 3 lo 10 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



Fauquier sill loam, 10 lo 20 per 
Fauquier sill loam, shallow, 3 to 
Frankstown enlremtly rocky siil I 



;ent slopes, moderalely coded 
20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
)am, to 25 percent slopes 
jam. 25 to 45 percent slooes 
3 lo 15 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 
slopes, severely eroded 
ceni slopes, moderately eroded 
to 3 percent slopes 
3 10 8 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
lo 8 percent slooes, severely eroded 



I 15 oercer 



Frankstown very rocky silt loam, 3 I 
Frankstown vary rocky nit loam. 8 t 
Frankstown very rocky till loam. 15 
Frankstown and OuHield channery s 
Frankstown and Dullield Channery s 
Frankstown and Dulfield channery s 
Frankstown end Dul'iald channery siH loams. 8 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Frankstown and Duffietd channery siH loams. 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Frankstown and DuM<eld channery silt loams. 15 to 25 percent slooes, moderately eroded 
Frankstown and Oulfield channary silt loams. 15 to 25 oerceni slooes, severeiv eroded 
Frankstown and Dullield channery sill loams, 25 to 45 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 
Frankstown and OuHield channery silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Frederick cherly silt loam, to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Frederick cherty sill loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Frederick cherty sill loam. 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Frederick cherty siH loam. 15 lo 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Frederick cherty silt loam, 15 lo 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Frederick cherty nl| loam, 25 to 45 oerceni slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagarslown clay loam. to 3 percent slopes 
Hageritown clay loam, lo 8 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
Hagerstown clay loam. 3 to B percent slopes, severely eroded 
Hagerstown day loam. 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagerstown clay loam. 8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
Hagerstown clay loam. 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagerstown clay loam, 15 lo 25 percent slooes, severely eroded 
Megerstown emremely rocky Silt loam. lo 25 percent slooes. moderately eroded 
Hagerstown eilrcmaly rocky silty clay loam. to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
Hagerstown eitremely rocky soili, 25 to 45 percent slopes 
Hagerstown sitl loam, lo 3 percent slopes 
Hagerstown sill loam, to 8 perceni slooes, moderately eroded 
Hagerstown nil loam, 8 lo 15 percent slooes. moderately eroded 
Higenlown silt loam. 15 to 25 percent slooes, moderately eroded 
Hagerstown silly clay loam. to 3 percent slooes 
Hagarilowin nity clay loam. lo 8 percent slooes. moderately eroded 



NIC 2 

HfD2 

HgC2 

HgE2 

HhC2 

HhC3 

HhE2 

HkF 

HIA 

HmE2 

Hn62 

HnC2 

HnC3 

Hn02 

Hn03 

HnE 

HoB 

HoB2 

HoC2 

HoE2 

HpB 

HpD 

HpE 

HrB2 



LaB2 

LaC2 

LaD2 

LbO 

LbE2 

LcB2 

LcD2 

Le 

LgA 



LoB2 

LoC2 

LoC3 

LsB 

Ls82 

LsC2 

LsC3 

Ls02 

LsD3 

LsE2 

LsE3 



HC2 

Lie 3 

LID? 

L1D3 

LtE2 

Me 

Mg82 

MgC2 



Hagerstown silly c'ay loai 
Hagerstowr> S'lty clay loai 
Hagerstown very rocky n 
Hagerstown very rocky si 
Hagerstowi 
Hagerslowi 

Hagerstown very rock' 
Hegersiown very rock 
Hagerstown, Corydon. 
Hagerstown and Oufli 



to 15 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 
I to 25 percent slooes. moderately eroded 
•n. 3 10 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
■n, 15 lo 45 oerceni slopes, moderalely eroded 



.Illy Clay I. 



15 lo 45 £ 



ended 
!verely eroded 
moderately o-oded 



id Dutfield very rocky siH loams. to 3 percent sloors 
silt loams, 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately ero-lcd 
. 10 10 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
I. 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 
, 20 lo 30 oerceni slopes, moderately eroded 
, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 
. 30 to 45 oerceni slooes 



H.ghfield very slo 
Highfield very sto 
Holston gravelly I 
Holslon gravelly I 
Holston gravelly I 
Holslon gravelly ( 
Holstor^ gravelly I 
Holston gravelly I 
Holston gravelly • 
Holston gravelly ■ 
Holslon gravelly s 



I 10 C 



( loam. 5 10 30 c 



. 8 10 25 ( 



lopes. 



ent slopes, m 
:ent slopes 
rcent slopes 
ercent slopes 



oderalely eroded 
moderately eroded 
Tioderalely eroded 



moderalely eroded 



, 25 I 



45 C 



Hol 



,ilt I 



Holston silt loam. 
Holslon silt loam, 
Huntington fine sa 
Huntington gravellt 
Huntington silt loa 
Huntington silt loa 
Laidig gravelly loar 



^andy loam. 3 to 8 oerceni slopes 
sandy loam, 3 to 15 percent slooes. modetale 
;andy loam. 8 lo 15 percent slopes, severely ( 
. to 3 percent slopes 
. 3 to 8 percent Slopes, moderately eroded 
, 8 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



dig gri 



elly I. 



3 to e perce 
8 10 15 oerc 
15 to 25 per 



Laidig gravelly loam, 
Laidig gravelly loam, 
Laidig very stony loai 
Laidig very stony loai 
Landisburg cherty sil 
Landisburg cherty sil 
Largeni sill loam 
Leadvale gravelly silt loam, 
Leadvale gravelly siit loam, 3 



. 3 



ilopes, moderately eroded 
slopes, moderately eroded 
ercent slooes. moderately eroded 

1 percent sloprs, moderalely eroded 
I 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
I 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 



'rcent slopes, moderalely eroded 
lerceni slopes, moderalely eroded 
letcent slopes, severely eroded 



i%. moderately eroded 



1 20 percent slopes. 



Lili-Teas chai 



lery sill I 



moderalely eroded 
, moderalely eroded 
, moderalely eroded 



Melvin sill loam 

Monongahela gravelly loam. 3 lo 8 percent slopes, moder 
Monongahels gravelly loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, mode 
Monongahela siU loam. to 3 percent slopes 



MhB2 

MhC2 

Mh02 

MmB2 

MmC2 

MmC3 

MmD2 

MmD3 

MoA 

MoB2 

MoC2 

MoD2 

MoD3 

MoE2 

MrB 

MrC2 

MrC3 

Mr02 

MrD3 

MsA 

MsB2 

MsC2 

MvA 

MvB2 

MvC2 

MvD2 

MvE2 

MwB3 

Mw03 

MnA 

M)iB2 

M»C2 

MyE2 

MyF2 



Monongaheli 
Monongahel. 
Monongahela silt loa 
Montevalio shaiy loai 
Monlevallo Shaly loai 



Monteva 
Monieva 



TaC2 
TaC3 
TaD 
TaE2 



TrC2 

TyB 

Wa 

WbA 

WbB? 

WbC? 

WbC3 

Wb02 

WbD3 

WbE2 

WgB 

WgC2 

WgC3 

WgD2 

Wh 

WmB2 
WmC2 
WmC3 
WmD2 
Wm03 



Mur'ill gravelly loai 
Murrill gravelly loai 
Murrill gravelly loai 
Murrill gravelly loai 
Murrill gravelly loam. 25 
Murrill gravelly sandy loar 
Murrill gravelly sandy loai 
Murrill gravelly sandy loai 
Murrill gravelly sandy loai 
Murrill gravelly sandy loai 



Mui 



lit 1. 



ham 



Murrill nil loarr 
Murrill silt loam 
Myersville chani 
Myersvilti 
Myersvilli 
Myersvilli 
MyersviMi 
Myersville ch, 
Myersville ch 
Myei 



lit loam, 3 10 8 percent slopes, moderately aroded 
ill loam. 8 lo 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
ill loam 15 to 25 perceni slooes, moderately eroded 
, to 10 percent Slopes, moderately eroded 
I. 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
I, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely erodtd 
. 20 to 30 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
I, 20 to 30 perceni slopes, severely eroded 
10 3 percent slopes 
lo 8 oerceni slopes, moderately eroded 
8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
15 to 25 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
8 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 
25 to 45 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
to 8 percent slopes 
3 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
8 to 15 percent slopes, severely eroded 
15 to 25 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
indy loam. 15 to 25 percent slopes, severely eroded 
to 3 percent slopes 
lo 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
8 to 15 oerceni slopes, moderately eroded 
ry loam, to 3 percent slopes 



inery loam 
y loam 



10 10 20 



mery 



ry loam, 20 to 30 perce 
ry loam. 30 to 45 perce 
(v nit loam. 3 lo 10 P«i 
It loam, 10 to 30 p 



10 percent slooes. moderately eroded 
slopes, moderately eroded 
slooes. moderately eroded 
slopes, moderately eroded 
nt slopes, severely eroded 
ent slopes, severely eroded 



Myersville 
Myeisvilie 



Myersville very stony loai 

Philo gravelly sandy loan 

Philo silt loam 

Pope line sandy loam 

Pope gravelly loam 

Pope gravelly sandy loin 

Pope silt loam 

Pope stony gravelly loam 



Stony rolling land 
Stony steep land 
Talladega gravelly sill loam 
Talladega gravelly silt loam 
Talladega gravelly silt loam 
Talladega gravelly silt loam 

ThurmonI gravelly loam. 3 
ThurmonI gravelly loam, 8 
Trego gravelly silt loam. 
Trego gravelly 



, to 3 percent slopes 

, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

. 10 to 20 oerceni slopes, moderately eroded 



ml slopes, moderalely 



ianl. to 20 percent slopes, moderalely arodad 
iani, 10 to 20 percent slopes, severely eroded 
lanl. 20 to 30 percent slopes 
lanl. 20 (0 45 percent slopes 



iod«ralely eroded 



. 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderelely eroded 
, 8 to 15 percent slopes, moderately eroded 
, to 3 oerceni slopes 
, 3 to 15 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 



Tyler nit loam, to 8 percent slopes 



m. I 



Waynesborc 
Waynesboro 
Waynesboro 



Wayr 



Iborc 



cent slopes 
. to 3 perce 
, to 8 perc« 
, 8 lo 15 pert 
, 3 to 15 oerc 



n slopes 

M slopes, moderalely eroded 
tnt slopes, moderalely eroded 
int slopes, severely eroded 



, 15 to 25 percent slopes, moderately eroded 

, 15 lo 25 percent slopes, severuly eroded 

. 25 to 45 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 

y loam. lo 8 percent slooes 

/ loam. 3 to 15 percent slooes. moderately eroded 

y loam. 8 to 15 perceni slopes, severely eroded 

/ loam, 15 lo 25 perceni slopes, moderately eroded 



Waynesboro gravelly I 
Waynesboro gravelly I 
Waynesboro gravelly I 
Waynesboro gravelly ; 
Waynesboro gravelly s 
Waynesboro gravelly j 
Waynesboro gravelly ! 
Wehadkee sill loam 

Westmoreland channery silt loam, 3 to 10 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
Westmoreland channery sill loam, 10 to 20 percent slopes, moderalely eroded 
Westmoreland channery silt loam. 3 to 20 percent slooas, severely eroded 
Wesimoreland channery nil loam, 20 to 30 perceni slooes. moderately eroded 
Westmoreland channery nit loam, 20 to 30 percent slopes, severely eroded 



Soil map constructed 1961 by Cartographic Division, 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA. Irom 195? aenal 
photographs, ControHad mosaic based on Maryland 
olane coordinate sytlam, Lambert conformal 
conic projection. 1927 North American datum. 



I \ 



i 



Growth Through Agricultural Progress 



GENERAL BOOKBINDING CO 



01 . n 



2.V